Sp 137- the History and Politics of the Hispanic World : Colonialism, Imperialism and Nationalism in Spain and Latin America



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SP 137- The History and Politics of the Hispanic World : Colonialism, Imperialism and Nationalism in Spain and Latin America


Semester 2, Year 1

Prerequisite: none


Course Convenor Dr E. Dore,

Lecturers: E. Dore, A. Pozo-Gutiérrez, K. Leimdorfer



Aims and Objectives:

The course will introduce students to the study of colonialism, imperialism and nationalism in Spain and Latin America. We will examine forms of domination and resistance in different historical settings. A particular focus is the causes and consequences of U.S. imperialism in Latin America in the twentieth century.



Course Structure: lectures, seminars and assessments (24 contact hours)

The course consists of one lecture and one seminar each week. Lectures will link the past and the present. They will cover contemporary events, major historical processes and conceptual frameworks for the study of colonialism, imperialism and nationalism. Videos, music and artwork will complement some lectures.



Seminars


In the seminars we will discuss the issues treated in the lectures and the required readings. Students are encouraged to read from among the recommended readings indicated on the syllabus. Where appropriate, lecturers will distribute discussion questions for the seminar sessions. Occasionally we will show videos either in the lecture or the seminar slots, followed by discussion.
Assessments: 1 review of book or article, 1essay, 1 final test, class participation
Book review (500 words) = 10% of final mark. Due Friday 28 March, 4 PM, SML office. Guidelines below.
Essay (1,500 words) = 40% of final mark, due Friday 2 May 2003, 4 PM, SML office. Guidelines and topics for the essays below
Test – in exam week. You can choose among four questions to write two short essays: one on Latin America and one on Spain. 40% of final mark.
Class Participation = 10% of final mark. This assessment is based on students’ participation in seminar discussions.
Required Books:

(available to buy at October Books (stall at Avenue Campus) & in Avenue and/or Hartley Libraries)


John Charles Chasteen, Born in Blood and Fire: A Concise History of Latin America (Norton, 2001)
Stephen Schlesinger and Stephen Kinzer, Bitter Fruit, 2nd edition (Harvard University Press, 1999)
José Alvarez Junco and Adrian Shubert. Spanish History since 1808 (London: Arnold, 2000)
Recommended:

Daisy Rubiera Castillo, Reyita: The Life of a Black Cuban Woman in the Twentieth Century (Latin America Bureau, 2000).


Elisabeth Burgos-Debray, ed., I, Rigoberta Menchú (Verso, 1984)
Subscription to NACLA’s Report on the Americas (best magazine about Latin America). subscription forms available. Web: www.nacla.org
Carr, Raymond. Modern Spain 1875-1980 (Oxford, 1980/2001).
Graham, Helen and Jo Labanyi, Spanish Cultural Studies: An Introduction (Oxford 1995).
Mar-Molinero, Clare and Angel Smith, eds., Nationalism and the Nation in the Iberian Peninsula (Oxford: Berg, 1996).
Schubert, Adrian. A Social History of Modern Spain (London 1990)
NB: Essay titles below are suggestions. Students are encouraged to develop their own essay titles along the lines of their interests. Please consult one of the lecturers if you plan to develop your own essay topic.
Week 1

Lecture: Pre-Colombian World (KL)
Required Reading for seminars in week 2:

Royal Academy Magazine, Aztecs’ Mexico (Special Issue, Winter 2002, No. 77) pp.38-47, pp.63-67

Eduardo Matos Moctezuma and Felipe Solis Olguin, et. al Aztecs (London, Royal Academy of Arts, 2002). Selected text assigned in class.

Dawn Ades, ’Empire of the Glorious Dead,’ Times Literary Supplement (Dec 20, 2002, No. 5202). In Ave & Hartley Libraries & on web www.the-tls.co.uk)


Essay Question: Compare and contrast different interpretations of Aztec practices of human sacrifice.
Further Reading for Essays:

Eduardo Matos Moctezuma and Felipe Solis Olguin, et. al. Aztecs (London, Royal Academy of Arts, 2002).

Inga Clendinnen, Aztecs (Cambridge, 1991).

Richard Townsend, The Aztecs (London, 2000).

G.C. Vaillant, The Aztecs of Mexico. Any edition.

BBC 2 video, Naashtun: A Lost City of the Maya (Friday 17th January 2003



Week 2


Lecture: Spain, 1898 – The End of Empire (APG)
Seminars: Aztecs and Mayan Societies and Cultures

  • Understanding Aztec and Mayan societies

  • Were the Aztec and Maya civilisations violent and blood-thirsty?

