Strategic Management mngt 4375. 794 Spring 2018-Second 8 Week Term Instructor



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Strategic Management

MNGT 4375.794
Spring 2018-Second 8 Week Term

Instructor: William R. Fannin

Email: Fannin_W@utpb.edu

Office Location: UTPB, Mesa Building 2256

Office Hours: Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday 9:00-10:30 a.m.

Office Phone: (432) 552-2202

Course Communications: With an online course it is essential to ask questions when you do not understand some the material or unsure as to some assignment. For most situations the best way to do that is via the “Inbox” messaging system within Canvas. Both the instructor and the coach can be located there. Your instructor does receive an email notification of any message received from the Inbox plus he checks the course typically three or four times with more frequent checks around the times of exams or major assignments.

If you would like to have a phone conversation regarding some aspect of the course, I would be pleased to talk to you. You can simply call the number above during office hours. If that is not convenient message me through the Inbox and ask to set up a time for phone appointment. I would be pleased to talk to you.

Look for announcements within the course. You can set the notifications settings in Canvas to send you an email or text when an announcement is posted. The announcements are where I will place class-wide notifications.

Course Description: This is the capstone Course of the business administration degree. Based on environmental analysis, the formulation and implementation of strategic directions with the organization are addressed. Emphasis is placed on integration of decisions at the functional areas.

Course Prerequisites:

Taken during the last 12 hours of the BBA program and must have completed all lower and upper level business core courses (except ACCT/MNGT 3333 and ECON elective. Approval to register for this courses must be granted by the Dean’s Office.



Objectives/Outcomes of Management 4375 include:

  1. Upon completion of this course, students should have an integrated of business and the strategic management process and be able to apply this knowledge.

  2. To develop analytical skills through the use of complex issues/problems in comprehensive cases—to be able to identify central issues/problems n these cases and present well-supported recommendations for future actions.

  3. To develop conceptual skills that will enable the student to integrate previously learned aspects of business organizations.

  4. To develop an understanding of strategic management concepts, research, and theories.

  5. To enhance the student’s understanding of the present and future environments within which organizations function.

  6. To develop conceptual skills that will enable the student to integrate previously learned aspects of business organizations.

  7. To improve the secondary research skills required in gathering and interpreting key environmental data.

  8. To improve both written and oral communicative skills.

  9. To bridge the gap between the classroom and the business world by developing an understanding of when and how to apply concepts and techniques learned in previous courses.

  10. To better appreciate and prepare oneself for the challenges and benefits of working with others to accomplish organizational and individual goals.

Texts and Required Course Materials:

  • There is no required text for this course. There are assigned readings shown in the list of readings at the end of this syllabus. You will see a module right before Lesson One within the list of modules titled Class Resources. In this module you will find a copy of the class reading list and a list of cases that will be used in the class. Many of these will have links to the reading or case cited.

  • Some journals, particularly the Harvard Business Review, do not allow courses to link directly from the course LMS site to the article. When a reading is in such a journal, you will need to access the journal directly from UTPB’s J. Conrad Dunagan Library. All UTPB students have access to the Library’s materials in the Library at no extra charge. Instructions on how to find articles on the reading list in the Library’s electronic journal collection can be found in the “Start Here” module. All readings on this course’s reading list are available digitally.

Alternatively, there is a book on the market entitled HBR's 10 Must Reads on Strategy.(ISBN# 978-4221-5798-5). It contains 10 of the 11 Harvard Business Review articles used in this course. This book is available from many sources including the UTPB bookstore. New it sells for around $25. Many used copies are available from various outlets for much less. In past semesters many students have reported they preferred the ease and low cost of buying this book. Purchase of the book is totally optional since all articles are available through the library.




Alternatively, in this course’s reading listed the non-linked journal articles are all from the Harvard Business Review and the HBS Press does sell a book entitled, HBR's 10 Must Reads on Strategy. It sells new from the HBR Press for $24.95. Many used copies are available for much less from reputable book sellers. Since all you need are the articles reprints, it does not matter how current the printing of the book is. Some students have reported they prefer to have the HBR articles in the book form. Whether you purchase the articles in book form, print them from your library access, or simply read them online is strictly your choice.

