Syllabi of B. Ed. 2013-14 applicability of regulations for the time being in force



Download 0,71 Mb.
Page1/7
Date conversion15.02.2017
Size0,71 Mb.
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7
Syllabi of B.Ed.

2013-14
APPLICABILITY OF REGULATIONS FOR THE TIME BEING IN FORCE

Notwithstanding the integrated nature of a course spread over more than one academic year, the regulations in force at the time a student joins a course shall hold good only for the examinations held during or at the end of the academic year. Nothing in these regulations shall be deemed to debar the University from amending the regulations subsequently and the amended regulations, if any, shall apply to all students whether old or new.



PANJAB UNIVERSITY, CHANDIGARH

SCHEME, OUTLINES OF TESTS, SYLLABI AND COURSES OF READING FOR BACHELOR OF

EDUCATION (B. Ed.) General and BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.Ed.) through Correspondence

(Two-Year Course) EXAMINATION, 2014

Note : Use of all brands of non-programmable calculators having signs of ‘+’, ‘-’, ‘x’, ‘’, ‘’, only, is allowed in the examination centre (in Paper II only), but these will not be provided by the University/College. Radio pagers/mobiles are not allowed in the examination. The examination shall consist of two parts as under:

PART- I

1.1 General Professional Course of Theory Papers :

MARKS

Ext. Int Ext. Int. Total

Th. Eval. Prac. Prac.

Paper-I Philosophical and Sociological Bases of Education 80 10 -- 10 100

Paper-II The Learner-Nature and Development 80 10 -- 10 100

Paper-III Teaching Learning - Process and Evaluation 80 10 -- 10 100

Paper-IV (PART-A) School Management 40 05 -- 05 50

(PART-B) Guidance and Counselling 40 05 -- 05 50 100


Paper-V (PART-A) ICT Skill Development 32 06 16 06 60 (PART-B) Any One of the following options: 32 04 -- 04 40 100

Total 500

(i) School Library and Information Services (ix) Yoga Education

(ii) Comparative Education (x) Value Education

(iii) Life Long Learning (xi) Educational Technology

(iv) Health and Physical Education (xii) Elementary Education

(v) Education of Children with special needs (xiii) Women Education & Indian Society

(vi) Population Education (xiv) Co-Curricular Activities in Schools

(vii) Distance Education and Open Learning (xv) E-Education Resource Development

(viii) Environmental Education

1.2 PAPERS-VI & VII : Methodology of Teaching of any two of the following :

[Marks : (External 80 + Internal Practical 10 + Internal Evaluation 10) + (External 80 + Internal Practical 10 + Internal Evaluation 10) = 200]

1. Teaching of English 12. Teaching of Life Science

2. Teaching of Hindi 13. Teaching of Physical Science

3. Teaching of Punjabi 14. Teaching of Home Science

4. Teaching of Sanskrit 15. Teaching of Fine Arts

5. Teaching of History 16. Teaching of Music

6. Teaching of Geography 17. Teaching of Physical Education

7. Teaching of Economics 18. Teaching of Agriculture

8. Teaching of Social Studies \19. Teaching of Computer Education

9. Teaching of Commerce 20. Teaching of Political Science

10. Teaching of Mathematics 21. Teaching of Public Administration

11. Teaching of Science 22. Teaching of Sociology



Note : (a) B.Ed. course (through Correspondence) is spread over two years, wherein Theory Papers I, II, III, IV (A & B) and Practical Components II (A&B) and III (A&B) shall be covered in B.Ed. Part-I; and

(b) Theory Papers V (A & B), VI and VII and Practical Components I(A&B) and IV shall be covered

in B.Ed. Part-I.
Guidelines:

  1. Admission to the B.Ed. course is subject based. At the time of the admission, each candidate shall opt for two teaching subjects. A candidate can opt for only those teaching subjects, which he/she has studied at graduation/post graduation level. The candidate must have studied the major subject of the subject combination for at least three years at Bachelor’s level/Master’s level.

  2. Honours students shall opt for major subject in which they have obtained honours, the minor subject should have been studied at least for one year/one semester.

  3. The candidates who have passed additional subjects at graduation level can opt for only those

teaching subjects, marks of which are taken into account for the purpose of calculating percentage of marks at graduation level.

(iv) B.Com./B.B.A./M.Com. Graduates/Post-Graduates may opt two teaching subjects. One is

Teaching of Commerce and the other shall be Teaching of Economics or any one of the languages i.e. English, Hindi, Punjabi and Sanskrit.

Note: Students with B.Com./B.B.A. degree shall be considered in Commerce stream only even though they may have passed additional Arts subjects unless they have done Masters in Arts.

(v) B.C.A. Graduates may opt for Teaching of Computer Science and Applications as one subject.

The other subject shall be Teaching of Mathematics or any one of the languages i.e. English, Hindi, Punjabi and Sanskrit.

(vi) B.E./B. Tech. graduates shall opt for any two subject combinations out of Mathematics, Computer Science, Science or Language.

(vii) B.Sc. (Home Science) graduates may opt for two Teaching Subjects. One is Teaching of Home Science and other shall be out of the subjects studied by the candidates at the B.Sc. and Graduate level i.e. Teaching of Science or any one of the languages i.e. English, Hindi, Punjabi and Sanskrit.

(viii) B.Sc. (Medical) graduates shall opt for two teaching subjects out of the following :

(a) Teaching of Life Science/Teaching of Science.

(b) Teaching of Physical Science.

(c) Teaching of any one of the languages i.e. English, Hindi, Punjabi and Sanskrit.

(ix) B.Sc. (Non-Medical) graduates shall opt for two teaching subjects out of the following :

(a) Teaching of Science/Physical Science.

(b) Teaching of Mathematics/Teaching of Computer Science.

(c) Teaching of any one of the languages i.e. English, Hindi, Punjabi and Sanskrit.

(x) Arts Graduates may opt for any two teaching subjects selecting one each from the following (a) and (b):

(a) Teaching of Social Studies/Fine Arts/Music/Physical Education/Home Science/

Economics/History/Geography/Political Science/Sociology/Public Administration.

(b) Teaching of any one of the languages i.e. English, Hindi, Punjabi and Sanskrit provided

that the candidate has studied the subject at the graduate level.

