1455, one of several traditional dates for the publication of the GUTENBERG BIBLE, the first EUROPEAN book printed with movable type.
1778, BARON FRIEDRICH WILHELM VON STEUBEN joined the CONTINENTAL ARMY at VALLEY FORGE.
1813, the first mill to produce cloth from raw cotton opened in WALTHAM, MASSACHUSETTS.
1820, BRITISH authorities learned of and thwarted ARTHUR THISTLEWOOD and his associates' plans (the CATO STREET CONSPIRACY) to murder CABINET members in LONDON.
1821, writer-poet JOHN KEATS died of tuberculosis at 25 in ROME, ITALY. The same day, the COLLEGE OF APOTHECARIES in PHILADELPHIA was established as the nation's first pharmaceutical college.
1822, BOSTON became an incorporated city.
1836, MEXICAN GENERAL SANTA ANNA lay siege to the ALAMO.
1847, at the two-day "BATTLE OF BUENA VISTA", BRIGADIER GENERAL ZACHARY TAYLOR'S AMERICAN troops defeated SANTA ANNA'S MEXICAN army.
1848, JOHN QUINCY ADAMS, the 6th president of the UNITED STATES, died of a stroke at 80.
1854, in SOUTH AFRICA, the ORANGE FREE STATED declared its independence.
1861, an assassin in BALTIMORE, MARYLAND, awaited a train carrying president-elect ABRAHAM LINCOLN. Meanwhile, previously warned by ALAN PINKERTON in PHILADELPHIA, LINCOLN had slipped into BALTIMORE on an earlier train and continued his short journey to WASHINGTON. The same day, TEXAS by popular referendum became the seventh state to secede from the UNION.
1870, military occupation ended as MISSISSIPPI was readmitted to the UNION.
1874, WALTER WINFIELD patented his game, "SPHAIRISTIKE, later renamed "lawn tennis".
1886, the LONDON TIMES published the first classified ad.
1887, an earthquake rattled along the MEDITERRANEAN coasts of FRANCE and ITALY, killing more than 1,500 people. It was one of the first quakes to be recorded on the CECCHI seismograph. 1896, AUSTRIAN-immigrant LEO HIRSHFIELD first marketed the TOOTSIE ROLL®.
1898, FRENCH authorities jailed EMILE ZOLA for his essay, "J'ACCUSE", an indictment of the ANTI-SEMITISM which led to the wrongful imprisonment of ALFRED DREYFUS.
1903, CUBA leased an area of GUANTANAMO BAY to the UNITED STATES for a military base.
1905, four businessmen founded the ROTARY CLUB in CHICAGO.
1906, TOMMY BURNS in a 20-round decision defeated MARVIN HART to become the WORLD HEAVYWEIGHT BOXING CHAMPION.
1910, GEORGE BERNARD SHAW'S play, "MISALLIANCE", debuted in LONDON.
1919, BENITO MUSSOLINI founded the FACIST PARTY in ITALY.
1921, the first transcontinental airmail flight arrived in NEW YORK CITY from SAN FRANCISCO.
1927, PRESIDENT CALVIN COOLIDGE established the FEDERAL RADIO COMMISSION, later renamed the FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (FCC).
1930, silent-film star MABEL NORMAND died at 35. 1934, PARAMOUNT released the film "DEATH TAKES A HOLIDAY", starring FREDRIC MARCH and EVELYN VENABLE. The same day, CASEY STENGEL became manager of the BROOKLYN DODGERS.
1937, BING CROSBY and the LANI MCINTYRE BAND recorded "SWEET LEILANI".
1938, in a heavyweight-title bout, JOE LOUIS ko'd NATHAN MANN in the third round.
1940, folk-singer WOODY GUTHRIE wrote "THIS LAND IS YOUR LAND". The same day, MGM released the adventure-film "NORTHWEST PASSAGE", starring SPENCER TRACY, ROBERT YOUNG, WALTER BRENNAN, RUTH HUSSEY, and NAT PENDLETON.
1941, DR. GLENN SEABORG first isolated and produced plutonium.