Important Dates:


Classes begin

March 5

Last day to add a course

March 8

Last day to drop the course without creating a record

March 12

Last day to drop or withdraw from this session

April 6

Last day of classes or final exam day

April 27



Course Activities:



Exams:


There are two major examinations based on class presentations and assigned readings. Both exams are two-part exams. Part One of each exam will require short answers of around a half of a page. You have one hour to answer six questions. The second part of each exam will require longer essay answers. You will answer two questions and have an hour time limit for the two questions. The two parts of the exam must be completed with the three-day window between when the exam opens and when it closes. You may, however, take the two parts at different times within that 3-day window.

Each exam is worth 100 points. Please be aware that the LMS may show more points being available for each part than what will be available. This is because typically you get to choose questions to answer in each part from a larger pool of questions.

Both parts of both exam require that the Respondus Lockdown Browser and Monitoring System be used.

Quizzes: Quizzes are short multiple choice test designed to help you assess how well you are understanding points in lessons’ readings and presentations. They you can earn 10 or 15 points per quiz depending the number of questions on the quiz.

On most quizzes you can attempt each quiz two times with the highest of the two scores being the score counted in the grade center. The quizzes come a bank of questions, so if you want to improve your score in the second attempt student the readings and presentations, not the first quiz. The quiz will change.

Quiz 1—The Syllabus Quiz must be taken using the Respondus Lockdown Browser and Monitor. This is to ensure that you are familiar with how the Respondus system works before you get to a major exam. All other quizzes do not require the use of the Respondus system.

Individual Assignments:


Each student will prepare two case analyses as an individual paper near during the semester as shown on the course schedule. The case analysis should not exceed 5 typed pages. There will be questions provided with each case to guide the analysis of that case.

Graded Class Discussion: There are a series of discussion topics throughout the course. The class will be divided into 2 or 3 groups for these discussions. Each group will have between 15 and 20 people. The graded discussions are each worth 10 points. To earn the full 10 points a participant should make at least 3 contributions to the discussion. The first contribution should be within the first two days of the discussion. Typically, the discussion will be open for 5-6 days.



Team Case Papers and Presentations:

The class will also be divided into teams of 5-6 individuals. Each class team will prepare two case assignments and the term presentation.



Team Case Papers: The case assignments will be a paper of no more than 10 papers prepared by the group addressing a particular case similar to the individual case paper but in more detail.

Team The term project is for the group to prepare a paper and either a Powerpoint slide presentation with audio or a video of 3-5 minutes in length presenting key points of the paper as if the presentation was being made to a group of investors or a board of directors. The project may be on one of the following:

It may present a plan for starting a new business

Or


It may study an existing business and recommend a strategy for the business to follow for the foreseeable future.

MFT Test

Each student is required to take the Major Field Test (MFT) in Business as part of the capstone course. Grade in this area depends on your MFT score. It will be determined by dividing the highest score in the class into each score giving a percentage of the highest score. This normally gives points ranging from 65-100. Last semester the high score in the online class was in the 97th percentile nationally.

You may want to visit their website to preview the type of questions asked. Questions are related to all business administration disciplines (not just strategy). Taking the exam is a course requirement and failure to take the exam may result in the student receiving an incomplete grade. This will be a proctored exam. This section needs to talk to the new COBE exam.

NOTE: You must schedule the MFT 72 hours before you take the test. Missing your scheduled test time may result in your forfeiting the test and the proctoring session. Make sure you schedule early and that you can make the time you schedule.

Course Grading System:

The planned graded assessment activities of this course. Each activity has a different point value.



Evaluation Events

# of Events

Points per Event

Total Points

Exams*

2

100

200

Group Case Papers

2

50

100

Individual Case Papers

2

50

100

MFT test

1

100

100

Quizzes and Discussions

8

10 to 15

95

Team Term Project

1

100

100

Total

 

 

695



















































Grading Scale: The semester grade for this course is based on the weighted average of all assignments using the weights above. The final grade will be based on the following scale:
Grade of A= 90% or above of total points

Grade of B= 80-89% of total points

Grade of C= 70-79% of total points

Grade of D= 60-69% of total points

Grade of F= 59% or below of total
Depending on the performance of the class on all assignments, instructor may “curve grades” by lowering minimum points in the weighted average needed for a particular grade. The curve will never raise the minimum needed for a particular grade.



Course and University Policies



Academic Honesty and Integrity:

The integrity of a university degree depends on the integrity of the work done for that degree by each student. The University expects a student to maintain a high standard of individual honor in all scholastic work (Rules and Regulations of the Board of Regents).

