RL1. Cite several pieces of textural evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
Summative: Students cite several pieces of textual evidence to support their analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
Example: Students cite several examples of textual evidence from Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry to support their analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
RL2. Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text; provide an objective summary of the text.
Summative: Students determine the theme or central idea of the text. Students analyze and then provide an objective summary of how the theme develops over the course of the text supporting that theme with textual evidence.
Example: Determine the theme of Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry. Analyze the textual evidence and then write an objective summary. Provide textual evidence to support the theme.
RL3. Analyze how particular elements of a story or drama interact (e.g. how setting shapes the characters or plot).
Summative: Students analyze how playwrights and authors use particular elements of drama and stories (e.g. setting and dialogue) to create dramatic tension in a play.
Example: Students analyze how the playwright Louise Fletcher uses particular elements of drama (e.g. setting and dialogue) to create dramatic tension in her play Sorry, Wrong Number. (CCS,Appendix B)
Identify story and drama elements (e.g. setting, dialogue)
Describe tension created by author
Analyze how dramatic tension is conveyed to the reader through the story elements
In the previous grade band, students were expected to refer to the text for confirmation of plot details and determination of theme.
At seventh grade, the focus of this topic, Key Ideas and Details, is the understanding that readers use tools to analyze literary text and strengthen their comprehension and critical thinking skills.
Readers should be able to cite several pieces of textual evidence in order to analyze text.
When analyzing text or separating text into parts for individual study, readers should look at different literary elements individually and identify their relationship to each other.
How the literary elements work together (e.g., how setting influences plot) and how characters respond to these elements is information that readers should know and monitor through their close reading of the text.
Readers analyze how the elements of plot and setting affect characters and how characters struggle with and resolve conflicts throughout the plot. This analysis enables the reader to infer (draw a general conclusion from information that is given) the overall theme of the plot.
In the next grade band, students are expected to analyze and evaluate textual evidence in terms of quality, understand that the theme of a text is influenced by literary elements and understand that the author conveys his or her message through characters.
Imaginative texts can provide rich and timeless insights into universal themes, dilemmas and social realities of the world. Literary text represents complex stories in which the reflective and apparent thoughts and actions of human beings are revealed. Life shapes literature and literature shapes life.
Instructional Strategy: Using Textual Evidence Making Predictions
When students are making predictions during the reading of the text, have them write their predictions followed by information from the text that supports their ideas. Students can use a “What I Think Will Happen and Why I Think So” format in a double-‐entry journal. Students must cite quotations and page numbers from the text to support their predictions.
Have students compose research questions about the time period of a piece of text, finding resources (print and digital) to answer their questions. Students can enter their information on a semantic web that can be displayed on a bulletin board that depicts how the events of the time might have shaped the plot and/or characters in the text. This map can then be used to guide students in writing summaries of the time period.
After completing a novel, students (individually or in small groups) design and produce a book trailer for the novel. The book trailer is like a movie trailer: an advertisement of the book and a persuasive piece to entice other students to read it. The book trailer incorporates technology because students produce a video or slide show with sound. The book trailer should contain information such as themes, plot events, characters, settings and genres.
STRAND: READING LITERATURE
TOPIC: Craft & Structure
RL.4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of rhymes and other repetitions of sounds (e.g. alliteration) on a specific verse or stanza of a poem or section of a story or drama.
Summative: Analyze word choices used by authors and support with evidence how they impact the meaning and tone of the text; include figurative and connotative meanings within the analysis. Include rhyme and repetition of sounds through alliteration.
Example: Students analyze author’s intended word choice in the poem “Jabberwocky.” Support with evidence how the word choice conveys the author’s tone and meaning. Include figurative and connotative examples as well as rhyme and repetition of sounds, like alliteration, in the analysis.
Cite examples of word choice contributing to tone
Define connotative meanings
Cite examples of word choice contributing to connotation
In the previous grade band, students were expected to know and understand an author’s use of figurative language as well as explain the structure of a particular genre. Students also were expected to know how point of view and language influence events in text.
At seventh grade, the focus of this topic, Craft and Structure, is the understanding that the structure and language of literary text varies according to the needs of the story.
Different genres of literature make use of different text structures. Whereas a mystery story may withhold the plot narration until later in the story, a play may make use of a soliloquy early on to cue the reader into the plot.
Readers analyze how the structure of a drama or poem affects meaning. They use analytical skills as they clarify figurative and connotative meanings and analyze the impact of literary devices and techniques on poetry, stories and dramas.
Readers also analyze the author’s development of the character’s or narrator’s point of view.
In the next grade band, students are expected to understand the impact of an author’s use of language on text. Students will determine how text structure helps to develop and refine key concepts as well as analyze and defend an author’s point of view.