1943, "AS TIME GOES BY", the song from the film "CASABLANCA", received its copyright. (DOOLEY WILSON FILM VERSION)
1945, JOE ROSENTHAL took his famous photo of six MARINES raising the AMERICAN flag atop IWO JIMA'S MOUNT SURIBACHI. The MARINES were IRA HAYES, FRANKLIN SOUSLEY, JOHN BRADLEY, HARLON BLOCK, MICHAEL STRANK, and RENE GAGNON. Also in 1945, in the EUROPEAN theatre, the UNITED STATES NINTH ARMY in "OPERATION GRENADE" crossed the RUHR RIVER.
1954, PITTSBURGH began the first mass inoculation with the SALK polio vaccine.
1956, COMMUNIST PARTY leader NIKITA KHRUSHCHEV first spoke out against the excesses of former-dictator JOSEF STALIN.
1957, the "GRAND OLE OPRY" gave PORTER WAGONER ("CARROLL COUNTY ACCIDENT") membership. The same day, the musical "MR. WONDERFUL" closed at the BROADWAY THEATRE in NEW YORK after a run of 383 performances. 1960, after a farewell party on the grounds, demolition began at EBBETS FIELD in BROOKLYN, NEW YORK. The same day at the SQUAW VALLEY WINTER OLYMPICS, CAROL HEISS won a gold medal in WOMEN'S FIGURE SKATING.
1963, LAURIE RECORDS released "HE'S SO FINE" by the CHIFFONS.
1964, the BEATLES ("TWIST AND SHOUT") made their last of three-consecutive appearances on the ED SULLIVAN SHOW. The performance was pre-taped in FLORIDA.
1965, film- great STAN LAUREL died from a heart attack at 74 in CALIFORNIA.
1966, ALDO MORO formed an ITALIAN government.
1967, U-S forces began the largest offensive of the war in VIETNAM.
1968, WILT CHAMBERLAIN became the first NBA player to score 25,000 points. The same day, author EDNA FERBER died at 80, and author FANNIE HURST died at 78.
1970, the DOORS scored their fifth gold album -- "MORRISON HOTEL" ("ROADHOUSE BLUES").
1971, in the NATIONAL HOCKEY LEAGUE, the BOSTON BRUINS began a 13-game winning streak.
1972, ELVIS PRESLEY ("LOVE ME") separated from his wife PRISCILLA.
1974, COLUMBIA RECORDS released BILLY JOEL'S "PIANO MAN".
1978, FLEETWOOD MAC'S "RUMOURS" ("DREAMS") won the "ALBUM OF THE YEAR" GRAMMY®. "BEST RECORD OF THE YEAR" went to the EAGLES' "HOTEL CALIFORNIA".
1979, ENGLISH rock-group DIRE STRAITS ("BROTHERS IN ARMS") began their first AMERICAN tour in BOSTON.
1980, QUEEN topped the AMERICAN pop-singles charts with "CRAZY LITTLE THING CALLED LOVE". The same day, ERIC HEIDEN, winning the 10,000- METER SPEEDSKATING event at LAKE PLACID, captured his fifth gold medal in the WINTER OLYMPICS.
1982, MICHAEL FRAYN'S "NOISES OFF" debuted in LONDON.
1983, the rock-group TOTO won six GRAMMY® awards, which included "ALBUM OF THE YEAR" for its "TOTO IV" (FULL ALBUM). The same day, the NEW JERSEY GENERALS of the USFL signed the HEISMAN TROPHY winner, HERSCHEL WALKER, to a three-year, $5-million contract.
1985, in a game against PURDUE, the UNIVERSITY OF INDIANA'S basketball- coach BOBBY KNIGHT was ejected for throwing a chair on the court.
1987, astronomers sighted "1987A", the first supernova since the year 1604.
1990, JOSÉ NAPOLEON DUARTE, former president of EL SALVADOR, died at 62.
1991, a 12 NOON, EST, deadline for IRAQ to evacuate KUWAIT came and went. Later in the afternoon, PRESIDENT GEORGE BUSH announced the allied ground attack against SADAM HUSSEIN'S IRAQI forces had begun (2/24 local time). The same day, the NORTH CAROLINA TARHEELS became the first NCAA- basketball team to win 1,500 games.
