Spatial Studies 7c: Lecture 6 The Expanded Field



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Spatial Studies 7c: Lecture 6 The Expanded Field

  • Artist examples of Rosalind Krauss’s - “expanded field”
  • Not Landscape Not Architecture
  • B. Conceptual Art/Concept Art/conceptual
  • Lucy Lippard’s Escape Attempts
  • C. The Physical Genius – continuing discussion on creativity in relation to human cognition
  • Running Fence, Jean-Claude and Christo
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S1ta0NaacfY http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nBVpgN4JAsE (Christo, Jeanne-Claude)
  • We’ve seen how Richard Serra creates works that are not inspired by pictorial means. They are inspired by the materials themselves and what they can do in space. (real time and space)
  • RK - notes autonomy of modernist model is limited - (the nomadic modern sculpture, moving from space to space), was not sustainable - the monument - or the sited work comes back
  • “It seems fairly clear that this permission (or pressure) to think the expanded field was felt by a number of artists at about the same time, roughly between the years 1968-70. For one after another Robert Morris, Robert Smithson, Michael Heizer, Richard Serra, Walter De Maria, Robert Irwin, Sol LeWitt, Bruce Nauman… had entered a situation the logical conditions of which can no longer be described as modernist. - another term: post-modernism” RK
  • Robert Morris, Untitled, mirror/wood, 65-71
  • A.

A. Robert Morris, Green Gallery, NY, 1964 “sculpture has entered the full condition of its inverse logic and had become pure negativity” “not landscape not architecture” RK defined by what it is not

Michael Heizer Double Negative, 1969 “marked site” RK

  • A. (Krauss frustrated with art history analysis that tries to make different fields similar.)
  • “The expanded field is (thus) generated by problematizing the set of oppositions between which the modernist category sculpture is suspended.” RK
  • Sculpture is only one part of expanded field.

A.“The expanded field is (thus) generated by problematizing the set of oppositions between which the modernist category sculpture is suspended.” RK

  • A.“The expanded field is (thus) generated by problematizing the set of oppositions between which the modernist category sculpture is suspended.” RK

Michael Heizer Double Negative, 1969

  • A. Michael Heizer – b. Berkeley, 1944
  • briefly attends the San Francisco Art Institute in 1963–64, moves to New York in 1966
  • 1967 Heizer begins creating large Earthworks - California and Nevada.
  • Galerie Heiner Friedrich, Munich, in 1969, he removes 1,000 tons of earth - conical shape Munich Depression
  • Double Negative, a displacement of over 240,000 tons of earth to make two vast incisions opposite one another on the edge of Virgin River mesa, Nevada.
  • continues to work on City, a sculptural complex begun in 1970 - in path of nuclear waste site – now protected status sought

A. Walter De Maria, Mile Long Drawing, Lightening Field testing limits and extents

A. Walter De Maria, Earth Room, 1977

  • An interior earth sculpture.
  • 250 cubic yards of earth (197 cubic meters)
  • 3,600 square feet of floor space (335 square meters)
  • 22 inch depth of material (56 centimeters)
  • Total weight of sculpture: 280,000 lbs. (127,300 kilos)
  • The New York Earth Room, 1977
  • Measurements and weights, as part of content
  • Truth to materials - the ‘real

A. Robert Irwin, (light and space – to be revisited)

A. Nancy Holt Sun Tunnels, Utah Desert

A. Richard Long, Walking a Line in Peru, 1972, A Line in Ireland, 1974

  • My outdoor sculptures are places.
  • The material and the idea are of the place;
  • sculpture and place are one and the same.
  • The place is as far as the eye can see from the
  • sculpture. The place for a sculpture is found
  • by walking. Some works are a succession
  • of particular places along a walk, e.g.
  • Milestones. In this work the walking,
  • the places and the stones have equal importance.
  • (shadow of imperialist past in way he ‘discovers’ places)