(xi) Graduates with Fine Arts/Music/Computer Education/Home Science/Physical

Education/Mathematics/Statistics/Quantitative Techniques shall opt for any of these subjects with the other subject combinations available in the offered college.

(xii) Teaching of Social Studies shall be opted by the graduates who have taken up any two of the

following subjects at B.A./M.A. level (In case a candidate done to masters/higher dgree with 50% each in               any two of the following can also opt for teaching of Social Studies):

(i) History (ii) Geography (iii) Political Science(iv) Sociology (v) Economics (vi) Public Administration(vii) Philosophy (viii) Psychology (ix) Education(x) Defence Studies (xi) Religious Studies

NOTE :

1. The subject of Teaching of Fine Arts shall be offered to a candidate who had taken up Fine Arts/Fashsion Desigen/Fashsion Technology at his/her B.A. examination or possesses B.A. Degree with Diploma in Drawing and Painting or Arts and Craft Teacher's course from a recognized institution.

2. The candidates should have studied the major subject at least for full three years of Bachelor’s

degree level/Master’s Degree level. However, the minor subject should have been studied for

at least one year/one semester at the graduation level.

3. The candidates shall be given the required subject combinations depending upon their

availability in the colleges.

4. Candidates who have passed Shastri/Gyani/Prabhakar/Honors/Elective Subjects in languages can opt for               two language combinations provided they have studied the other language for one year/one semester.



1.3 In the above said subject combinations, at least one subject should be major which the candidates

have studied for three years at graduation level/for two years at Master’s level, the other subject

may be minor which the candidate has studied for at least one year at graduation level.

Note:-  (i) Teaching of Physical Education shall be taught by an approved lecturer in Physical

Education (M.A. Physical Education/M.P.Ed.).

(ii) Teaching of Computer Education shall be taught by the Lecturer who has qualified

M.C.A., M.Sc. (IT/CS) with B.Ed. preferably M.Ed.

(iii) Paper V-(Part B) Option (i) School Library Services and Option (iv) Health and Physical

Education shall be taught by the approved College Librarian and D.P.E./Lecturer in

Physical Education respectively.

(iv) ICT Skill Development Paper V (Part-A) and Component II (Part A) shall be taught by the Computer Lecturer/Instructor (Graduate with PGDCA or One year Post Graduate

Diploma computer or higher qualification from recognized institution).

1.4 For the setting of Theory question papers, the following rules should be observed:


  1. In paper I, II and III, 80 marks are for external theory, 10 marks are for (internal) practical work & 10 marks are for continuous internal evaluation. In IV-(PART A) and IV- (PART B), 40 marks are for (external) theory, 5 marks are for (internal) practical work and’ 5 marks are for continuous internal evaluation. In paper V-(PART A), 32 marks are for (external) theory, 16 marks for (external) practical, 6 marks for (internal) practical work and 6 marks for continuous internal evaluation. In paper V-(PART B), 32 marks are for (external) theory, 4 marks for (internal) practical work and’ 4 marks for continuous internal evaluation. Two teaching methodology papers VI and VII opted by the candidate in 1.2 will be of 100 marks each (80 marks are for (external) theory, 10 marks for (internal) preparatory file and 10 marks for continuous internal evaluation, making total of 700 marks.

(ii) The papers shall be set by external examiners. Each paper will be of three hours duration. In papers I, II and III, the question paper shall be divided into six parts. First five parts will pertain to five units of the course content. Two questions will be set from each unit of the course in each part of the question paper. The candidates will be required to attempt one question from each part. Each question will carry 12 marks. Sixth unit of the question paper will be compulsory. It will consist of five short answer type questions and these questions will cover the entire course content uniformly. Each short answer type question will be of 4 marks and answer should not exceed 75 words. Each theory paper will be of (12×5) = 60 + (4×5) = 20, total 80 marks. 10 marks are for continuous internal evaluation done on the basis of written assignments, snap tests, participation in discussions held in the class, term papers, attendance etc. 10 marks are allotted for the internal evaluation of the practical work in each paper. Total marks allotted to each paper are 100.

(iii) In paper IV, the question paper shall be divided into two parts – paper IV-(PART A) (School Management) and paper IV – (PART B) (Guidance and Counselling). In paper IV-(PART A) the question paper shall be divided into four parts. First three parts will pertain to the three units of the course content, two questions will be set from each unit of the course, in each part of the question paper. The candidate will be required to attempt one question from each part. Each question will carry 12 marks. Fourth part of the question paper will be compulsory. It will consist of two short answer type questions and these questions will cover the entire course content uniformly. Each short type question will be two marks and the answer should not exceed 30 words. This theory paper will be of (12 X 3) = 36 + (2X2=4) = 40 marks each. In paper IV-(PART B) the question paper shall be divided into three parts. First two parts will pertain to the two units of the course content, two questions will be set from each unit of the course, in each part of the question paper. The candidate will be required to attempt one question from each part. Each question will carry 12 marks. Third part of the question paper will be compulsory. It will consist of four short answer type questions and these questions will cover the entire course content uniformly. Each short type question will be four marks and the answer should not exceed 75 words. This theory paper will be of ( 12X 2) = 24 + (4X4=16) = 40 marks each. In paper IV-(PART A) and IV-(PART B) 5 marks are for continuous internal evaluation done on the basis of written assignments, snap tests, participation in the discussions held in the class, term papers, attendance etc. 5 marks are allotted for the internal evaluation of the practical work. Total marks allotted to paper IV- PART A and IV-PART B are 50 each.

(iv) In paper V the question paper shall be divided into two parts – paper V-PART A (ICT Skill development) and paper V-PART B (for one subject opted by the candidate from the list given 1.1 (i) to (xv)). In paper V-PART A the question paper shall be divided into four parts. First three parts will pertain to the two units of the course content, two questions will be set from each unit of the course, in each part of the question paper. The candidate will be required to attempt one question from each part. Each question will carry 8 marks. Third part of the question paper will be compulsory. It will consist of two short answer type questions and these questions will cover the entire course content uniformly. Each short type question will be of four marks and the answer should not exceed 75 words. This theory paper will be of (8 X 3)=24 + (4X2=8)=32 marks each. In paper V-PART B the question paper shall be divided into three parts. First two parts will pertain to the two units of the course content, two questions will be set from each unit of the course, in each part of the question paper. The candidate will be required to attempt one question from each part. Each question will carry 12 marks. Third part of the question paper will be compulsory. It will consist of two short answer type questions and these questions will cover the entire course content uniformly. Each short answer/type question will be of four marks and the answer should no exceed 75 words. This theory paper will be of (12 X 2)=24 + (4X2=8)=32 marks. For paper V-PART A, 28 marks are allotted for practical work out of which 16 marks are for external (Practical), 6 marks are for (internal) practical work and 6 marks for continuous internal evaluation. Total marks for paper V-PART A=32+(16+6+6)=60. In paper V-PART B, 4 marks are for (internal) practical work and 4 marks are allotted to continuous internal evaluation. Total marks for paper V-PART B=32+(4+4)=40.

