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Excerpts from The Maxims of Ptah-hotep, attributed to Ptah-hotep, a Fifth-dynasty vizier.

The prefect, the feudal lord Ptah-hotep, says: O Ptah with the two crocodiles, my lord, the progress of age changes into senility. Decay falls upon man and decline takes the place of youth. A vexation weighs upon him every day; sight fails, the ear becomes deaf; his strength dissolves without ceasing. The mouth is silent, speech fails him; the mind decays, remembering not the day before. The whole body suffers. That which is good becomes evil; taste completely disappears. Old age makes a man altogether miserable; the nose is stopped up, breathing no more from exhaustion. Standing or sitting there is here a condition of . . . Who will cause me to have authority to speak, that I may declare to him the words of those who have heard the counsels of former days? And the counsels heard of the gods, who will give me authority to declare them? Cause that it be so and that evil be removed from those that are enlightened; send the double . . . The majesty of this god says: Instruct him in the sayings of former days. It is this which constitutes the merit of the children of the great. All that which makes the soul equal penetrates him who hears it, and that which it says produces no satiety.

Beginning of the arrangement of the good sayings, spoken by the noble lord, the divine father, beloved of Ptah, the son of the king, the first-born of his race, the prefect and feudal lord Ptah-hotep, so as to instruct the ignorant in the knowledge of the arguments of the good sayings. It is profitable for him who hears them, it is a loss to him who shall transgress them. He says to his son:

Be not arrogant because of that which you know; deal with the ignorant as with the learned; for the barriers of art are not closed, no artist being in possession of the perfection to which he should aspire. But good words are more difficult to find than the emerald, for it is by slaves that that is discovered among the rocks of pegmatite.









  • How does the document above help analyze the relationship between religious beliefs and political authority in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Shang or Huang He (Yellow River) before 500 b.c.e.?



    Is there a point of view contained with this document? What would it be?

    Document 6. An Egyptian Obituary (1950 BCE)



    Egyptian Noble Armeni writes of his service to the pharoah and generosity in his life.

    Ameni's Able Administration

    I was amiable, and greatly loved, a ruler beloved of his city. Now, I passed years as ruler in the Oryx nome. All the imposts of the king's house passed through my hand. The gang-overseers of the crown possessions of the shepherds of the Oryx nome gave to me 3,000 bulls in their yokes. I was praised on account of it in the palace each year of the loan-herds. I carried all their dues to the king's house; there were no arrears against me in any office of his. The entire Oryx nome labored for me.

    Armeni's Impartiality and Benevolence

    There as no citizen's daughter whom I misused, there was no widow whom I oppressed, there was no [peasant] whom I repulsed, there was no shepherd whom I repelled, there was no overseer of serf-laborers whose people I took for (unpaid) imposts, there was none wretched in my community, there was none hungry in my time. When years of famine came I plowed all the fields of the Oryx nome, as far as its southern and northern boundary, preserving its people alive and furnishing its food so that there was none hungry therein. I gave to the widow as (to) her who had a husband; I did not exalt the great above the small in all that I gave. Then came great Niles, possessors of grain and all things, (but) I did not collect the arrears of the field.










  • How does the document above help analyze the relationship between religious beliefs and political authority in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Shang or Huang He (Yellow River) before 500 b.c.e.?



    Is there a point of view contained with this document? What would it be?

    Document 7. Limestone Relief of Akhenaten (c. 1345 BCE)



    Image of Akhenaten and Nefertiti sitting under Aton.



    How does the document above help analyze the relationship between religious beliefs and political authority in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Shang or Huang He (Yellow River) before 500 b.c.e.?



    Is there a point of view contained with this document? What would it be?








  • Document 9. Confucius on Government (c. 500 BCE)



    Confucuius writes about the basics of good government.

    The Master said, "He who exercises government by means of his virtue may be compared to the north polar star, which keeps its place, while all the stars turn toward it. . . ."

    The Master said, "If the people be led by laws, and uniformity be imposed on them by punishments, they will try to avoid the punishment, but will have no sense of shame.