Scholastic dishonesty includes, but is not limited to cheating, plagiarism, collusion, and the submission for credit of any work or materials that are attributable in whole or in part to another person, any act designed to give unfair advantage to a student, or the attempt to commit such acts. Detailed information on scholastic dishonesty along with disciplinary procedures is outlined in the Handbook of Operating Procedures, Part 5, Section 1, and the Student Guide.

Be aware that this course sometimes uses an internet web site designed to detect copying of online papers or parts of one.



All the course assessment activities will be submitted via Assignment Tool. Keep in mind the following standards/practices for submission of assignments:


  1. All course assessment activity files that will be submitted should be in MSWord .

  2. Be sure to put your name at the top of each page header.

  3. Always keep a copy of all the work you submit so that you won’t need to re-do it if it should get lost in cyberspace.


Online Student Authentication:
UTPB requires that each student who registers for an online course is the same student who participates in, completes, and receives credit for the course. UTPB’s Distance Education Policy requires faculty members to employ at least two methods of verification to ensure student identities.  To access online courses students must login to the UTPB learning management system using their unique personal identifying username and secure password.  UTPB’s Distance Education Policy requires at least one additional student identification method within the course that has been determined and approved by the faculty or academic program.  This course satisfies the second method of student authentication by requiring students to take monitored exams where a photo identification presented. The Respondus Lockdown system which monitors students taking exams at their own computers is provided free, but does require students to have a camera with the computer. Students may contact the instructor regarding have exams monitored by another monitoring service such a college testing center, but the student must bear the cost for alternative services and get approval for the specific service at least a week before an exam is open.
The “Start Here” module include links to the instructions on installing and use of Respondus Lockdown and Monitoring. Make sure that this systems works on your equipment. Quiz 1—The Syllabus Quiz requires the use of the Respondus system so you can ensure you can use it without difficulty early in the course and resolve any problems.

Due Dates and Late Submission Policy:
All course activities have due dates set in the course schedule and course calendar. Quiz due dates are set to help you pace yourself through the course. No late penalty will be assessed for quizzes completed after it due date. The last day to complete a quiz is the last day the exam in which the quiz feeds must be completed.
All other course activities must be submitted before or on set due dates and times set in the course schedule and calendar. If a student is unable to abide by the due dates and times, it is her/his responsibility to contact the instructor immediately. There will be a 10% deduction for each day of late submission of the assignments other than quizzes.
NOTE: The due dates and times for the activities will adhere to the Central Time Zone.


  1. Accommodation for Students with Disabilities:

Americans with Disabilities Act: Students with disabilities that are admitted to The University of Texas of the Permian Basin may request reasonable accommodations and classroom modifications as addressed under Section 504/ADA regulations. Students needing assistance because of a disability must contact the Director, Programs Assisting Student Study (PASS) Office, 552-2630, no later than 30 days prior to the start of the semester.


The definition of a disability for purposes of ADA is that she or he (1) has a physical or mental impairment that substantively limits a major life activity, (2) has a record of such an impairment or, (3) is regarded as having such an impairment.
Students who have provided all documentation and are eligible for services will be advised of their rights regarding academic accommodations and responsibilities. The University is not obligated to pay for diagnosis or evaluations nor is it obligated to pay for personal services or auxiliary aids.
If you need accommodations because of a disability, if you have emergency medical information to share with the instructor, or if you need special arrangements in the case the building must be evacuated, please inform the instructor immediately. It is best to contact the instructor after class or during his/her office hours.
Course Incomplete/Withdrawal/Grade Appeal:
All students are required to complete the course within the semester they are signed up. Incomplete grades for the course are rarely given and will only be granted if the student has completed at least 75% of the course with a grade of ‘C’ or better and provides a valid, documented excuse for not being able to complete the course on time and has contacted prior to the scheduled last class to request an extension. The student will sign a contract that includes the incomplete course activities and the new due dates.
For grade appeal process go to http://ss.utpb.edu/dean-of-students/student-grievances/

Tracking:
Canvas course platforms have a tracking feature. This feature quantifies how often and when students are active in the course and also provides information if the student has accessed different pages of the course.