(v) Internal evaluation for practical work in the above papers shall be done by the committee consisting of atleast three members of faculty (of the particular subject) with the principal as moderator.

(vi) There will be separate answer sheets for Papers IV-A and IV-B as well as for Papers V-A and V-B.

(vii) Papers VI and VII will comprise of Methodology of Teaching of any two teaching subjects in which the scheme of marks will be as follows : 2×(80+10+10=100) = 200 marks.

(viii) Papers VI and VII will be of 100 marks each. Out of which 80 marks are for external theory, 10 marks are for internal practical work (preparatory file) and 10 marks are for continuous internal evaluation. Each question paper shall be divided into six parts. First five parts will pertain to five units of the course content. Two questions will be set from each unit of the course in each part of the question paper. The candidates will be required to attempt one question from each part. Each question will carry 12 marks. Sixth part of the question paper will be compulsory. It will consist of five short answer type questions from sixth unit of the course content. Each short answer type question will be of 4 marks and answer should not exceed 75 words. This theory paper will be of (12×5) = 60 + (4×5) = 20, total 80 marks. 10 marks are for continuous internal evaluation done on the basis of written assignments, snap tests, participation in the discussions held in the class, term papers, attendance etc. Total marks allotted to each paper are 100.

(ix) To appear in the final examinations, the qualifying marks are 40% in the practical work and 40% in theory in each paper in each of two house examinations.



1.5 Each theory paper will be allotted 6 periods a week and methodology paper will be allotted 8 periods a week.

PART-II

Practical

A. There shall be four components of practical work. The distribution of the practical work shall be as under:

Marks

Component Practical External Internal Total

I A Initiatory School Experience -- 15+15=30 30

I B School Experience Programme 70+70=140 30+30=60 200

II A Work Experience Programme 30 20 50

II B Simple Expressional Competencies 30 20 50

III A Communication and Employability Skills -- 10 10

III B Health and Sports Programme 30 20 50

IV Co-Curricular, Cultural and -- 10 10

Community Activities

The University may appoint the Co-ordinator in the Skill-in-Teaching final examination (Practical) in the interest of academics in the Colleges of Education and USOL.



B. Total marks on the basis of which the degree will be awarded to the candidates are as follow:-
Part External Internal Total

Part-I 1.1 (I, II, III, IV, V) 500

1.2 (VI, VII) 200

Part-II Components

I A -- 15+15=30 30

I B 70+70=140 30+30=60 200

II A 30 20 50

II B 30 20 50

III A -- 10 10

III B 30 20 50

IV -- 10 10
Total of parts I & II (700 + 400) : 1100 marks
To appear in the final exam., qualifying marks in each of these components is 40%.

PAPER-I : PHILOSOPHICAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL BASES OF EDUCATION
Total Marks : 100

External Theory : 80

Internal Practical : 10

Internal Evaluation : 10



OBJECTIVES : To enable students to

  • make student teachers understand the concept of education.

  • understand the historical background of education in India.

  • help them to know the concept of philosophy and its relationship with education.

  • understand the educational philosophy of some reputed thinkers.

  • enable them to know the concept of sociology and its relationship with education.

  • understand socio-cultural context of education.

  • sensitize the student teachers towards human values and teachers’ role in creation of value based system of education.

  • acquaint the student teachers with the recent trends in education.


UNIT – I (EDUCATION-CONCEPT, AIMS AND ROLE IN MODERN CONTEXT)

  1. Concept of Education ; Indian and Western, Types of education; informal, formal and non-formal, role of home, school and society as agencies of education.

  2. Indian systems of Education : Ancient, medieval and modern.

  3. Factors determining aims of education : Individual, Social, cultural, political and economic.


UNIT – II (PHILOSOPHY : SCHOOLS AND THEIR EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS )

  1. Concept, nature and functions of philosophy, relationship between philosophy and education.

  2. Impact of idealism, naturalism and pragmatism on education.

  3. Contribution of Gandhi, Tagore and Aurobindo to educational thought and practice.


UNIT – III (SOCIOLOGY AND CULTURE )

  1. Concept of Sociology, Education as an Agent of social adjustment and development: relationship between sociology and education.

  2. Culture: concept, characteristics and its interactions with education.

  3. Education for democracy, national integration, international understanding and globalization.


UNIT – IV (VALUE EDUCATION AND HUMAN RIGHTS)

  1. Values : Concept, types, sources and role of teacher in inculcating values.

  2. Human Resource Development : Concept, need and role of education in HRD.

  3. Human rights : Concept, role of education in promoting human rights.


UNIT – V (POLICY PERSPECTIVES)

  1. Educational Provisions in Constitution of India.

  2. Contemporary policy documents on education in India : NPE (1986), NCF (2005), RTE (2009) – Major suggestions and their implications.

  3. National knowledge commission report : Recommendations on school education.

PRACTICAL WORK

Community Work (Identification and diagnosis of the problems prevailing in the community) To be conducted under the subject teacher and project report to be submitted. Due weightage will be given to authenticated report.


BOOKS SUGGESTED:

Bhatia, K.K. (2005). Education in Emerging Indian Society. Ludhiana: Kalyani Publishers.

Bhatia, K.K. and Narang, C.L. (1992). Teacher and Education in Emerging Indian Society. Ludhiana: Tandon Publications.

Bhatia, K.K. and Narang, C.L. (2008). Philosophical and Sociological Bases of Education. Ludhiana: Tandon Publications.

Biswal, U.N. (2005). Philosophy of Education. New Delhi: Dominant Publishers and Distributors.

