Take out a piece of paper Name the seven dwarves Now name them Was it easy or hard?



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Memory

  • The persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information.

Take out a piece of paper…..

  • Name the seven dwarves…..
  • Now name them…..

Was it easy or hard?

  • It depends on several things….
  • If you like Disney movies?
  • When was the last time you have seen the movie?
  • Are people around you being loud pain in the butts so you cannot concentrate?

Seven Dwarves

Recall vs. Recognition

  • Recall
  • You must retrieve the information from your memory.
  • Fill-in-the blank or essay tests.
  • Recognition
  • You must identify the target from possible targets.
  • Multiple-choice tests.

Retrospective vs. Prospective Memory

  • Retrospective memory -involves things from the past (i.e. events, people).
  • Prospective memory - involves things you have to do in the future (i.e. remembering to email your college application).

The Memory Process

  • Three step process…
  • Encoding: The processing of information into the memory system.
  • Storage: The retention of encoded material over time.
  • Retrieval: The process of getting the information out of memory storage.

Three Box Model of Memory

Encoding

  • Getting the information into our heads!!!!

Sensory Memory

  • A split second holding tank for ALL sensory information.
  • Iconic Memory: a brief visual memory.
  • Echoic Memory: a brief auditory memory.

Two ways to encode information:

  • Automatic Processing
  • Effortful Processing

Automatic Processing

  • Unconscious encoding of incidental information.
  • You encode space, time and word meaning without effort.
  • Things can become automatic with practice.

Effortful Processing

  • Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.
  • Rehearsal is the most common effortful processing technique.
  • Through enough rehearsal, what was effortful becomes automatic.

Ebbinghaus’ Retention Curve

  • Hermann Ebbinghaus.
  • The amount remembered depends on the time spent learning!

Spacing Effect

  • We encode better when we study or practice over time.
  • DO NOT CRAM!!!!!

Take out a piece of paper…..

  • Number from 1-44 on your paper.
  • Name all of the U.S. Presidents.

The Presidents

  • Washington
  • Taylor
  • Harrison
  • Eisenhower
  • J.Adams
  • Fillmore
  • Cleveland
  • Kennedy
  • Jefferson
  • Pierce
  • McKinley
  • L.Johnson
  • Madison
  • Buchanan
  • T.Roosevelt
  • Nixon
  • Monroe
  • Lincoln
  • Taft
  • Ford
  • JQ Adams
  • A.Johnson
  • Wilson
  • Carter
  • Jackson
  • Grant
  • Harding
  • Reagan
  • Van Buren
  • Hayes
  • Coolidge
  • Bush
  • Harrison
  • Garfield
  • Hoover
  • Clinton
  • Tyler
  • Arthur
  • F.D.Roosevelt
  • Bush Jr.
  • Polk
  • Cleveland
  • Truman
  • Obama

Serial Position Effect

  • Our tendency to recall the last and first items in a list.
  • If we graph what an average person remembers from the presidential list- it would probably look something like this.
  • Presidents
  • Recalled

Encoding Information

  • Primacy Effect (1st things on a list)
  • Recency Effect (last things on a list)

Types of Encoding

  • Semantic Encoding: the encoding of meaning, like the meaning of words.
  • Acoustic Encoding: the encoding of sound, especially the sounds of words.
  • Visual Encoding: the encoding of picture images.

Ways to remember things in STM…so they go to LTM

  • Chunking: Organizing items into familiar, manageable units.
  • Mnemonic devices: (memory aids) (like the “method of loci”).
  • Link Method
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9NROegsMqNc
  • Rehearsal: repetition, repetition, etc.
  • 1-4-9-2-1-7-7-6-1-8-1-2-1-9-4-1
  • “Foolish Moms Smoke POT."

Short-Term Memory

  • The stuff we encode from the sensory memory goes to STM.
  • Holds about 7 (+ or - 2) items for about 20 seconds.
  • We recall random digits better than random letters.
  • Info unrehearsed will decay in about 12 seconds.

Take out a piece of paper…..

  • I will show you a series of slides with an increasing amount of numbers on each slide.
  • I will show each slide for 8 seconds.
  • When the slide is switched you may try and write down as many of the numbers as you can.

9 7 5 4

6 8 2 5 9

9 1 3 8 2 5

5 9 6 3 8 2 7

8 6 9 5 1 3 7 2

7 1 9 3 8 4 2 7 3

9 1 5 2 4 3 8 1 6 2

1 5 2 8 4 6 7 3 1 8 4

5 1 7 3 9 8 2 6 3 8 0 7

6 9 4 0 3 8 2 4 1 5 9 6 8

Storage

  • How we retain the information we encode.

Long-Term Memory

  • We have yet to find the limit of our long-term memory.
  • For example, Rajan Mahadevan was able to recite 31,811 digits of pi.
  • At 5 years old, Rajan would memorize the license plates of all of his parents’ guests (about 75 cars in ten minutes). He still remembers the plate numbers to this day.

Long-Term Memory

  • Unlimited storehouse of information.
  • It can last days, months, or years.

Types of Long-Term Memory

Explicit Memories

  • Episodic Memories (events).
  • Semantic Memories (facts).

Implicit Memories

  • Procedural Memories (skills).
  • Conditioned Memories.

Types of Long Term Memory

Storing Memories

  • Long Term-Potentiation:
  • Is the long-lasting enhancement in signal transmission between two neurons.
  • In other words…they learn to fire together and get better at it…creating a memory.
  • When learning occurs, more serotonin is released into the synapses.