  • Analyze Mayan religion, writing and astronomy


Required Reading for seminars in week 4:

Alvarez Junco and Schubert, Introduction and chapter 7.

Geoffrey Jensen, ‘Toward the “Moral Conquest” of Morocco: Hispano-Arabic Education in Early Twentieth-Century North Africa’, European History Quarterly, vol. 31 (2), pp. 205-29. NB: can also be downloaded from http://www-uk.ebsco.com/online/Reader.asp
Essay Question: Assess the social, economic and political significance of the ‘Disaster of 1898’ for Spain.
Further Reading for Essays:

Carr, Raymond, Modern Spain 1875-1980 (1991).

Balfour, Sebastian, The End of the Spanish Empire 1898-1923 (1997).

Blinkhorn, Martin, ‘Spain: The “Spanish Problem” and the Imperial Myth’, Journal of Contemporary History, volume 15 (1980): 5-25.

Graham, Helen and Jo Labanyi, Spanish Cultural Studies: An Introduction (Oxford 1995).

Lannon, Frances and Paul Preston, eds., Elites and Power in 20th Century Spain (Oxford 1990).

Moradiellos, Enrique, ‘1898: A colonial disaster foretold’, ACIS, volume 6, 2 (1993): 33-38.
Week 3

Class Trip to the Aztec Exhibition at the Royal Academy of Arts, London.

Wed. 19 Feb. PM. See SPLAS notice board for details and tickets.
Lecture and Seminars cancelled.

Week 4


Lecture: Conquest and Colonisation of America (ED)
Seminars: Spain, Morocco and Colonialism

  • Read the Jensen article in full and consider what is meant by the following terms: ‘Orientalism’, ‘the Other’, ‘cultural constructions’, ‘imperial ideologies’, ‘national identity’, ‘the New Imperialism’, ‘colonial discourse’, ‘cultural imperialism’, and ‘the cultural approach to conquest’.

  • How can these terms help us to understand the historical relationship between Spain and North Africa?


Required Reading for seminars in week 5: Chasteen, Born in Blood and Fire, pp 16-91.
Recommended: Galeano, Open Veins of Latin America, pp. ix-58.
Essay Question: Drawing on Bernal Díaz and Leon-Portilla, Compare and contrast Spanish and Aztec visions of the Conquest.
Further Reading for Essays:

Bernal Díaz del Castillo, The Conquest of New Spain

Miguel Leon-Portilla, Broken Spears

Charles Gibson, The Aztecs and the Spanish Conquest of Mexico.

Hans Konig, Columbus, His Enterprise

Tzvetan Todorov, The Conquest of America

Tzvetan Todorov, The Morals of History

Week 5


Lecture: The Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) – National and International Perspectives

(APG)


Seminars: How Could it Happen?

  • How and why did a small group of Spaniards overthrow the Aztec Empire?

  • Why did the Conquest set in motion genocide in Latin America?

  • How did Indians resist and accommodate to Spanish domination?


Required Reading for seminars in week 6:

Alvarez Junco and Shubert, chapters 14 and 15.


Richard Herr, chapter 13, ‘Civil War’, in An Historical Essay on Modern Spain (1971).


Video extracts: The International Brigades.

Essay Question: Can the Spanish civil war best be understood as a specifically Spanish war, or as one of many struggles on the European battlefield of the 1930s?



Further Readings for Essays:

Alpert, Michael. A new international history of the Spanish civil war (London 1994).

Brennan, Gerald. The Spanish Labyrinth (1937).

Carr, Raymond. The Spanish Tragedy. The civil war in perspective. (1977).

Eisenwein, George and Adrian Shubert. Spain at War: The Spanish Civil War in Context (1995).

Preston, Paul. The Coming of the Spanish Civil War (2nd ed., 1994).

Preston, Paul. A Concise History of the Spanish Civil War (1996).

Preston, Paul, ed. Revolution and War in Spain (1984).


Recommended:

Loach, Ken, Land and Freedom (film available at the Avenue Library)

Orwell, George, Homage to Catalonia, (London 2000)
Week 6 (ED)

Lecture: Modernizing Mexico (ED)
Seminars: Spain Splits in Two


  • What were the long- and short-term causes of the civil war?

  • Who were the major players in the war, and how did they effect its course and outcome?