1992, the 16TH WINTER OLYMPIC GAMES ended in ALBERTVILLE, FRANCE. The same day, singer LITTLE RICHARD ("LONG TALL SALLY") received a GRAMMY® for "LIFETIME ACHIEVEMENT".
1993, QUEEN ELIZABETH knighted actor SIR ANTHONY HOPKINS. The same day, GARY COLEMAN won a $1.28-million dollar suit against his parents, who had mishandled his income as a child actor; and the SACRAMENTO GOLD MINERS became the first U-S team in the CANADIAN FOOTBALL LEAGUE.
1994, with a victory in 1,000-METER SPEEDSKATING, BONNIE BLAIR won her fifth gold medal in WINTER OLYMPIC competition.
1995, at 4,003.33 points, the DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL first closed over 4,000. The same day, MELVIN FRANKLIN of the TEMPTATIONS ("I KNOW I'M LOSING YOU") died at 52 in LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA.
1996, SONY released the documentary "ANNE FRANK REMEMBERED" to theatres in the UNITED STATES. The film, featuring diary entries read by GLENN CLOSE and narration by KENNETH BRANAGH, had been first viewed at the TORONTO FILM FESTIVAL in SEPTEMBER of 1995.
1997, scientists in SCOTLAND announced they had successfully cloned a sheep, resulting in a lamb called "DOLLY". Also in 1997, an estimated 65-million viewers watched as NBC TELEVISION aired an uncensored, director's cut version of the STEVEN SPIELBERG, OSCAR-winning film, "SCHINDLER'S LIST", starring LIAM NEESEN, BEN KINGSLEY, RALPH FIENNES, and CAROLINE GOODALL.
1998, from the night before to the early-morning hours, a series of tornadoes ripped through FLORIDA, killing more than 30 people.
1999, a JASPER, TEXAS, jury convicted white-supremacist JOHN WILLIAM KING in the dragging death of AFRICAN-AMERICAN JAMES BYRD, JR. The same day, the first of two devastating avalanches struck AUSTRIA. The two-day death toll reached 38.
2000, at the STAPLES CENTER in LOS ANGELES, CARLOS SANTANA tied a record when he won eight GRAMMYS® in one night, including "ALBUM OF THE YEAR" for his "SUPERNATURAL" (VIDEO).
2003, singer NORAH JONES won five GRAMMY awards for her album, "COME AWAY WITH ME" (TITLE SONG).
2004, after an expenditure of $6.9-billion over 20 years, the U-S ARMY canceled the "COMANCHE" helicopter program. The same day, pop-singer DON CORNELL ("I'M YOURS") died at 84 in AVENTURA, FLORIDA.
2005, attending a three-day summit meeting with RUSSIA'S VLADIMIR PUTIN in BRATISLAVA, GEORGE W. BUSH became the first sitting president to visit SLOVAKIA.
2006, a revival of the musical "PAJAMA GAME", starring HARRY CONNICK, JR., opened at the AMERICAN AIRLINES THEATRE in NEW YORK CITY for a run of 126 performances. The same day, the iTUNES MUSIC STORE sold its one-billionth song.
2007, WARNER BROTHERS released the film "ASTRONAUT FARMER", starring BILLY BOB THORNTON, VIRGINIA MADSEN, MAX THERIOT, JASPER POLISH, BRUCE WILLIS, and BRUCE DERN. The same day, to monitor the nuclear ambitions of NORTH KOREA, JAPAN launched its fourth spy satellite; and singer DONNIE BROOKS ("DOLLHOUSE") died at 71 in CALIFORNIA.
2008, the UNITED STATES lost its first operational "stealth" bomber when a "B2 SPIRIT" crashed on the Island of GUAM.
BIRTHDAYS: Composer GEORGE FRIDERIC HANDEL (1685)
Philosopher KARL JASPERS (1883)
Film-Director VICTOR FLEMING (1889)
Journalist-Novelist WILLIAM SHIRER (1904)
A-Bomb Pilot PAUL TIBBETS, JR. (1915)
Actor JON HALL (1915)
Actress DIANE VARSI (1938)
Football-Coach TOM OSBORNE is 77
Actor PETER FONDA is 74
Football-Great FRED BILETNIKOFF is 70
Singer-Musician JOHNNY WINTER ("ROLL OVER BEETHOVEN) is 70