The Hippocampus

  • Is involved in storing explicit memories.
  • Damage to the hippocampus disrupts our memory.
  • Often leads to some form or amnesia.
  • The Cerebellum is involved in storing implicit memories.

Anterograde Amnesia

  • A loss of the ability to create new memories; while long-term memories remain intact.
  • Usually caused by damage to the hippocampus.
  • Can be caused by alcohol intoxication (i.e. “blackouts”).

Retrograde Amnesia

  • Form of amnesia where someone is unable to recall events that occurred before the development of the amnesia.
  • Commonly results from damage to the temporal lobes or hippocampus.

Retrieval

  • How do we recall the information we thought we remembered?
  • Lets Jog Our Memory!!!!!!!

Retrieval Cues

  • Things that help us remember.
  • We often use a process called priming (the activation of associations in our memory).

Repetition Priming

  • 1. Repetition priming refers to the fact that it is easier to recognize a face or word if you have recently seen that same face or word.

Semantic Priming

  • 2. Semantic priming refers to the fact that it is easier to recognize a person or a word if you have just seen something closely associated with them/it.

Priming

The Context Matters!!!

  • Flashbulb Memories.
  • Mood Congruent Memory.
  • State Dependent Memory.

Another activity…

  • I will show you a series of slides with a word on each slide.
  • After I have shown you ALL the slides try and write down as many of the words as you can remember.
  • Ready?

Rest

Snore

Sound

Tired

Bed

Comfort

Awake

Eat

Wake

Dream

Slumber

Night

Take 2 minutes to write down as many of the words as you can.

  • Take 2 minutes to write down as many of the words as you can.
  • How many remembered the word AARDVARK?
  • How many remembered the word SLEEP?
  • Neither word was on the list!

Déjà Vu

  • That eerie sense that you have experienced something before.
  • What is occurring is that the current situation cues past experiences that are very similar to the present one & your mind gets confused.

Forgetting

Encoding Failure:

  • Not getting info into LT Memory

Forgetting

  • Which is the real penny?

Storage Decay

  • Even if we encode something well, we can forget it.
  • Without rehearsal, we forget things over time.
  • Remember Hermann Ebbinghaus?

Ebbinghaus’s Forgetting Curve

Retrieval Failure

  • The memory was encoded and stored, but sometimes you just cannot access the memory (like the Tip of the Tongue Phenomenon).

Tip of the Tongue Phenomenon

  • Alaska
  • New Mexico
  • Idaho
  • South Dakota
  • Illinois
  • Missouri
  • Pennsylvania
  • Kansas
  • Oregon
  • Delaware
  • Montana
  • Connecticut
  • Vermont
  • Michigan
  • Washington
  • Maine
  • Wyoming
  • New York
  • Mississippi
  • Ohio
  • Can you name the capital cities of the following?

Tip of the Tongue Phenomenon

  • Alaska
  • J
  • N. Hampshire
  • C
  • New Mexico
  • S
  • Idaho
  • B
  • South Dakota
  • P
  • Illinois
  • S
  • Missouri
  • J
  • Pennsylvania
  • H
  • Kansas
  • T
  • Oregon
  • S
  • Delaware
  • D
  • Montana
  • H
  • N. Carolina
  • R
  • Connecticut
  • H
  • Vermont
  • M
  • Michigan
  • L
  • Washington
  • O
  • Maine
  • A
  • Wyoming
  • C
  • New York
  • A
  • Mississippi
  • J
  • Ohio
  • C
  • With the first letter of the capital city. Can you do it now?

Tip of the Tongue Phenomenon

  • Alaska
  • Juneau
  • N. Hampshire
  • Concord
  • New Mexico
  • Santa Fe
  • Idaho
  • Boise
  • South Dakota
  • Pierre
  • Illinois
  • Springfield
  • Missouri
  • Jefferson City
  • Pennsylvania
  • Harrisburg
  • Kansas
  • Topeka
  • Oregon
  • Salem
  • Delaware
  • Dover
  • Montana
  • Helena
  • N. Carolina
  • Raleigh
  • Connecticut
  • Hartford
  • Vermont
  • Montpelier
  • Michigan
  • Lansing
  • Washington
  • Olympia
  • Maine
  • Augusta
  • Wyoming
  • Cheyenne
  • New York
  • Albany
  • Mississippi
  • Jackson
  • Ohio
  • Columbus
  • With the first letter of the capital city. Can you do it now?

Forgetting: Interference Theory

  • Retroactive Interference: new information blocks out old information.
  • Proactive Interference: old information blocks out new information.
  • Calling your new girlfriend by old girlfriends name.
  • Getting a new bus number and forgetting old bus number.

Mnemonic for the Interference Theory

  • PORN
  • Proactive.
  • Old info blocking out new info.
  • Retroactive.
  • New info blocking out old info.

Motivated Forgetting

  • We sometimes revise our own histories.
  • Honey, I did stick to my diet today!!!!!!

Motivated Forgetting

  • One explanation is REPRESSION:
  • In psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings and memories from consciousness.
  • Why does is exist?

Memory Construction

  • We sometimes alter our memories as we encode or retrieve them.
  • Your expectations, schemas, and environment may alter your memories.

Misinformation Effect

  • Incorporating misleading information into one’s memory of an event.
  • It would be like if my parents told me for years that I met Jerry West.
  • I have the memory - but it never happened!!!

Misinformation Effect

  • Depiction of Accident

Misinformation Effect

  • Leading Question: About how fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other?

Source Amnesia (source misattribution)

  • The inability to remember where, when or how previously learned information has been acquired, while retaining the factual knowledge.
  • This is often at the heart of “false memories.”


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