Enduring Understanding: Literary text, like all creative products, demonstrates style and craftsmanship. Readers can respond analytically and objectively to text when they understand the purpose or reason behind the author’s intentional choice of tools such as word choice, point of view and structure.
Instructional Strategy: Illustrating Figurative Language Students select poetic phrases from a story or recording (e.g., Dylan Thomas’ A Childhood Christmas in Wales). Students examine the figurative language in the poem including analogies, sensory imagery, tone and mood. For example, Thomas’ story uses creative analogies and effective poetic phrases to create the atmosphere of his childhood in Wales. By creating illustrations of chosen phrases, students can visualize the phrases in a different medium.
Have students read two poems on the same topic, one that uses rhyme and one that is written in free verse. Have students debate which poem is most effective in getting the ideas across, most pleasing to the ear, most fun to read, etc. Invite students to write their own rhyming and free verse poetry pairs to share.
Naming the World: A Year of Poems and Lessons by Atwell, Nancy. Heinemann Publishing, 2006. Have students read and analyze a poem, drama or narrative by annotating (highlight, circle or underline) specific parts of a piece (finding figurative language, patterns, rhymes, etc.) indicating how these parts affect the meaning. Students work with a partner, small group or independently to analyze and annotate, then come together in a large group to share their understanding of the meaning. Frequent reading and annotating of literature to analyze is a powerful strategy to teach and assess how craft and structure determine meaning.
STRAND: READING LITERATURE
TOPIC: INTEGRATION OF KNOWLEDGE AND IDEAS
RL.7.Compare and contrast a written story, drama, or poem to its audio, filmed, staged, or multimedia version analyzing the effects of techniques unique to each medium (e.g., lighting, sound, color, or camera focus and angles in film).
Summative: Compare and contrast the experience of reading, listening to audio, and watching the staged version of a text.
Example: Compare and contrast the experience of reading, listening to audio, and watching the staged version of Romeo and Juliet.
Cite examples of techniques used during the staging of a play/drama
Analyze similarities of the staged and written versions of a play/drama
Analyze differences of the staged and written versions of a play/drama
Compare and contrast the effects of the techniques used in each medium
Standard 8 is not addressed in literature
RL.9. Compare and contrast fictional portrayal of a time, place, or character and a historical account of the same period as a means of understanding how authors of fiction use or alter history.
Summative: Support with evidence how the author brings to life a historical account through word choice, text structure and use of literary techniques. Support with textual evidence ways in which authors use or alter history for their own purposes.
Example: Students compare and contrast Yep’s fictional portrayal of Chinese immigrants in turn-of-the-twentieth-century San Francisco in Dragonwings to historical account of the same period (using materials detailing the 1906 San Francisco earthquake) in order to glean a deeper understanding of how authors use or alter historical sources to create a sense of time and place as well as make fictional characters lifelike and real. (CCS, Appendix B) Formative:
Compare and contrast fictional and historical accounts of the same event
Describe ways authors bring fictional characters to life; support with textual evidence
Analyze places where the author alters history; support with textual evidence
STRAND: READING LITERATURE
TOPIC: Integration of Knowledge & Ideas
FOUNDATIONAL TEACHER INFORMATION
In the previous grade band, students were expected to analyze how multimedia elements contribute to text. Students also were expected to compare and contrast the treatment of similar themes and topics.
At seventh grade, the focus of this topic, Integration of Knowledge and Ideas, is the examination of the unique aspects of text when comparing and contrasting written versions of text to filmed, staged or audio versions of text.
Author’s craft and style also is a focus of this topic. How an author of a fictional account of an historical fact makes that account come to life depends on word choice, text structure and use of literary techniques.
In the next grade band, students are expected to be able to analyze a topic or subject in two different mediums as well as analyze how an author transforms material in a specific work (the Bible or a play by Shakespeare).
Competent readers can synthesize information from a variety of sources including print, audio and visual. Comparing and contrasting text in a variety of forms or genres provides a full understanding of the author’s message/theme as well as the ideas being explored.
Instructional Strategy: Using Textual Evidence Writing Journal Have students rewrite a piece of historical fiction as a contemporary story. This can be accompanied by a writing journal in which students describe the ways they had to change the events and characters because of the different time period involved. Students should be able to see how authors of historical fiction use events from the past to reveal universal themes of the human condition.
A number of interactive graphic organizers can be found at http://my.hrw.com/nsmedia/intgos/html/igo.htm, a professional website by Holt. In particular, a comparison-‐contrast chart that can be used for standard statement 7 (compare/contrast), can be found at http://my.hrw.com/nsmedia/intgos/html/PDFs/Comparison_Contrast_Chart.pdf.