A. Richard Long

A. Dennis Oppenheim, Reading Position for Second Degree Burns c1970, Whirlpool

A. Alice Aycock, Maze, 1972 an example of exiting the ‘white cube’ and entering an object in the landscape

A. Mary Miss taken as child to early forts, abandoned mines and Indian sites by father attends UCSB was introduced to minimalist works and land art concepts develops lasting sited works that are accessible to many

A. Christo and Jeanne-Claude

  • “Christo’s Running Fence might be said to be an impermanent, photographic, and political instance of marking a site.” RK
  • Running Fence was 18 feet (5.5 meters) high and 24.5 miles (39.4 kilometers) long. The art project consisted of 42 months of collaborative efforts, 18 public hearings, three sessions at the Superior Courts of California, the drafting of a 450-page Environmental Impact Report and the temporary use of the hills, the sky and the ocean at California's Bodega Bay.

A. Christo and Jeanne-Claude The Gates, 1979-05, Central Park, NY

A. Christo Wrapped Reichstag, Berlin, 1971-95

A. Bruce Nauman corridors, left, Corridor with Mirrors and White Light, rt. Green Light Corridor In Walk with Contrapposto 1968, Nauman filmed himself in a narrow corridor that restricted his movement. Exhibited in its own right the following year, this corridor became the first of many constructions the artist has used to influence the physical and emotional responses of the audience.

A. Bruce Nauman corridors

  • The architectural experience
  • Architecture plus non architecture
  • the abstract conditions of openness
  • and closure
  • Logical rupture with modernism: in two ways: the practice of individual artists and the question of the medium RK
  • Individual practice: artists finding themselves occupying successively different places with the expanded field - art criticism in thrall of modernism views as eclectic (unfocussed, erratic)
  • Medium - modernist demand for separateness and purity of mediums (assuming specialization of practitioner) no longer applies, looking at it differently, movement from one medium to another can be seen as rigorous when the development of the work calls for the change
  • “Postmodernist practice no longer organized around definition of a given medium on the grounds of material, or, for that matter, the perception of material” RK

A. Bruce Nauman, 100 Live and Die, 1986 Self-Portrait as a Fountain Double Steel Cage, 1974

A. Bruce Nauman, Cast of the Space Underneath My Chair, 1965-68, The True Artist Helps the World by Revealing Mystic Truths, 1967

A. Robert Smithson, Cancelled Crop, Asphalt Rundown, Spiral Jetty

  • “The motivation for doing that is not to expand the system. You are not doing it for the sake of the system?” Anthony Robbin
  • “I’m doing it to expose the fact that it is a system, therefore taking away the vaulted mystery that is supposed to reside in it. The artifice is plainly an artifice. I want to de-mythify things.” Smithson (marked site, RK, below)
  • Discusses context of gallery verses outside

A. Robert Smithson, Mirror Displacement, Yucatan, 1969, below, non-site

  • Smithson’s sites and non-sites
  • Yucatan - dematerializing the site through mirrors
  • Non-sites involve measuring/mapping and displacement of matter into gallery
  • Richard Artschwager, Mirror Mirror, Table Table
  • (Pop/minimalism)

A. Robert Smithson, Map of Broken, Clear Glass, (Atlantis), 1969, a hypothesis In discussion with Dennis Oppenheim + Michael Heizer, Smithson says that “art is concerned with limits” including the gallery space. Heizer says it’s the limitations determined by the artist that are important.

A. Robert Smithson Partially Buried Woodshed, 1970 “site construction” RK

  • Robert Smithson, visiting artist in January, 1970, Kent State University, Ohio
  • too cold for 'mud pour' he expected to perform
  • substitute was hastily developed by Smithson and some of the students.
  • Intended as an illustration of entropy, dirt was dumped on an empty shed by a backhoe until the center beam of the wood and stucco structure cracked. Before he left the campus, the piece was officially transferred to the University and valued at $10,000, and Smithson said that he expected the piece to just “go back to the land.”
  • A few months after the piece was “built” the Kent State shootings occurred (where 2 students protesting the Vietnam War were killed by National Guardsmen)
  • “May 4 Kent 70” painted on the woodshed. The lettering, visible from the road and remaining on the shed for years, linked the shed and the “breaking point” of the beam, to the cultural shift that many consider the Kent State shootings to represent.

