Strand: reading literature



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English Language Arts

Grade 7: Hille Middle School



STRAND: READING LITERATURE

TOPIC: KEY IDEAS & DETAILS

STANDARDS

ASSESSMENTS

RL1. Cite several pieces of textural evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

Summative: Students cite several pieces of textual evidence to support their analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
Example: Students cite several examples of textual evidence from Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry to support their analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
Formative:

  • Determine key vocabulary

  • Apply key vocabulary

  • Analyze text

  • Cite several pieces of evidence

  • Draw inferences


RL2. Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text; provide an objective summary of the text.

Summative: Students determine the theme or central idea of the text. Students analyze and then provide an objective summary of how the theme develops over the course of the text supporting that theme with textual evidence.
Example: Determine the theme of Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry. Analyze the textual evidence and then write an objective summary. Provide textual evidence to support the theme.

Formative:

  • Determine theme

  • Analyze textual evidence

  • Summarize objectively

  • Support summary with evidence

RL3. Analyze how particular elements of a story or drama interact (e.g. how setting shapes the characters or plot).

Summative: Students analyze how playwrights and authors use particular elements of drama and stories (e.g. setting and dialogue) to create dramatic tension in a play.
Example: Students analyze how the playwright Louise Fletcher uses particular elements of drama (e.g. setting and dialogue) to create dramatic tension in her play Sorry, Wrong Number. (CCS, Appendix B)

Formative:

  • Identify story and drama elements (e.g. setting, dialogue)

  • Describe tension created by author

  • Analyze how dramatic tension is conveyed to the reader through the story elements



STRAND: READING LITERATURE

TOPIC: KEY IDEAS & DETAILS

FOUNDATIONAL TEACHER INFORMATION

In the previous grade band, students  were  expected  to  refer  to  the   text  for  confirmation  of  plot  details  and  determination  of  theme.


At seventh grade, the  focus  of  this  topic,  Key  Ideas  and  Details,  is  the  understanding  that   readers  use  tools  to  analyze  literary  text  and  strengthen  their   comprehension  and  critical  thinking  skills.  


  • Readers should  be  able  to   cite  several  pieces  of  textual  evidence  in  order  to  analyze  text.

 

  • When   analyzing  text  or  separating  text  into  parts  for  individual  study,  readers   should  look  at  different  literary  elements  individually  and  identify  their   relationship  to  each  other.  




  • How  the  literary  elements  work  together   (e.g.,  how  setting  influences  plot)  and  how  characters  respond  to  these   elements  is  information  that  readers  should  know  and  monitor  through   their  close  reading  of  the  text.  




  • Readers  analyze  how  the  elements  of   plot  and  setting  affect  characters  and  how  characters  struggle  with  and   resolve  conflicts  throughout  the  plot.  This  analysis  enables  the  reader   to  infer  (draw  a  general  conclusion  from  information  that  is  given)  the   overall  theme  of  the  plot.

In the next grade band, students  are  expected  to  analyze  and   evaluate  textual  evidence  in  terms  of  quality,  understand  that  the   theme  of  a  text  is  influenced  by  literary  elements  and  understand   that  the  author  conveys  his  or  her  message  through  characters.


Enduring Understanding:

Imaginative  texts  can  provide  rich  and  timeless  insights  into  universal  themes,  dilemmas  and  social  realities  of  the  world. Literary  text   represents  complex  stories  in  which  the  reflective  and  apparent  thoughts  and  actions  of  human  beings  are  revealed.  Life shapes   literature  and  literature  shapes  life.




Instructional Strategy: Using Textual Evidence
Making  Predictions  

When  students  are  making  predictions  during  the  reading  of  the  text,  have  them  write  their  predictions  followed  by  information  from  the  text   that  supports  their  ideas.  Students  can  use  a  “What  I  Think  Will  Happen  and  Why  I  Think  So”  format  in  a  double-­‐entry  journal.  Students  must   cite  quotations  and  page  numbers  from  the  text  to  support  their  predictions.    


Webbing  

Have  students  compose  research  questions  about  the  time  period  of  a  piece  of  text,  finding  resources  (print  and  digital)  to  answer  their   questions.  Students  can  enter  their  information  on  a  semantic  web  that  can  be  displayed  on  a  bulletin  board  that  depicts  how  the  events  of  the   time  might  have  shaped  the  plot  and/or  characters  in  the  text.  This  map  can  then  be  used  to  guide  students  in  writing  summaries  of  the  time   period.  

 

Book  Trailer  

After  completing  a  novel,  students  (individually  or  in  small  groups)  design  and  produce  a  book  trailer  for  the  novel.  The  book  trailer  is  like  a   movie  trailer:  an  advertisement  of  the  book  and  a  persuasive  piece  to  entice  other  students  to  read  it.  The  book  trailer  incorporates  technology   because  students  produce  a  video  or  slide  show  with  sound.  The  book  trailer  should  contain  information  such  as  themes,  plot  events,   characters,  settings  and  genres.






