Para 2 first and foremost it’s a human right. Develop argument about humans having the right to choose anything. Give other medical examples.
Para 3 Dignity in death. Case studies? Ending life without dignity.
Para 4 Aside from individual arguments in support, significant potential advantage for society. Saves money for NHS. Facts and figures for terminal care costs.
Para 5 Comparison of UK to other countries where euthanasia is legal. Statistics, quotations, safeguards and laws.
Para 6 Objections from moral and religious points of view? However…
Para 7 Conclusion.
a) Is this an example of a persuasive plan or an argumentative plan?
b) In your group, can you rework this plan to change it into a persuasive or argumentative plan instead? You can add other arguments if you can think of more.
Look at the following structure of an argumentative essay on handguns:
Introduction – The issue of handgun ownership. A) Some believe individuals should not own handguns B) Others believe it is a personal right like any other
Disadvantages – Both adults and children can have accidents. People can use guns for crime.
Advantages – People can protect themselves from intruders. People may want to use them for recreational purposes.
Conclusion – Summarise and evaluate. Accidents and crime could be prevented so this would make any arguments for handgun ownership very hard. Gun ownership should not be allowed in order for a better society to be created.
Using the above structure as a rough example of a plan, you are going to draft a discursive essay about car use. You will be given the arguments for and against. THIS EXAMPLE IS ARGUMENTATIVE, providing two sides of the topic.
Step 1: GATHERING/SORTING INFORMATION
Read through the following notes.
Identify the arguments FOR car use with a tick.
Identify the arguments AGAINST car use with a cross.
Not restricted with timetables and schedules as you are with public transport
Car parks take up valuable space which could be used for better things
Cheap to run
Car accidents cause death and injury
Modern fuel is getting ‘cleaner’
Traffic jams lead to stress and road rage (road rage stats & crimes committed?)
Cars contribute to a faster pace of life, causing high blood pressure and heart disease
Now that you have sorted the arguments into ‘for’ and ‘against’ you can divide your whole essay into ‘advantages’ and ‘disadvantages’. Both sections need further divided into topics. Each topic will become a paragraph. Some of your arguments from Activity 1 will be topics/paragraphs in themselves, but some will be combined into paragraphs with other similar topics.
Take the advantages (all of those with a tick) and arrange them into two topics:
Take all of the disadvantages (all of those with a cross) and arrange them into two topics:
bad for the environment and
stressful and dangerous
Step 2: MAKING ARGUMENTS FLOW/LINK
More sophisticated paragraphs begin with topic sentences and linking words. This contains the main ideas of the paragraph that is about to follow. It must then be followed by illustrations or examples (quotations, statistics, facts, cases studies, etc).
Write a topic sentence for each of your headings in Activity 2 (Convenient, Efficient, etc). For example, “Cars are extremely possible because they are so convenient…”
OR you can start with the disadvantages first. It is up to you. However, there needs to be a structure to your introduction and conclusion too.
Step 4: INTRODUCTION
Your introduction will state that there are advantages and disadvantages to car use. However, this must sound sophisticated. It makes a stronger impact if you start with a bold or surprising statement, or even a striking statistic. Just saying “There are advantages and disadvantages to car use…” and you should never say “In this essay I am going to write about the advantages and disadvantages of car use.”
We have become extremely dependent on cars: there were 580 million worldwide in 2007 and it is estimated that this figure will grow to 816 million by 2010.
You will follow this with a summary of the main arguments contained in the essay. Present these in the order they will appear in the essay.
Continue the example opening in your jotter by adding sentences from the jumbled list below. Present them in the order that they should appear, according to the plan above.
Thirdly, some people argue that they contribute to the frantic, unhealthy pace of modern life.
Clearly cars are so popular because they are both convenient and efficient.
Secondly, they kill and main large numbers of people.
Step 4: THE BODY OF THE ESSAY
Now write the paragraphs out (paragraphs 2-6) from the plan above. Each paragraph should already have a topic sentence. Use this too. This means that you will have to support each point with illustrations, examples and evidence.
Cars are extremely popular because they are so convenient. They allow us more freedom than public transport, which is often unreliable, slow or even unavailable. Given a choice between walking in the rain to join a bus queue or stepping straight into the car and driving directly to one’s destination, who would prefer the latter? Furthermore, cars are more comfortable than buses or trains since they are less cramped and have luxuries such as an air conditioner and a sound system. (This would be even better if you could add quotations and a source!)
Now use the points below to complete paragraphs 3-6. On this occasion we will not add quotations/evidence, but you can do that in your own essay.
Modern fuels are lead-free and do not cause as much pollution as they used to
They cause air pollution (exhaust emissions contribute to global warming and health problems such as asthma)
Roads spoil the natural landscape and disturb wildlife habitats
Car parks take up valuable space in cities that could otherwise be used for recreation
Car accidents result in many deaths and injuries (approximately 125,000 people were killed in road crashes in 1999, according to …………… This is enough to fill 3 jumbo jets).
Traffic jams lead to stress and therefore ‘road rage’ (angry drivers attacking others)
Car use contributes to a faster, less natural pace of life that often results in high blood pressure and heart disease
You will need to use some of your linking words and phrases from Activity 4!
Step 5: CONCLUDING YOUR ESSAY
Finally, you need a conclusion. Avoid a weak ‘sitting on the fence’ conclusion. Instead, come to YOUR conclusion, summing up the arguments you have already covered and stating whether you agree or disagree. What argument out-weighs the other?
It may be effective to present the arguments with the weakest first. For example:
In conclusion, car ownership has several negative effects, including stress, road accidents and destruction of the natural environment. Nevertheless, we have become highly dependent on cars because of the comfort and freedom they offer. A total ban seems out of the question. Governments could not afford to replace them with such an up-dated public transport system for a start. But, for the sake of our health and the health of future generations and this planet, we MUST reduce our useage. Public transport systems need to be improved in order for this to happen and common sense, such as car pooling, surely isn’t too hard to manage for the sake of at least one person’s health.
Contrasts (achieved by inserting opposing arguments)
Use of pronouns
Now you need to SORT your information into for and against, GROUP similar arguments into same paragraph. Then RANK their importance (important arguments back up what you are saying, use them first) and BALANCE them against each other (similar fors and against will go into same paragraphs).