A. Robert Smithson

  • Partially Buried Woodshed, 1970
  • This event altered the piece contextually – a good example of how a work can change through existing in time.

B. 1968 - Politics and Conceptual art:

  • “The era of Conceptual art - which was also the era of Vietnam, the Women’s Movement, and counter-culture - was a real free-for-all, and the democratic implications of that phrase are fully appropriate, if never realized. ‘Imagine,’ John Lennon exhorted us. And the power of imagination was at the core of even the stodgiest attempts to escape from ‘cultural confinement,’ as Robert Smithson put it, from the sacrosanct ivory walls and heroic, patriarchal mythologies with which the 1960s opened.” Lucy Lippard

Adrian Piper, Catalysis (1970-71), text excerpt from Escape Attempts, Lucy Lippard

  • B. “Although Conceptual art emerged from Minimalism, its basic principles were very different,” stressing its open-ended nature
  • If Minimalism formally expressed “less is more,” conceptual art was about saying more with less. It represented an opening up after Minimalism closed down on expressionist and Pop excesses. As Robert Huot said in a 1977 billboard piece: “Less Is More, But Its Not Enough…
  • “Conceptual art, for me, means work in which the idea is paramount and the material form is secondary, lightweight, ephemeral, cheap unpretentious, and/or “dematerialized.”
  • Sol LeWitt distinguished between conceptual art “with a small c” (e.g., his own work, in which the material forms were often conventional, although generated by a paramount idea) and Conceptual art “with a capital C” (more or less what I have described above, but also, I suppose, anything by anyone who wanted to belong to a movement).”(LL)

B. Sol Lewitt 2005 finding a system -giving directions for wall drawings by phone precursor to digital art - use of algorithm/mathematics

  • B. conceptual art with small c

City space - Mapping image/text Conceptual art with a capital C

  • B. Martha Rosler, The Bowery in Two Inadequate Representational Systems.
  • 24 images, each with one photograph of a street site in New York's Bowery and one list of terms meaning "inebriated." One text lists "soaked, sodden, steeped, soused, etc.", many of them terms transients sitting or lying in the streets would use to describe their condition.
  • Making evident a part of life that most want to ignore
  • The intellect – or idea is paramount.
  • How does this relate to the mind-body dichotomy?

Hans Haacke, MOMA poll

  • Hans Haacke, MOMA poll
  • Question:
  • Would the fact that Governor Rockefeller has not denounced President Nixon's Indochina policy be a reason for you not to vote for him in November ?
  • Answer:
  • If 'yes'
please cast your ballot into the left box
if 'no'into the right box.
  • New York Governor Nelson Rockefeller was a member of the board of trustees of MOMA and planning a run for the U.S. Presidency at the time.
  • B. Joseph Kosuth, One and Three Chairs, 1965,
  • Hans Haacke, Moma Poll, 1970
  • posited this SYSTEM as art: a query, a response algorithm, and its visual feedback, (precursor to digital realm) Conceptual art with big C
  • Objectivity
  • Element of Chance

above, Mierle Ukeles, 1973-74 middle, Carolee Schneeman, Interior Scroll, 1975 right above and below, Adrian Piper, Catalysis (1970-71) expanded field broadens examples of performative conceptual works B.