Blake, N.; Smeyers, P.; Smith, R. and Standish, P. (2003). The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Education. USA: Blackwell Publishing.

Brubacher, John S. (1969). Modern Philosophies of Education. New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill.

Chaube, S.P. (1981). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Agra: Ravi, Noudarnalya.

Dash, B.N. (2004). Theories of Education & Education in the Emerging Indian Society. New Delhi: Dominant Publishers and Distributors.

Dewey, John (1961). Democracy and Education. New York: Macmillan Company.

Goel, A. and Goel, S.L. (2005). Human Values and Education. New Delhi: Deep & Deep Publications Pvt. Ltd.

Goff, Phil (2001). Test your E-Sills. London : Hobler & Stoughton.

Halsey, A.H.; Lander, H.; Brown, P. and Nells, A.S. (1997). Education: Culture, Economy and Society. New York: Oxford University Press.

Howard, Om on and Sam, Carner (1976). Philosophical Foundation of Education. Columbus: Charles E., Merril.

Joshi, Kireet (2000). A National Agenda for Education. Delhi: The Mothersd’ Institute of Research.

Joshi, Kireet (2000). Education at Corssroads. Delhi: The Mother’s Institute of Rersearch.

Kabir, Humayun (1961). Indian Philosophy of Education. Bombay: Asia Publishing House.

Lynch, Marguerita, Mc Vay (2002). The Online Educator. London: Routledge Falmer, Taylor and Fancis Group.

Madhukar, Indira (2005). Internet-based Distance Learning. New Delhi: Authorspress.

Mathur, S.S. (1997). Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Education. Agra: Vinod Pustak Mandir. Mathur, S.S. (1985). Sociological Approach to Indian Education. Agra: Vinod Pustak Mandir.

Mohanty, J. (1994). Indian Education in the Emerging Society. New Delhi: Sterling Pvt. Ltd.

Naseema, C. & Alam, M.A., From Blackboard to the Web, New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers, Distributors, 2004.

Nathan, Dev; Kelkar, Govind and Walter, Pierre (Eds.) (2004). Globalization and Indigenous People in Asia. New Delhi : Sage Publishers.

National Council of Teacher Education (1999). Gandhi on Education. New Delhi: NCERT.



National Curriculum Framework. (2005). www.ncert.nic.in

National Knowledge Commission (2007). Recommendations on School Education. Government of India. www.knowledgecommission.gov.in

National Policy on Education. (1986). Ministry of Human Resource Development. Government of India.

PAPER-II : THE LEARNER : NATURE AND DEVELOPMENT

Total Marks : 100

External Theory : 80

Internal Practical : 10

Internal Evaluation : 10

Objectives:


  • To understand the learner and his abilities.

  • To understand the process of human development with special reference to adolescence.

  • To understand the nature of personality, intelligence and its assessment.

  • To understand the process of learning and the factors influencing it.

  • To make the student teacher familiar with the concept and implications of emotional

intelligence.

  • To understand and promote the process of healthy adjustment.

  • To understand the psychology of learners with special needs and teach them accordingly.

  • To understand the basic concepts of elementary statistics.

  • To make the students familiar with administration and interpretation of psychological tests.


COURSE CONTENTS :

UNIT-I

(a) Educational Psychology – Concept, Nature, Scope and Importance.

(b) Growth and Development – Concept, Principles, stage of adolescence period with special reference to issues of stress and strain.

(c) Heredity and Environment - Concepts, Laws and relative role of Heredity and Environment in the development of learner.



UNIT-II

(a) Intelligence – Meaning, theories of intelligence (Spearman, Thurstone, Gardner and Guilford’s), measurement of intelligence : (Verbal, Non-Verbal, Performance tests), uses and limitations of intelligence tests.

(b) Emotional Intelligence : Concept, dimensions, role of teacher in promoting emotional intelligence.

(c) Creativity – Concept, dimensions and identification of creative potential, educational programmes for developing creativity.



UNIT-III

(a) Nature of Learning – Learning as a process and as an outcome, Factors affecting learning.

(b) Theories of Learning – Trial and Error theory, Classical Conditioning, Kohler's Insight theory.

(c) Motivation – Concept, types and techniques for enhancing motivation.



UNIT-IV

(a) Personality – Concept, determinants, assessment.

(b) Individual differences - Concept, Areas and Educational Implications.

(c) Stress: Meaning, Types and Coping Strategies.



UNIT-V

(a) Children with special needs: Meaning, Types: Gifted, Delinquents, Educationally Backward Children and their educational programmes.

(b) Elementary Educational Statistics – Meaning, uses and computation of measures central tendency (mean, median and mode), measure of variability (standard deviation), measurement of correlation by rank difference method.

PRACTICAL WORK

Administration and interpretation of any two psychological tests, selecting one from each group mentioned below :

(a) Learning and Intelligence.

(b) Personality, Adjustment, Mental Health.


BOOKS SUGGESTED :

Bhatia, K.K. (2008). Bases of Educational psychology. Ludhiana: Kalyani Publishers.

Chauhan, S.S. (2002). Advanced Educational Psychology. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House.

Dandapani, S. (2000). A Textbook of Advanced Educational Psychology.New Delhi: Anmol Publications.

Dash, M. (2000). Education of Exceptional Children. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers and Distributors.

De, Ceco & Crawford, L. (1988). The Psychology of Learning and Instruction. New Delhi: Prentice Hall

Garret, H.E. (1981). Statistics in Psychology and Education. Bombay: Vakils, Feffer and Simons.

Goleman, Daniel (1996). Emotional Intelligence. Bantam Books.

Heward and Orlansky (1992). Exceptional Children. New York: Maxwell Macmillan International.

Kakkar, S.B. (2001). Educational Psychology. New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India.

Kirk Samuel (1997). Educating Exceptional Children. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Mangal, S.K. (2002). Advanced Educational Psychology. New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India.

Maslow, A.H. (1970). Motivation and Personality. 2nd Ed., New York: Harper & Row.

Morgan, Clifford; Kind, R.R. and Weise, John (1999). Introduction to Psychology. New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill.

Panda, K.C. (2001). Education of Exceptional Children. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd.

Sahu, Binod Kumar (2002). Education of Exceptional Children. Ludhiana: Kalyani Publishers.