Absenteeism:

All the course activities have set dates to be completed and submitted. After the due dates the activities will not be available for the students. Thus, if you are ill for a prolonged time and cannot complete the activities, you must contact me and update the situation. You are expected to log into the course at least once a week.


If I am going to be out because of ill health, attending a conference, etc. you will be notified through email.



Student Support Services:



SERVICE

CONTACT

ADA Accommodation/Support

Testing Services & Academic Accommodations Department
(432) 552-2630
http://www.utpb.edu/academics/undergraduate-success/TSAAD

Advising

UTPB E-Advisor at http://cas.utpb.edu/academic-advising-center/e-advisor/

Bookstore

(432) 552-0220
http://www.bkstr.com/texas-permianbasinstore/home

Email, Outlook 365, my.utpb.edu

Information Resources Service http://www.utpb.edu/services/ird

Financial Aid and Scholarship

(432) 552-2620
http://www.utpb.edu/campus-life/financial-aid

Library

(432) 552-2370
The J. Conrad Dunagan Library Online at http://library.utpb.edu/

Registrar

(432) 552-2635
http://www.utpb.edu/services/academic-affairs/office-of-the-registrar

Student Services

http://www.utpb.edu/campus-life/dean-of-students

Technical Support

Canvas 1-866-437-0867
https://guides.instructure.com/

Tutoring & Learning Resources

If you are taking courses through UTPB the following links provide services: Smarthinking Online Tutoring (provides tutoring services), SmarterMeasure (measures learner readiness for online course).

http://www.utpb.edu/online/reach/smarthinking-online-tutoring







Hardware/Software Requirements:


Computer:
A minimum of 64 MB RAM, 1 G of free disk space, 150 MHz or higher recommended, a monitor capable of at least 800 x 600 resolution

Peripherals:

You will need external speakers to be able to listen to audio files.


You will need a camera capable of providing live video as part of the Respondus Lockdown exam monitoring system.
Software:

The course content is presented through Microsoft Office 2008 - PowerPoint presentations and Word documents. In order to view the content you must have Microsoft 2008 programs and Acrobat Reader. You are required to submit all the course activities typed in Microsoft Word.


Anti-virus software

This is highly recommended for students and instructors. Online courses involve much file sharing, which increases your risk of computer virus infection. Anti-virus software will help protect your computer in case of exposure to a computer virus.


Other software:

There may be audio/video files in the course for which you will need Windows Media Player or QuickTime or Real Player.


Internet connection:

Recommended - Cable modem, DSL, or intranet (T-1); or 56.6 KBPS modem

Note: Corporate or academic security firewalls may block some course content, such as chat or streaming media. Accommodations for access can usually be arranged if you contact your network administrator, though local security policies ultimately dictate what is allowed. 56 K modem or better


Unsupported Browsers:

America Online (AOL), Prodigy, Juno, MSN, Yahoo and other Internet Service Providers (ISPs), provide their own internal and proprietary web browsers. These browsers may not be compatible with online courses. This is only supported by Firefox, Chrome, or Safari, but not Explorer.


Some late versions of the Apple operating systems have had problems working the Respondus Lockdown Browser and Monitoring System. Please the REACH website link for Respondus for specifications and instructions.



Preparation for Computer Emergencies:


Computer Crash
Not having a working computer or a crashed computer during the semester will NOT be considered as an acceptable reason for not completing course activities at a scheduled time. NOTE: Identify a second computer before the semester begins, that you can use when/if your personal computer crashes. If it crashes during a quiz or examination you should call me or email me via another computer.
Server problems
When the Blackboard server needs downtime for maintenance, the Blackboard administrator will post an announcement in your course informing the time and the date. If the server experiences unforeseen problems your course instructor will send an email.

Complete Loss of Contact
If you lose contact with me completely (i.e. you cannot contact me via Blackboard or email), you need to call me at my office, 432-552-2212, and explain the reason you cannot contact me and leave me a way to contact you.

Lost/Corrupt/Disappeared files
You must keep/save a copy of every project/assignment on an external disk or personal computer. In the event of any kind of failure (e.g., Blackboard server crash or virus infection, students own computer crashes, loss of files in cyberspace, etc) or any contradictions/problems, I may/will request you to resubmit the files. In other words, if you submit a document to me, and I either do not receive it (lost in cyberspace) or it is corrupted when I open it, it is incumbent upon you to resend it to me, corrected, with little or no “downtime” in regard to the timeline for submission.