STRAND: READING LITERATURE

TOPIC: Craft & Structure

STANDARDS

ASSESSMENTS

RL.4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of rhymes and other repetitions of sounds (e.g. alliteration) on a specific verse or stanza of a poem or section of a story or drama.

Summative: Analyze word choices used by authors and support with evidence how they impact the meaning and tone of the text; include figurative and connotative meanings within the analysis. Include rhyme and repetition of sounds through alliteration.

Example: Students analyze author’s intended word choice in the poem “Jabberwocky.” Support with evidence how the word choice conveys the author’s tone and meaning. Include figurative and connotative examples as well as rhyme and repetition of sounds, like alliteration, in the analysis.
Formative:

  • Define tone

  • Cite examples of word choice contributing to tone

  • Define connotative meanings

  • Cite examples of word choice contributing to connotation

  • Define figurative meanings

  • Cite examples of figurative language

  • Define alliteration

  • Cite examples of alliteration




RL.5. Analyze how a drama’s or poem’s form or structure (e.g. soliloquy, sonnet) contributes to its meaning.

Summative: Support with evidence how a soliloquy contributes to the meaning of a poem or drama.

Support with evidence how the structure of a sonnet contributes to the meaning of a poem.



Example: In the drama “Romeo and Juliet”, find evidence of how the author uses soliloquies and sonnets to convey meaning.

Formative:

  • Define soliloquy

  • Cite textual examples of soliloquies contributing to meaning

  • Define sonnet

  • Cite textual examples of sonnets contributing to meaning

  • Explain how soliloquies and sonnets convey meaning

RL.6. Analyze how an author develops and contrasts the points of view different characters or narrators in a text.



Summative: Analyze how the author develops and contrasts the point of view of different characters in a text.

Example: Analyze how the author develops and contrasts the point of view of different characters in Animal Farm.

Formative:

  • Identify character point of view (perspective)

  • Cite textual evidence to support point of view (perspective)

  • Identify the similarities of the points of view of the characters

  • Identify the differences of the points of view of the characters

  • Compare and contrast how the author develops the two points of view (perspectives)





STRAND: READING LITERATURE

TOPIC: CRAFT & STRUCTURE

FOUNDATIONAL TEACHER INFORMATION

In the previous grade band, students  were  expected  to  know  and   understand  an  author’s  use  of  figurative  language  as  well  as  explain   the  structure  of  a  particular  genre.  Students  also  were  expected  to   know  how  point  of  view  and  language  influence  events  in  text.  



At seventh grade, the  focus  of  this  topic,  Craft  and  Structure,  is  the  understanding  that   the  structure  and  language  of  literary  text  varies  according  to  the  needs   of  the  story.  

  • Different  genres  of  literature  make  use  of  different  text   structures.  Whereas  a  mystery  story  may  withhold  the  plot  narration   until  later  in  the  story,  a  play  may  make  use  of  a  soliloquy  early  on  to   cue  the  reader  into  the  plot.




  •  Readers  analyze  how  the  structure  of  a   drama  or  poem  affects  meaning.  They  use  analytical  skills  as  they   clarify  figurative  and  connotative  meanings  and  analyze  the  impact  of   literary  devices  and  techniques  on  poetry,  stories  and  dramas.  




  • Readers   also  analyze  the  author’s  development  of  the  character’s  or  narrator’s   point  of  view.




In the next grade band, students  are  expected  to  understand  the   impact  of  an  author’s  use  of  language  on  text.  Students  will   determine  how  text  structure  helps  to  develop  and  refine  key   concepts  as  well  as  analyze  and  defend  an  author’s  point  of  view.


Enduring Understanding: Literary  text,  like  all  creative  products,  demonstrates  style  and  craftsmanship.  Readers  can  respond  analytically  and  objectively  to  text  when   they  understand  the  purpose  or  reason  behind  the  author’s  intentional  choice  of  tools  such  as  word  choice,  point  of  view  and  structure.



Instructional Strategy:
Illustrating  Figurative  Language   Students  select  poetic  phrases  from  a  story  or  recording  (e.g.,  Dylan  Thomas’  A  Childhood  Christmas  in  Wales).  Students  examine  the  figurative   language  in  the  poem  including  analogies,  sensory  imagery,  tone  and  mood.  For  example,  Thomas’  story  uses  creative  analogies  and  effective   poetic  phrases  to  create  the  atmosphere  of  his  childhood  in  Wales.  By  creating  illustrations  of  chosen  phrases,  students  can  visualize  the   phrases  in  a  different  medium.  