Sidhu, Kulbir Singh (1998). Statistics in Education and Psychology. Jalandhar: International Publishers.

Singh, Dalip. (2006). Emotional Intelligence At Work : A Professional Guide. New Delhi: Response Books.

Tiwari, Govind and Pal Rama (1997). Experimental Psychology: A Dynamic Approach. Agra: Vinod Pustak Mandir.

Verma, Preeti and Srivastava, D. N. (1996). Modern Experiment of Psychology. Agra: Vinod Pustak Mandir.

Wheldall, Kevin (2006). Developments in Educational Psychology. New York: Routledge

Woolfork, Anita (2004). Educational Psychology: Reason Education (Singapore). New Delhi: Indian Branch.


B2-(Paper III) : TEACHING LEARNING : PROCESS AND EVALUATION
Total Marks : 100

External Theory : 80

Internal Practical : 10

Internal Evaluation : 10



Objectives:

After this course, pupil teachers will be able to :



    • Explain the concept & relation of teaching and learning & describe the principles of teaching.

    • Explain the concept of Educational technology and models of teaching.

    • Explain the innovations in Educational technology with special reference to Micro teaching and Programmed Instructions.

    • Explain the concept of class room problems and solve them through Action Research.

    • Explain the recent trends in evaluation.

COURSE CONTENTS

UNIT-I : TEACHING AND LEARNING

(a) Concept of teaching and learning, relationship between teaching and learning.

(b) Maxims and Principles of teaching.

(c) Phases of teaching and Levels of learning.

(d) Instructional objectives in terms of Bloom’s Taxonomy.

UNIT-II : EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY

(a) Meaning, importance and Approaches of Educational Technology.

(b) Models of teaching: Meaning, Assumptions and Fundamental Elements of a Model of Teaching.

(c) Suchman's Inquiry Training Model.

(d) Flander's Interactional Analysis System.
UNIT-III : INNOVATIONS IN EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY

(a) Concept and principles of selection and utilization of learning resources.

(b) Online learning resources : e-journals and e-books.

(c) Programmed Learning — Concept, Principles and Types of Programmed Learning (Linear, Branching, Mathetics and CAI ).

(d) Role of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in teaching and learning.
UNIT-IV : CLASS-ROOM COMMUNICATION AND CLASS-ROOM PROBLEMS

(a) Class Communication – Concept, process and types.

(b) Barriers and remedial measures of class room communication

– Types of Classroom problems.

– Solutions of Classroom Problems.

(c) Action Research – Meaning, goals and steps in action research.


UNIT-V: TRENDS IN EVALUATION

(a) Concept and Principles of Measurement and Evaluation.

(b) Types of Evaluation – Diagnostic, Formative and Summative.

(c) Continuous Comprehensive Evaluation – Concept and techniques (Observation, assignment and project)

(d) Recent trends in Examination Reforms

- Semester System : Concept and application

- Grading System : Concept and application
PRACTICAL WORK

1. Preparation of Programmed Instruction Material 5 Marks

2. Action Research 5 Marks

Total : 10 marks
BOOKS SUGGESTED :
Aggarwal, R.N. and Bipin Asthana (1983). Educational Measurement & Evaluation. Agra: Vinod Pustak Mandir.

Apter, Michel, J. (1968). The New Technology of Education. London: MacMillan.

Bhatia, K.K. & Sidhu, H.S. (1994). Foundations of Teaching Learning Process, Ludhiana: Tandon Publication.

Bhushan, A. and Ahuja, M. (1992). Educational Technology. Patiala: Bawa Publishers.

Chauhan, S.S. (1978). A Textbook of Programmed Instruction. New Delhi: Sterling.

Dececco, John, P. (1964). Educational Technology, Reading in Programmed Instruction. Holt Rinehart and Winston.

Joyce, Bruce and Marsha Wali. (1985). Model of Teaching. New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India.

Mangal, S.K. (2002). Fundamental of Educational Technology. Ludhiana: Parkash Brothers.

Richmond, Menneth (1969). The Teaching Revolution, London : Methuen & Co.

Ruheia, S.P. (1973). Educational Technology. New Delhi: Raj Prakashan.

Sampath, K. ; Panneerselvam A. and Santhanam, S. (1984). Introduction to Educational Technology. New Delhi: Sterling Publishers.

Sharma, R.A. (2005). Educational Technology. Meerut: Modern Publishers.

Sharma, R.A. (1977). Shikshan Takniki. Meerut: Modern Publishers.

Singh, L.C. and Sharma, R.D. (2002). Micro Teaching. Agra : Bhargwa Book House.




Paper-IV

Paper IV-(PART-A): SCHOOL MANAGEMENT

Total Marks : 50

External Theory : 40

Internal Practical : 05

Internal Evaluation : 05

Objectives:

After the course, pupil teachers will be able to :



  • Understand the Concept and operational aspects of school management.

  • Enlist the physical resources of the school and their maintenance.

  • Understand the importance of social life in school and the role of administrators and the teachers in it.

  • Become successful teachers in future.

  • Develop practical skills in organizing school programmes and activities.


COURSE CONTENTS

UNIT-I: ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT

(a) School as Organization: Meaning, objectives, need, scope, types and principles of school organization, administration and management.

(b) School Plant: importance, Essential characteristics, selection of site and Maintenance of different School Components.

(c) Institutional Planning: Meaning, objectives, advantages and characteristics of Institutional planning. Preparation of an institutional plan.



UNIT-II : ESSENTIAL FACETS OF SCHOOL ORGANIZATION

(a) Leadership: Concept, Need & Development of Leadership Qualities among teachers and students.

(b) School Time Table: Importance, types and principles of time table construction.

(c) Discipline, Concept, Bases of Discipline, Causes of indiscipline and its remedial measures. Rewards and punishment as techniques of maintaining discipline.



UNIT-III: QUALITY ENHANCEMENT AND MANAGEMENT IN SCHOOLS

(a) Supervision : Meaning, aims, principles, areas, types and procedures of supervision, modern trends in supervision.

(b) School Records and Registers: Importance, types and essential requirements and maintenance of school records.

(c) Co-curricular Activities: Meaning, importance, principles of organizing co-curricular activities- Morning Assembly, NSS/NCC, Field trips.