Canvas or Respondus Problems in Canvas
At the bottom left-hand side of the home screen and most screens is a “? Help” . Clicking on it will link you to the Canvas help desk and many online guides for operating Canvas.



End-of-Course Evaluation & Instructor Evaluation:

Every student is encouraged to complete an end-of-course evaluation/survey provided by UTPB. During the last few weeks of class, you will receive an announcement through email notifying you that the Course/Instructor Survey is available. You may follow the link in the email to complete the survey using the same credentials to access your courses here. When entering the emailed Survey link you will see a list of surveys for you to complete.


The survey is anonymous and you responses are confidential. Your feedback is critical to us and to your instructor as we strive to improve our offerings, and our support of you, the students.


Disclaimer & Rights:

Information contained in this syllabus was to the best knowledge of the instructor considered correct and complete when distributed for use in the beginning of the semester. However, the instructor reserves the right, acting within the policies and procedures of UTPB to make changes in the course content or instructional techniques without notice or obligation. The students will be informed about the changes, if any.


MNGT 4375.794: Strategic Management

Course Schedule—Spring 2018, Second 8 Week Term

Date

Topic

Readings

Activities

March 5

Course Opens







March 5-March 12

Deadline for Quiz 1, 2 & 3 is March 12

Group Discussion Opens on March 5 First Submission by Thursday, March 8

The Discussion Ends March 12




Introductions and Welcome

Lesson 1: What is Strategy


Reading # 1: Porter—“What is Strategy”

Reading #2: Hambrick and Friedrickson. “Are You Sure You Have A Strategy”



Quiz 1—Syllabus Quiz

Quiz 2---MFT Review

Quiz3 on Lesson1

Group Discussion on How Retailers Compete



March 12

Last Day to Drop Without Creating a Record







March 12-19

Deadline for all activities is March 19



Lesson 2: Industry and External Environment Analysis

  • SWOT

  • PESTLE

  • Porter’s Five Competitive Forces

Reading #3: Agarwal, et al. Meta-SWOT: Introducing a New Strategic Planning Tool

Reading #4: Porter: “The Five Competitive Forces That Shape Strategy”




Individual Case Paper: Nintendo Revolution Case

March 20-26

All activities due no later than March 26




Lesson 3: Core Competence and Generic Strategy

Reading #5: Hafeez, et al. “Identifying Core Competence…the source of sustainable competitive advantage”

Reading #6: Tanwar. Porter’s Generic Competitive Strategies.

Reading #7: Chan & Mauborgne. “Blue Ocean Strategy.

Reading #8: Johnson, et al. “Reinventing Your Business Model”




Group Case Paper on Eli Lilly Case

March 24-26

Exam 1







March 27-April 2

First discussion submission is needed by March 30



Lesson 4: Strategy Execution

Reading #9: Collins & Porras. “Building Your Company’s Vision”

Reading #10: Kaplan & Norton, “Using the Balanced Scoreboard as a Strategic Management System”

Reading #11: Neilson. “The Secrets of Successful Strategy Execution.”

Reading #12: Gadiesh & Gilbert. “Transforming Corner-Office Strategy into Frontline Action.”




Quiz 4

Group Discussion: Nike Considered: Getting Traction on Sustainability



March 31

Business Major Field Test Must Be Completed by Midnight March 31








April 3-9

All activities due on April 9



Lesson 5: Strategy Evaluation and Corporate Level Strategy

Reading #13: Mankins, Michael C. and Richard Steele. “Turning Great Strategy into Great Performance”

Reading #14: Why good strategies fail: Lessons for the C-suite”

Reading #15: Hirsh & Rangan. “The Grass Isn’t Greener”

Reading #16: McGahan & Porter. : How Much Does Industry Matter, Really?

Reading 17: Udo-Imeh, et. al.“Portfolio Analysis Models: A Review”


Quiz 5

Individual Paper #2: What’s Driving Porsch?




April 6

Academic Calendar Date: Last Day to Drop







April 10-16

Paper Due: April 16



Lesson 6: Strategy in the Global Environment

Reading #18: Coca-Cola: International Business Strategy for Globalization

Reading #19: International Business Strategy Reasons and Form of Expansion into Foreign Markets.




