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TARGET LANGUAGE

…is like …

… as ______ as…

is different from…

There are a number of important differences between…

differs from…

distinct differences between…

…similar to…

…is comparable to…

…are similar to…

There are a number of similarities between…

in contrast to…

Whereas,…

While…

more/less…

better/worse than…

…greater than…



more/fewer than…

By contrast/in contrast,…

On the other hand,…

Similarly,…

TARGET LANGUAGE

The following words and phrases that can be used to make a comparison more precise

(Jordan 1999) :



X is

considerably
a great deal
(very) much
rather
somewhat
a little
slightly
scarcely
hardly
only just

smaller
bigger
cheaper

etc.

than...




X is

exactly
precisely
just
virtually
practically
more or less
almost
nearly
approximately
about

the same as ...




X is not

exactly
entirely
quite

the same as ...




X is

totally
completely
entirely
quite

different from Y.

X is not quite so/as

big
expensive

etc.

as...




X and Y are

different
dissimilar

in every way/respect.

totally
completely
entirely
quite

different.

 


SUMMARY of MAJOR RELIGIONS




HINDUISM

Type

No God

Followers Worldwide

820 Million

Origin

India

When

1500 B.C.

Prophets

None

Followers called

Hindu

Founder

Many

Deity

Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva

Devil

Iblis, Shaitan

Life's Purpose

One-of-many

Afterlife

Reincarnation

 

 

Redemption road

Karma

 

Elimination of passions

Place of Worship

Temple

Holy Book

Bhagavad gita

Leadership

Guru, Brahmin Priest

Seeks Converts

No

 

70% Vaishnavites

Main sects

25% Shaivites

 

2% neo-Hindu

Labels / Criticism

Backward

Circumcision

No

Capital Punishment

No

Kill for God

No

Race Equality

4 Castes

Original Sin

saddled with past

Alcohol

No

Women's Status

Bad



 

The "God" Commandments

None

 

 

 

The Panchaparadh

 

1. Theft

 

2. Robbery

The "Social" Commandments

3. Murder

 

4. Adultery

 

5. Divorce

 

 

Basic Beliefs: The soul never dies, but is continually reborn. Persons achieve happiness and enlightenment after they free themselves from their earthly desires. Freedom comes from a lifetime of worship, knowledge and virtuous acts.

SUMMARY of MAJOR RELIGIONS




BUDDHISM

Type

Polytheistic

Followers Worldwide

362 Million

Origin

India

When

500 B.C.

Prophets

None

Followers called

Buddhist

Founder

Siddhartha Gotama (Buddha)

Deity

None

Devil

Mara

Life's Purpose

This is it

Afterlife

Nirvana

 

 

Redemption road

Enlightenment

 

Elimination of passions

Place of Worship

Temple

Holy Book

Tipitaka

Leadership

Buddhist monks and nuns

Seeks Converts

None

 

56% Mahayana

Main sects

38% Hinayana

 

6% Tantrayana

Labels / Criticism

Is that it?

Circumcision

No

Capital Punishment

No

Kill for God

No

Race Equality

Equal

Original Sin

No

Alcohol

No

Women's Status

Not bad



 

The "God" Commandments

None

 

 

 

1. Kill

 

2. Steal

 

3. Unchaste

The "Social" Commandments

4. Lie

 

5. Alcohol

 

 

 

 

Basic Beliefs: Persons achieve complete peace and happiness (nirvana) by eliminating their attachment to worldly things. Nirvana is reached by following the Noble Eightfold Path: right views; right resolve; right speech; right conduct; right livelihood; right effort; right mindfulness; right concentration.



SUMMARY of MAJOR RELIGIONS





JUDAISM

Type

Monotheistic

Followers Worldwide

15 Million

Origin

Egypt - Israel

When

586 B.C.

Prophets

Adam, Noah, Abraham

Followers called

Jew

Founder

Abraham

Deity

Yahweh, Elohim

Devil

No

Life's Purpose

Now, plus test

Afterlife

Eden

 

Gehenna

Redemption road

Prayer, Study

 

 

Place of Worship

Synagogue, Temple

Holy Book

Tanakh (Torah)

Leadership

Rabbis

Seeks Converts

No

 

40% Orthodox

Main sects

30% Conservative

 

25% Reformed

Labels / Criticism

Worldly

Circumcision

Abraham introduced

Capital Punishment

Murder

Kill for God

Yes

Race Equality

Chosen by G-d

Original Sin

No

Alcohol

Ok

Women's Status

Far improved



1. No other gods

The "God" Commandments

2. Graven images

 

3. Name in vain

 

4. Sabbath

 

5. Honor parents

 

6. Kill

The "Social" Commandments

7. Adultery

 

8. Steal

 

9. Lie

 

10. Covet wife/property
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