PRACTICAL WORK

Total Marks: : (05)

Construction of Time Table : (03)

Maintenance of Attendance Registers. : (02)


BOOKS SUGGESTED :

Bhatia, K.K. and Singh, Jaswant (2002). Principles & Practice of School Management. Ludhiana: Tandon Publication.

Bhatnagar, R.P. and Verma, I.B. (1978). Educational Administration at College Level. Meerut: Loyal Book.

Dash, B.N. (1996). School Organisation Administration & Management. Hyderabad: Neel Kamal Publications Pvt. Ltd.

Sachdeva, M.S. (2001). School Management. Ludhiana: Bharat Book Centres.

Sarkaria, M.S.; Singh, Jaspal and Gera, Manju (2008). Modern School Management. Ludhiana: Kalyani Publishers.

Sodhi, T.S. and Suri, Anaina (2002). Management of School Education. Patiala: Bawa Publication.

Sharma, T.S. (2005). School Management and Administration. Patiala: Shaheed-E-Azam Printing Press.




PAPER IV-(PART-B) : GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING

Total Marks : 50

External Theory : 40

Internal Practical : 05

Internal Evaluation : 05
Objectives:


  • To help the student teachers to understand the meaning, aims, objectives and need of Guidance.

  • To acquaint the students with various types of Guidance.

  • To develop skills in administering and interpreting testing and non-testing tools of data collection and to understand the potential of students.

  • To enable the student teachers to organize guidance programme in the secondary schools.

COURSE CONTENTS

Unit-I

  1. Historical Perspective of Guidance & Counseling in Indian context.

  2. Guidance- Meaning, Need, Aims & Objectives, Principles and Scope.

  3. Counseling- Meaning, Need, Aims & Objectives, Principles, Difference between Guidance & Counseling.

  4. Organization of Guidance Programme at Secondary Level, Guidance Programme for Dropouts and Drug Abused.

Unit-II

  1. Tool and Techniques of Data Collection:

Testing Techniques (Interest Inventories, Aptitude and Achievement Tests)

Non-Testing Techniques (Interview, Rating Scale, Cumulative Record)



  1. Educational and Information Service (Techniques of Dissemination), Placement Services.

  2. Counseling Service- Meaning, Purpose & Approaches (Directive, Non-Directive and Eclectic counseling), Role of Counselor.

  3. Recent Trends in Guidance

Practical Work:

  1. Group Guidance-One career Talk

  2. Make a study of Guidance Centre-Prepare a report

  3. Practical related to career counseling



SUGGESTED BOOKS:
Aggarwal, J.C., Educational & Vocational Guidance and Counseling, Jalandhar: Doaba House

Asch, M. (2000). Principles of Guidance and Counseling. New Delhi: Sarup and Sons.

Bhatia, K.K. (2002). Principles of Guidance & counseling. Ludhiana: Kalyani Publishers.

Gibson, R.L. and Mitchell, M.H. (2003). Introduction to Counseling and Guidance. New Delhi: Pearson Education. 

Jonse, R.N. (2000). Introduction to Counseling skills: Text and Activities. New Delhi, Sage Publications

Linda Seligman (1994). Developmental Career Counseling and Assessment. (2nd Ed.) London: Sage Publications.

Pandey, K. P. (2000). Educational and Vocational Guidance in India. Varanasi: VishwaVidyalaya Prakashan.

Rathus, S. A. & Nevied, J. S. (1980). Adjustment and Growth: The challenges of life. New York: Rinehart and Winston.

Robinson (2005). Principles and Procedures in Student Counselling. New York: Harper & Row.

Safaya, B.N. (2002). Guidance & Counseling. Chandugarh: Abhishek Publications.

Sharma, R.A. (2008). Fundamentals of Guidance and Counseling. Meerut: R Lall Book Depot.

Sharma, Tara Chand (2002). Modern Methods of Guidance and Counseling. New Delhi: Sarup and Sons.

Shertzer, Bruce and Stone, Shelly C. (1974). Fundamentals of Counseling. London: Houghton Missli.

Sidhu, H.S. (2005). Guidance and Counseling. Patiala: Twenty First Century.

Sodhi, T.S. and Suri, S.P. (1999). Guidance & Counseling. Patiala: Bawa Publication.

Strang, R. (2005). Counselling Techniques in Colleges and Secondary Schools. New York: Harper.



Paper V

Paper V-(PART A) ICT Skill Development

Total Marks

:60

External Theory

: 32

Internal Evaluation

:06

External Practical

:16

Internal Practical

:06

COURSE CONTENTS

Unit I

  1. ICT: Meaning, importance and tools of ICT

  2. Classification of Computers

  3. Generations of computers

  4. Computer Hardware: Input-Output Devices

Unit II

  1. Memory of computers: Primary and Secondary

  2. Introduction to Operating System

    1. Features of GUI (MS-Windows) and CLI (MS-DOS)

    2. Files and directory operations

    3. Windows Explorer and desktop

  3. Introduction to Application Software

    1. Word Processor

    2. Spreadsheets

    3. Presentations

    4. Database Management System

Unit III

  1. Applications of computers in various fields and specifically in education

  2. Characteristics of a good computerized lesson plan

  3. Application of computer in Teaching Learning Process (Attendance, Evaluation, eContent, daily planner etc.)

  4. Internet: Introduction, advantages and disadvantages

Practical

  1. Windows, DOS, and Presentation

Suggestive Readings

Kumar, Khushvinder and Kumar, Sunil (2004). Computer Education. Gurusar Sadhar: GBD Publications.

Kumar, Khushvinder and Kumar, Sunil (2004). ICT Skill Development. Gurusar Sadhar: GBD Publications.

Rajaraman, V. (2004). Fundamental of Computers. New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd.

Sharma, Lalit (2006). Computer Education. Ferozpur Cantt: Wintech Publications.

Sinha, P.K. (1992). Computer Fundamentals. New Delhi: BPB Publications.

Singh, Tarsem (2009). Basic Computer Education. Ludhiana: Tandon Brothers.

Singh, Tarsem (2009).ICT Skill Development. Ludhiana: Tandon Brothers.



Paper V- (PART B)

(i) SCHOOL LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SERVICES

Total Marks : 40

External Theory : 32

Internal Evaluation : 04

Internal Practical : 04

Objectives:


  • To enable the student- teachers to develop an understanding of meaning, concept and nature of school library services.