Group Paper #2: Conexia: Entering the U.S. Market

April 17-23

Discussion Opens on April 16 First Submission should by April 18 and It Closes on April 23



Lesson

Readings #20: Strategic Leadership: The Essential Skills

Reading #21: Who Has the D?: How Clear Decision Roles Enhance Organizational Performance




Group Discussion: Corning Leadership Council

April 22-24

Exam 2







Project due Midnight April 25


Team Term Project

Course Evaluation






Submit Term Project Complete the Course Evaluation

April 27

Course ends







Unless noted otherwise all activities open at 12:01 a.m. on the opening date. All activities are due at 11:59 p.m. on the due date shown.

Course Readings

  1. Porter, Michael E. “What is Strategy?” Harvard Business Review. November-December, 1996

  2. Hambrick, Donald C. and James W. Fredrickson. “Are you sure you have a strategy?” The Academy of Management Executive. Vol. 15, No. 4. Nov 2001; pp. 48-59

  3. Agarwal, Ravi. Wolfgang Grassi, and Joy Pahl. Meta-SWOT: Introducing a new strategic planning tool. Journal of Business Strategy. Vol. 33, No. 2. 2012. Pp. 12-21.

  4. Porter, Michael E. “The Five Competitive Forces That Shape Strategy?” Harvard Business Review. January, 2008.

  5. Hafeez, Khalid, YanBing Zhang, and Naila Malak. “Identifying Core Competence…the source of sustainable competitive advantage. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. 49, No. 1, February 2012. (Adaption—Summary)

http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?arnumber=998083

  1. Tanwar, Ritika. “Porter’s Generic Competitive Strategies” IOSR Journal of Business and Management. Vo. 15, Issues 1. (Nov.-Dec., 2013) pp.11-17.

  2. Kim, W. Chan and Renee Mauborgne. “Blue Ocean Strategy.” Harvard Business Review. October, 2004

  3. Johnson, Mark W., Clayton M. Christensen, and Hemming Kagermann. “Reinventing Your Business Model” Harvard Business Review. December, 2008.

  4. Collins, James C. and Jerry I. Porras. “Building Your Company’s Vision”. Harvard Business Review. September-October, 1996. Pp. 65-77.

  5. Kaplan, Robert S. and David P. Norton. “Using the Balanced Scorecard as a Strategic Management System” Harvard Business Review. July-August, 2007.

  6. Neilson, Gary L., Karla L. Martin, and Elizabeth Powers. “The Secrets to Successful Strategy Execution” Harvard Business Review. June, 2008

  7. Gadiesh, Orit and James L. Gilbert. “Transforming Corner-Office Strategy into Frontline Action. Harvard Business Review. May, 2001.

  8. Mankins, Michael C. and Richard Steele. “Turning Great Strategy into Great Performance” Harvard Business Review. July-August, 2005.

  9. “Why good strategies fail: Lessons for the C-suite” The Economist Intelligence Unit Report. 2013.

  10. Hirsh, Evan and Kasturi Rangan. “The Grass Isn’t Greener” Harvard Business Review. January-February, 2013. 21- 24

  11. McGahan, Anita M. and Michael E. Porter. “How Much Does Industry Matter, Really?” Strategic Management Journal. Vol. 18 (Summer Special Issue) 1997. Pp. 15-30. Boston Consulting Group.

  12. Udo-Imeh, Philip T., William E. Edet, and Rajunor B. Anani. “Portfolio Analysis Models: A Review” European Journal of Business and Management. Vol. 4, No. 18. (2012) Pp 101-120.

  13. Banutu-Gomez, Michael Ba and William G. Rohrer. "Coca-cola: International Business Strategy for Globalization" The Business & Management Review, Vol. 3, Number 1. November, 2012. Pp. 155-169.

  14. Twarowska, Katarzyna and Magdale Kakol. "International Business Strategy Reasons and Forms of Expansions into Foreign Markets". Proceeding of the Knowledge and Learning International Conference. Zadar, Croatia. June 19-21, 2013. Pp 1005-1011.

  15. Schoemaker, Paul J. H., Steve Krupp, and Samantha Howland. “Strategic Leadership: The Essential Skills” Harvard Business Review. January-Februry 2013. Pp. 131-135.

  16. Rogers, Paul and Marcia Blenko. Who Has the D?: How Clear Decision Roles Enhance Organizational Performance.” Harvard Business Review. January, 2006


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