B. Yoko Ono What I'm trying to do is make something happen by throwing a pebble into the water and creating ripples...I don't want to control the ripples." Yoko Ono (2) INSTRUCTION PAINTINGS
From 1961-2 Yoko Ono made a series of pieces called 'Instruction Paintings'. These were a set of typed instructions (like the one above right) originally in Japanese script but later also in English, exhibited on the wall, just as paintings would be. The apparent absence of images, combined with the instructions of the artist forced the audience to create the work in their imagination. Even the destructive works such as 'Cut Piece', where audience members were invited up on stage to snip pieces off the clothes Yoko wore, allude to a process of self discovery. (iniva)

  • B. Yoko Ono, Cut Piece, 1964, 2003
  • B. Yoko Ono, Cut Piece, 1964, John Lennon + Yoko Ono, War is Over (If You Want It),
  • B. John Lennon + Yoko Ono, War is Over
  • (If You Want It), Bed-in for Peace, 1969
  • Art Performance, political demonstration, public space utilized for public messages, for public good
  • (echoes Tatlin’s desire for art to work for the people)
  • As the Vietnam War raged in 1969, Ono and Lennon held two week-long Bed-Ins for Peace, in Amsterdam and Montreal – non violent protests against war
  • -idea taken from the sit-in

B. Judy Chicago, Dinner Party, 74-79 Eleanor Antin, Carving, A Traditional Sculpture, Yayoi Kusama @ Frieze Art Fair, 1995 feminist works, range from explicit body works to works about love, sex, feminist history

B. Yayoi Kusama, Accumulation 1, 1962, Fireflies on the Water, 2002 (not conceptualism, closer to surrealism many of her works deal with transcendent time and space) suffers from depersonalization syndrome – feels like alien

B. Yayoi Kusama, My Flower Bed & Narcissus Garden, Japan, 1966

  • Immersive environments: loosing oneself, herself, in multiplicity, mirroring, matter – the SELF is subsumed – becomes part of whole

Yayoi Kusama

  • Yayoi Kusama, Soul Under the Moon

B. The expanded field of art – Yayoi Kusama installs her work as an immersive environment – Installation Art In a recent article in your reader, critic Claire Bishop describes the changes that have taken place regarding this term. Branching off from it - Relational Aesthetics in which viewer participates actively (cooking, sewing, singing, etc.), & Interior Design, as well as the artist-curated exhibition. Bishop concludes that at the core of this practice is the desire to activate the viewer. & the best installation art is marked by sense of antagonism towards its environment.

  • Yayoi Kusama, Soul Under the Moon

Physical Genius – having the “affinity for translating thought into action.” Practice, practice, practice Chunks + improvization right sort of personality (failure) imagination – 4 ways to visualize

  • C. What do Wayne Gretsky, Yo-Yo Ma, and a brain surgeon named Charlie Wilson have in Common? Malcolm Gladwell, 1999

Physical Genius – imagination – 4 ways to visualize: 1) generate an image, 2) image inspection,3) image maintenance, 4) image transformation FIND SOMETHING THAT MAKES YOU HAPPY Relate this concept of physical genius to your current project. Relate this concept to contemporary art practice. Is it relevant?

  • C. What do Wayne Gretsky, Yo-Yo Ma, and a brain surgeon named Charlie Wilson have in Common? Malcolm Gladwell, 1999

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rRZR3nsiIeA (Yayoi Kusama 7min.) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S1ta0NaacfY http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nBVpgN4JAsE (Christo, Jeanne-Claude) Art 21 PBS Richard Serra, Kiki Smith, Louise Bourgeois, Bruce Nauman, James Turrell, Andrea Zittel, Eleanor Antin, Janine Antoni, Vija Celmins, Tim Hawkinson, Gabriel Orozco, Martin Puryear, Do-Ho Suh, Krzysztof Wodisczko, Jessica Stockholder, Pierre Huyghe, Sarah Sze, Ai Wei Wei, El Anatsui, Mike Kelley, Doris Salcedo There are many more artists we have mentioned in this class. Which ones are most interesting to you?

  • FINAL:
  • FIND AN ARTIST YOU ARE INTERESTED IN FROM THE SECOND HALF OF THIS COURSE
  • READ, RESEARCH, WATCH VIDEOS
  • YOU WILL HAVE ONE ESSAY QUESTION ON FINAL ABOUT THE ARTIST’S WORK

  • Sarah Sze:
  • http://www.pbs.org/art21/watch-now/segment-sarah-sze-in-balance


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