  • To impart knowledge to student teachers about the need and importance of library services in the present school education.

  • To acquaint them with basic principles of school libraries.

  • To acquaint and prepare student-teachers for the application of information technologies in school libraries.

Unit-I

  1. Meaning, aims & Objectives, Need and Importance of School Library in Education.

  2. Specific problems of School Library and their solutions

  3. Five laws of Library science and their solutions

  4. Open and Close access system, Library-rules and regulations

Unit-II

  1. Cataloguing and Classification

  2. Circulation Service: charging and discharging system (Ledger, Newark & Browne)

  3. Library Centered Teaching and role of Library teacher/Student in developing and making use of a School Library, Library period.

  4. Reference books, E-Library, Library Softwares.

Practical Work:

Any two from the following:



  1. To prepare entries of 10 titles in the Accession Register.

  2. Classification of at least 10 books at 3 digits level according to DDC.

  3. Important web sites for E-Books, E-Journals and other study material for Schools.

Books Recommended:

Devi, Savitri and Johri, Nutan (1986). Bibliographic Reprints: Library Science and Informatics. New Delhi: NASSDOC

Kaur, Sumeet School Library and Information Services. Ludhiana: Tandon Publications.

Kumar, Krishana (1997). Library Organisation. Vikas Publishing House Pvt Ltd.

Singh, Sewa (1985-1990). Indian Library and Information Science Literature. New Delhi: Ess Ess Publications.

Singh, Sewa; Vir Malhan, Inder and Arora, R.L. (1971-1980). Indian Library Literature. New Delhi: Today and Tomorrow's.

Upneja, Sunil K. (2007). School Libray Services. Ludhiana: Tandon Publishers.

Wadhawan, Rajan (2009). School Library Services. Ludhiana: Tandon Publications.



(ii) COMPARATIVE EDUCATION

Total Marks : 40

External Theory : 32

Internal Evaluation : 04

Internal Practical : 04

Objectives :-

After completing the course, the teachers shall be able to :



  • Describe the meaning, concept, aims, scope and limitations of comparative education.

  • Compare and contrast foundations of education in U.S.A., Australia and India.

  • Discuss new trends, innovations and expenditure in education.

  • Compare and contrast primary and secondary education.

  • Acquaint the students with universalization of elementary education.

  • Compare and contrast distance education, educational administration and its different agencies.

  • Acquaint the students with vocationalization.



COURSE CONTENTS :

UNIT – I

  1. Meaning, Concept, Aims, Scope with special reference to comparative education and factors influencing education system in India.

  2. Foundation of education with special reference to Social, cultural, Economical, Political and Geographical areas in U.S.A., Australia and India.

  3. New trends, Innovations and Expenditure in education with special reference to India.

UNIT - II

  1. Primary education (Aims, Content, Methods of instruction and Evaluation system) in Australia, U.S.A., and India. Concept of universalization of Elementary education and its implications in India.

  2. Secondary education and its vocationalization in Australia, U.S.A. and India.

  3. Distance education (Meaning, Scope and its Structure), Educational Administration and agencies in U.S.A., Australia and India.

PRACTICAL WORK:

Visit to a Secondary School or Centre of Higher Education to review course study, Institutional Practices and the Examination System and write its report. It will be compulsory for all the students.



SELECTED READINGS:

Bexday, G.Z.L. (1964). Comparative Methods in Education. : New Delhi Oxford and IBH Publishing Co.

Chaube, S.P. (1985). Features of Comparative Education. Agra: Vindo Pustak Mandir.

Chaube, S.P. and Chaube, A. (2001). Comparative Education. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House, Pvt Ltd.

Dutt, B. Surya, Venkata and Rao, D.B. (2004). Comparative Education. New Delhi: Saujanya Books.

Hans, Nicholas (1961). Comparative Education. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Kandel, L.L. (1959). Studies in Comparative Eduaction. New York: George Harrup.

Kubow, Patrica K. and Fossum, Paul R. (2002). Comparative Education Exploring issues in International Context. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, United State.

Mishra, B.K. and Mohanty, R.K. (2000). Trends and Issues in Indian Education. Meerut: Surya Publication.

Rai, B.C. (2005). Comparative Education. Lucknow: Prakashan Kendra.

Sharma, Y.K. (2004). Comparative Education. Delhi: Kanishaka Publisher.

Shrivastva, S.K. (2006). Comparative Education. New Delhi: Vedams Books Pvt. Ltd.

Sodhi, T.S. (2003). Text Book of comparative Education. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House, Pvt., Ltd.

(iii) LIFE LONG LEARNING

Total Marks : 40

External Theory : 32

Internal Evaluation : 04

Internal Practical : 04
Objectives:


  • To enable the student teachers to develop an understanding of the meaning and concept of Life Long Learning.

  • To impart knowledge to student teachers about the problems and difficulties coming in the way of achieving full literacy in the country.

  • To prepare them to create awareness among illiterate adults for their development.

  • To acquaint the student teachers with chief characteristics of an adult learner, different methods and evaluation of Life Long Learning.

  • To enlighten the student teachers about the Life Long Learning policies of the country.

COURSE CONTENTS

Unit-I

  1. Meaning and concept of Life Long Learning.

  2. Aims and Objectives of Life Long Learning

  3. Need and Importance of Life Long Learning for the development of an individual for social change

  4. Problems and suggestive measures for Life Long Learning.

Unit-II

  1. Various programmes of Life Long Learning in India with special reference to ; NAEP, NPE & NLM

  2. Adult learner- characteristics, problems and motivation

  3. Life long teaching- Different methods, Role of Mass Media.

  4. Evaluation of Life Long Learning.

Practical Work:

  • Field based project work

  • Assignment, seminar and over all performance

Books Suggested:

Chopra, Rita (1993). Adult Education. Bombay: Himalaya Publishing House.

Kundu, C.L. (1987). Adult Education Principles: Practice & Prospects. New Delhi: Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd.

Ministry of Education (1987). Adult Education Research- Future Directions.

Prasad, Rajinder (2008). Adult Education. New Delhi: APH Publishing Corporation.

Singh, A.K. (1988). A Micro Analysis of Adult Education in India. New Delhi: National Book Organisation.

Sodhi, T.S. and Multani (1989). Comparative Studies in Adult Education. Ambala: The Association Publishers.