 

Compare/Contrast  



Have  students  read  two  poems  on  the  same  topic,  one  that  uses  rhyme  and  one  that  is  written  in  free  verse.  Have  students  debate  which  poem   is  most  effective  in  getting  the  ideas  across,  most  pleasing  to  the  ear,  most  fun  to  read,  etc.  Invite  students  to  write  their  own  rhyming  and  free   verse  poetry  pairs  to  share.    
Naming  the  World:  A  Year  of  Poems  and  Lessons  by  Atwell,  Nancy.  Heinemann  Publishing,  2006.   Have  students  read  and  analyze  a  poem,  drama  or  narrative  by  annotating  (highlight,  circle  or  underline)  specific  parts  of  a  piece  (finding   figurative  language,  patterns,  rhymes,  etc.)  indicating  how  these  parts  affect  the  meaning.  Students  work  with  a  partner,  small  group  or   independently  to  analyze  and  annotate,  then  come  together  in  a  large  group  to  share  their  understanding  of  the  meaning.  Frequent  reading  and   annotating  of  literature  to  analyze  is  a  powerful  strategy  to  teach  and  assess  how  craft  and  structure  determine  meaning.    






STRAND: READING LITERATURE

TOPIC: INTEGRATION OF KNOWLEDGE AND IDEAS

STANDARDS

ASSESSMENTS

RL.7.Compare and contrast a written story, drama, or poem to its audio, filmed, staged, or multimedia version analyzing the effects of techniques unique to each medium (e.g., lighting, sound, color, or camera focus and angles in film).



Summative: Compare and contrast the experience of reading, listening to audio, and watching the staged version of a text.
Example: Compare and contrast the experience of reading, listening to audio, and watching the staged version of Romeo and Juliet.
Formative:

  • Cite examples of techniques used during the staging of a play/drama

  • Analyze similarities of the staged and written versions of a play/drama

  • Analyze differences of the staged and written versions of a play/drama

  • Compare and contrast the effects of the techniques used in each medium




Standard 8 is not addressed in literature

RL.9. Compare and contrast fictional portrayal of a time, place, or character and a historical account of the same period as a means of understanding how authors of fiction use or alter history.



Summative: Support with evidence how the author brings to life a historical account through word choice, text structure and use of literary techniques. Support with textual evidence ways in which authors use or alter history for their own purposes.
Example: Students compare and contrast Yep’s fictional portrayal of Chinese immigrants in turn-of-the-twentieth-century San Francisco in Dragonwings to historical account of the same period (using materials detailing the 1906 San Francisco earthquake) in order to glean a deeper understanding of how authors use or alter historical sources to create a sense of time and place as well as make fictional characters lifelike and real. (CCS, Appendix B)
Formative:

  • Compare and contrast fictional and historical accounts of the same event

  • Describe ways the author creates a sense of time and place; support with textual evidence

  • Describe ways authors bring fictional characters to life; support with textual evidence

  • Analyze places where the author alters history; support with textual evidence






STRAND: READING LITERATURE

TOPIC: Integration of Knowledge & Ideas

FOUNDATIONAL TEACHER INFORMATION

In the previous grade band, students  were  expected  to  analyze  how   multimedia  elements  contribute  to  text.  Students  also  were  expected   to  compare  and  contrast  the  treatment  of  similar  themes  and  topics.

 


At seventh grade, the  focus  of  this  topic,  Integration  of  Knowledge  and  Ideas,  is  the   examination  of  the  unique  aspects  of  text  when  comparing  and   contrasting  written  versions  of  text  to  filmed,  staged  or  audio  versions   of  text.
 Author’s  craft  and  style  also  is  a  focus  of  this  topic.  How  an   author  of  a  fictional  account  of  an  historical  fact  makes  that  account   come  to  life  depends  on  word  choice,  text  structure  and  use  of  literary   techniques.

In the next grade band, students  are  expected  to  be  able  to  analyze  a   topic  or  subject  in  two  different  mediums  as  well  as  analyze  how  an   author  transforms  material  in  a  specific  work  (the  Bible  or  a  play  by   Shakespeare).


Enduring Understanding:

Competent  readers  can  synthesize  information  from  a  variety  of  sources  including  print,  audio  and  visual.  Comparing  and  contrasting  text  in  a   variety  of  forms  or  genres  provides  a  full  understanding  of  the  author’s  message/theme  as  well  as  the  ideas  being  explored.




Instructional Strategy: Using Textual Evidence
Writing  Journal   Have  students  rewrite  a  piece  of  historical  fiction  as  a  contemporary  story.  This  can  be  accompanied  by  a  writing  journal  in  which  students   describe  the  ways  they  had  to  change  the  events  and  characters  because  of  the  different  time  period  involved.  Students  should  be  able  to  see   how  authors  of  historical  fiction  use  events  from  the  past  to  reveal  universal  themes  of  the  human  condition.      
A  number  of  interactive  graphic  organizers  can  be  found  at  http://my.hrw.com/nsmedia/intgos/html/igo.htm,  a  professional  website  by  Holt.  In   particular,  a  comparison-­‐contrast  chart  that  can  be  used  for  standard  statement  7  (compare/contrast),  can  be  found  at   http://my.hrw.com/nsmedia/intgos/html/PDFs/Comparison_Contrast_Chart.pdf.  

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