    "If they be led by virtue, and uniformity be provided for them by the rules of propriety, they will have the sense of shame, and moreover will become good. . . ." The duke Ai asked, saying, "What should be done in order to secure the submission of the people?" Confucius replied, "Advance the upright and set aside the crooked, and then the people will submit. Advance the crooked and set aside the upright, and then the people will not submit."

    Ji Kang asked how to cause the people to reverence their ruler, to be faithful to him, and to go on to seek virtue. The Master said, "Let him preside over them with gravity; then they will reverence him. Let him be filial and kind to all; then they will be faithful to him. Let him advance the good and teach the incompetent; then they will eagerly seek to be virtuous. . . ."










  • How does the document above help analyze the relationship between religious beliefs and political authority in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Shang or Huang He (Yellow River) before 500 b.c.e.?



    Is there a point of view contained with this document? What would it be?

    Document 10. Two Horses and a Groom (728)



    Two horses and a groom, made of brown, green glazed earthenware, from the tomb of Liu Tingxun (d. 728).





    How does the document above help analyze the relationship between religious beliefs and political authority in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Shang or Huang He (Yellow River) before 500 b.c.e.?



    Is there a point of view contained with this document? What would it be?


    Grouping of Point of views

    Which documents do you group together and why?

    1st Group

    Group numbers


    Why did you put these groups together? What links them together?



    Is there a point of view in one of these documents that you can write about in your essay


    Topic Sentence for Paragraph of 1st group

    ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

    2nd Group



    Group numbers


    Why did you put these groups together? What links them together? Are they linked together by point of view



    Is there a point of view in one of these documents that you can write about in your essay


    Topic Sentence for Paragraph of 2nd group

    ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

    3rd Group

    Group numbers


    Why did you put these groups together? What links them together? Are they linked together by point of view?

    Is there a point of view in one of these documents that you can write about in your essay



    Topic Sentence for Paragraph of 2nd group

    ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________



    Thesis Statement

    Read the Directions below, this is how the AP World History Exam will ask a DBQ question.


    Using the documents, analyze the relationship between different sources who were involved in or reported on the football game between the Ely Tigers and Dillard Panthers that occurred in the year 2014 C.E.

    You may write a thesis statement below using the directions and what you learned from the documents that you read.


    ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

    Rubric for DBQ Essay- Unit 1

    3.10.1 Create a thesis that introduces a topic and claim

    You did not receive a 3.0 yet because …

    The thesis must be explicitly stated in the introduction or the specified conclusion of the essay.

    • The thesis may appear as one sentence or multiple sentences.



    Has a clear, analytical, and comprehensive thesis.

    -Goes well beyond the minimally acceptable thesis.



    3.10.5 Connect evidence to topic sentences with commentary to clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts

    You did not receive a 3.0 yet because …

    Specific and accurate evidence of the relationship between religious beliefs and political authority in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Shang or Huang He (Yellow River) before 500 b.c.e. must be explicitly drawn from a minimum of nine documents

    A document that is simply listed does not count as using the document as



    evidence.

    Explains why additional types of document(s) or sources are needed.

    o Identifies more than one type of appropriate additional document.

    o Provides a sophisticated explanation of why the additional document will

    contribute to analysis.

    o Request for additional document(s) is woven into the essay and integrated

    into a broader analysis.



    5.10.2 Consider multiple perspectives to explain how and why people acted in a particular time period

    You did not receive a 3.0 yet because …

    Students must correctly analyze point of view in at least one

    • Point of view explains why this particular person might have this particular

    opinion or what particular feature informs the author’s point of view.

    document.

    • Students must move beyond mere description by explaining

    • Students may challenge the veracity of the author’s opinion or point of view,

    but must move beyond a mere statement that the author is “biased” by

    providing some plausible analysis.

    a document’s

    tone, the characteristics of the author, the intended audience, and/or how the

    intended outcome may have influenced the author’s opinion.

    • Mere attribution is not sufficient. Attribution is copying or repeating

    information verbatim from the source line of the document.


    Analyzes point of view in most or all documents.

    o Provides thoughtful analysis of author’s background, intended audience, tone, or historical context.


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