Thakur, Devendra (1980). Adult Education and Mass Literacy. New Delhi: Deep & Deep Publications.

Thrope, Mary & Grangeon, David (1987). Open Learning for Adults. U.K. : Longman Groups.

Tiwari, B.N. (1980). Adult Education and Libraries. Allahabad: Vohra Publishers and Distributors.



( iv) HEALTH AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION
Total Marks : 40

External Theory : 32

Internal Evaluation : 04

Internal Practical : 04


Objectives:

  • To enable the student teachers to develop an understanding of the importance, meaning, concept, aims and objectives of Health and Physical Education.

  • To enlighten the student teachers about infectious diseases and their control.

  • To aware the students teachers about balanced diet.

  • To impart knowledge to use good posters for various purposes and First Aid.


COURSE CONTENT

UNIT-I

(a) Physical Education: Definition, its Aims and Objectives.

(b) Importance of Physical Education Programmes in Schools.

(c) Health : Definition, Concept of Health.

(d) Health Education: Definition, Aims and Objectives.

(e) School Health Programme: Health Services, Health Supervisions and Health Instructions.

(f) Common Health Problems and Preventions: Accidents, Environmental Pollution,

Overpopulation, Alcoholism, Smoking, Drug Abuses.

(g) Diet: Functions of Food, Elements of Balanced diet, Food Habits and Malnutrition.

UNIT-II

(a) Communicable Diseases: Mode of Transmission, Methods of Prevention and Control.

(b) Posture: Importance of Good Posture, Common Postural Defects and Remedial Exercises.

(c) Recreation: Meaning, Significance and Recreational Programmes in Schools.

(d) Layout of the Grounds and Rules and Regulations of the following games: Badminton,

Volleyball and Kho-Kho.

(e) Yoga: Meaning, Need, Importance and Benefits of Yoga asanas.

(f) Athletic meet – Meaning, Need and Importance, How to organize athletic meet at school level.



PRACTICAL REPORTS

Prepare a Project Report on:



  1. Three types of Sports Ground.

  2. Annual Athletic Meet

BOOKS SUGGESTED :

Atwal & Kansal (2003). A Textbook of Health, Physical Education and Sports. Jalandhar: A.P. Publisher.

Bucher, C.A. (1979). Foundations of Physical Education and Sports. St. Louis: C.V. Mosby & Co.

Kamlesh, M.L. and Sangral, M.S. (1986). Methods in Physical Education. Ludhiana: Prakash Brothers.

Kaur, Manjeet (2003). Health and Physical Education. Ludhiana: Tandon Publications.

Kaur, Nirmaljit (2003). Essentials of Physical Education. Ludhiana: Kalyani Publishers.

Malik, Neeru and Malik, Rakesh (2005). Health and Physical Education. Gurusar Sadhar: GBD Publications.

Sandhu, S.S. (2008). Health and Physical Education. Ludhiana: Chetna Parkashan.

Singh, Ajmer. (2003). Essentials of Physical Education. Ludhiana: Kalyani publishers.

Singh, Ajmer; Gill, Jagtar Singh; Brar, Racchpal Singh; Bains, Jagdish; Rathee, Sonia Kanwar; Gill, Manmeet Kaur and Brar, R.S. Teaching Methodology and Educational Technology in Physical Education. Ludhiana: Kalyani Publishers.

Syedentop, Daryl (1994). Introduction to physical education, fitness and sports (2nd ed.). London: Mayfield publishing company.

Uppal, A.K. & Gautam, G. P. (2004). Physical Education and Health. Delhi: Friends publisher.



(v) EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL NEEDS
Total Marks : 40

External Theory : 32

Internal Evaluation : 04

Internal Practical : 04


Objectives :

  • To acquaint the student teachers with the concept of exceptionality and exceptional children.

  • To equip the students with latest trends in the education of exceptional children.

  • To develop an awareness and skill in identifying the exceptional children.

  • To understand the special needs and problems of exceptional children.

  • To inculcate healthy attitude towards exceptional children.

  • To impart practical knowledge and experience about the functioning of special schools.

COURSE CONTENTS :

UNIT-I

(a) Concept of Exceptional Children — Meaning, Need and Classification.

(b) Special Needs of Exceptional Children.

(c) Trends in the Education of Exceptional Children viz. Inclusion, Deinstitutionalization,

Mainstreaming, Community Based Rehabilitation, and Individualized Education Programme.

UNIT-II

Identification, Characteristics, Causes and Education of the following Categories of Exceptional Children :

(a) Learning Disabled.

(b) Mentally Retarded Children.

(c) Orthopedically Handicapped Children.

(d) Speech Handicapped Children.


PRACTICAL WORK :

i. A report based on actual visit to school for exceptional children.

ii. Case study of a child with any of the disability mentioned in Unit II.
BOOKS SUGGESTED :

Dash, M. (2000). Education of Exceptional Children. New Delhi: Atlantic Publisher and Distributors.

Mangal, S.K. (2007). Education of Exceptional Children. New Delhi: Printice Hall of India.

Panda, K.C. (2003). Education of Exceptional Children. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House.

Sahu, Binod Kumar (2002). Education of Exceptional Children. Ludhiana: Kalyani Publishers.

Samuel, A. Kirk. (1997). Educating Exceptional Children. 8th Edition, New York: Houghton.

Sharma, R.A. (2006). Fundamentals of Special Education. Meerut: R. Lall Book Depot.

Singh, Agyajit. Education of Exceptional Children. Patiala: 21st Century Publication.

Singh, Agyajit; Kharab, Pratibha and Arora, Alka. (2008). Vishisht Balkon Kee Shiksha. Patiala: 21st Century Publication.


(vi) Population Education

Total Marks : 40

External Theory : 32

Internal Evaluation : 04

Internal Practical : 04
Objectives:


  • To be aware of population trends in the world

  • To understand that population becomes stable when there is little difference between birth and death rates.

  • To develop among themselves a health, rational and scientific attitude toward the natural phenomena of the birth and death

  • To realize that the solution to the problem lies in the acceptance of small family norms.

  • To develop an attitude that would promote living in peace and harmony along the nature

  1   2   3   4   5   6   7


The database is protected by copyright ©sckool.org 2016
send message

    Main page