Required Reading for seminars in week 7: Chasteen, Born in Blood and Fire, pp 93-243.
Essay Question: Analyze the nature of the Mexican Revolution. Was it part of a capitalist transition? a nationalist/anti-imperialist movement? Or was it just a great rebellion?
Further Reading for Essays:

Alan Knight, ‘The Mexican Revolution: Bourgeois? Nationalist? Or just a Great Rebellion?’ Bulletin of Latin American Research, 4:2 (1985) 1-37.

John Tutino, From Insurrection to Revolution in Mexico (Princeton UP)

John Womack, Jr., Zapata and the Mexican Revolution

Daniel Nugent, ed., Rural Revolt in Mexico: U.S. Intervention and the Domain of Subaltern Politics (Duke UP, 1998).

Friedrich Katz, ed., Riot, Rebellion and Revolution: Rural Social Conflict in Mexico (Princeton Univ. Press, 1988).



Week 7- APG

Lecture: The Exile of the Spanish Civil War (APG)



Seminars: The Mexican Revolution

  • Analyze conditions in late 19th century Mexico that gave rise to the Mexican Revolution?

  • Evaluate the politics of the Mexican Revolution.

  • To what extent did things change and/or stay the same in Mexico after the Revolution?


Required Reading for seminars in week 8:

Bell, Adrian, Three Months Only – Basque Children in Exile (Norwich 1996) (selected chapter)

Kushner, Tony and Knox, Katherine, Refugees in an age of genocide: global, national and global perspectives during the Twentieth Century (London 1999) (chapter 4).

Díaz, Amador, Recollectionsof the Basque Children’s Camp at North Stoneham, Eastleigh (text) (TBC pending copy rights authorisation)



Essay Question: Considering the nature of the political regime that Franco imposed, discuss the reasons why so many Spaniards felt that they had to go into exile.



Further Readings for Essays:

Grugel, Jean. Franco’s Spain. (1997).

Payne, Stanley. The Franco Regime (Madison 1987).

Preston, Paul. The Politics of Revenge: Fascism and the military in 20th century Spain. 2nd ed. (1985).

Richards, Michael. A time of silence: civil war and the culture of repression in Franco’s Spain (Cambridge 1998).

Week 8 – APG

Lecture: Spain Under Franco (1939-1975) – Nationalism and Imperial Nostalgia (APG)



Seminars: Spanish Refugees

  • What groups were evacuated or had to go into exile as a consequence of the Spanish Civil War?

  • Where did Spanish exiles and evacuees find refuge? Under what conditions?

  • What were the long-term consequences of this exile for Spain and for the receiving countries?


Required Reading for seminars in week 9:

Alvarez Junco and Shubert, chapters 16-18.

‘Foreign Policy’ in Spain (Spanish Information Service, 1972) – excerpts to be distributed in class.

Essay Question: What was ‘National Catholicism’ and how did it define the Franco regime?



Further Readings for Essays:

Ellwood, Shellagh. Spanish Fascism in the Franco Era (1987).

Ellwood, Shellagh, Franco. (1994).

Grugel, Jean. Franco’s Spain. (1997).

Payne, Stanley. The Franco Regime (Madison 1987).

Preston, Paul. The Politics of Revenge: Fascism and the military in 20th century Spain. 2nd ed. (1985).

Preston, Paul, ed., Spain in Crisis: the evolution and decline of the Franco Regime (Harvester Press 1976).

Richards, Michael. A time of silence: civil war and the culture of repression in Franco’s Spain (Cambridge 1998).


Begin reading for week after Spring break:

Schlesinger and Kinzer, Bitter Fruit (entire book).
**EASTER BREAK**
Week 9- (ED)

Lecture: Guatemala: Imperialism and Indian Oppression (ED)
Seminars: Franco Spain and the World

  • Compare the chapter on ‘Foreign Policy’ from a book published in English by the Franco regime in the 1960s, with the assigned chapters from Alvarez Junco and Shubert.

  • What does the ‘Foreign Policy’ chapter tell you about how the Franco regime wanted outsiders to perceive Franco’s Spain?

  • How does this desired view differ from the historical views of Francoism offered in the chapters in Alvarez Junco and Shubert?


Required Reading for seminars in week 10: Schlesinger and Kinzer, Bitter Fruit (entire book).
Recommended:

Elisabeth Burgos-Debray, ed., I, Rigoberta Menchú (Verso, 1984)

Eduardo Galeano, Open Veins of Latin America (Latin America Bureau, 1997)
Essay Question: Analyse the political motivations for US intervention in Guatemala in 1954: Some writers argue that the US intervened in Guatemala in 1954 to avert communism; others that rescue of the United Fruit Company was the prime mover of U.S. intervention; yet others explain U.S. imperialism in Guatemala within a wider political enterprise. Develop your interpretation of the causes of ‘Operation Success.’
Further Readings for Essays:

Essay must explicitly demonstrate use of at least 3 readings in addition to Bitter Fruit.
Gilbert Joseph, Catherine Legrand and Ricardo Salvatore, eds., Close Encounters of Empire (Duke U Press, 1998)

‘Imperialism: A Useful Category of Historical Analysis,’ Radical History Review, 57 (Fall 1993), 1-84.

Amy Kaplan and Donald Pease, eds., The Cultures of U.S. Imperialism (Duke UP, 1993).

Greg Grandin, The Blood of Guatemala: A History of Race and Nation, (Duke Univ. Press, 2000).

Steve Striffler, In the Shadows of the State and Capital: The United Fruit Company, Popular Struggle, and Agrarian Restructuring in Ecuador 1900-1955 (Duke UP, 2001)

Michael McClintock, The American Connection: State Terror and Popular Resistance in Guatemala (Zed, 1985).


Week 10 (APG)

Lecture: From Dictatorship to Liberal Democracy (APG)
Seminars: Why Did the US Overthrow Guatemala’s Democratic Regime in 1954?

  • Why is the decade from 1944 to 1954 called ‘the reform decade’ in Guatemala?

  • Would it be more accurate to call it ‘the revolutionary decade’?

  • Analyze the causes and consequences of U.S. intervention in Guatemala in 1954.


Required Reading for seminars in week 11:

Alvarez Junco and Shubert, part V, chapter 19.

Montero, Rosa, ‘Political Transition and Cultural Democracy: Coping with the Speed of Change’ in Graham, Helen and Jo Labanyi, eds. Spanish Cultural Studies: An introduction (Oxford 1995), pp. 315-320.
Essay Question: How was Spain finally able to move peacefully from a dictatorship to a democratic regime during the 1970’s?
Further Reading for Essays:

Carr, Raymond & Fusi, Juan Pablo. Spain: Dictatorship to Democracy. (London 1981).

Hooper, John. The New Spaniards (London 1995).

Preston, Paul The Triumph of Democracy in Spain (1986).

Preston, Paul, ed., Spain in Crisis the evolution and decline of the Franco Regime (Harvester Press 1976).
Week 11 (ED & KL)

Lecture: The Cuban Revolution (ED)
Seminars: The Transition


  • Examine how a democratic regime was established and consolidated in Spain during the 1970’s and 1980’s.

  • Assess the social and cultural changes brought about by the establishment of democracy in Spain.


Required Reading for seminars in week 12: Chasteen, pp. 245-301.
Recommended:

Daisy Rubiera Castillo, Reyita: The Life of a Black Cuban Woman in the Twentieth Century (Latin America Bureau, 2000).

Galeano, Open Veins, pp 173-261.
Essay Question: Reyita said, ‘Afro-Cubans have come a long way [within the Cuban Revolution], but there’s still a long way to go.’ Discuss her statement in relation either to Afro-Cubans or women.
Further Reading for Essays:

Daisy Rubiera Castillo, Reyita: The Life of a Black Cuban Woman in the Twentieth Century (Latin America Bureau, 2000).

Susan Eckstein, Back from the Future: Cuba Under Castro (Princeton University Press).

Alejandro de la Fuente, A Nation for All: Race, Inequality and Politics in Twentieth Century Cuba (Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Press, 2001).

Pedro Pérez Sarduy and Jean Stubbs, eds., Afrocuba (Latin America Bureau, 1993)

Week 12


Final lecture and discussion: Spain and Liberal Democracy – Regionalism, Europeanization, Globalization – 1992 and beyond (APG)

  • Why were most Spaniards in 1992 more interested in celebrating their future with Europe than their history with Latin America?

  • How important a role does nationalism play in Spain today?

  • What groups are still marginalised in democratic Spain?


Seminars: Evaluate the social consequences of the Cuban Revolution.

  • In light of U.S. intervention in Guatemala in 1954, why did leaders of the Cuban Revolution turn to armed struggle?

  • Was the Alliance for Progress a reaction to the Cuban Revolution? Was it successful in meeting its objectives?

  • Analyze the strengths and weaknesses of the Cuban Revolution.


Essay Question: To what extent - and for whom - has democracy been a ‘triumph’ in Spain?
Required Reading prior to final lecture:

Alvarez Junco and Shubert, chapters 20-21.

Graham, Helen and Antonio Sanchez ‘The Politics of 1992’ in Graham, Helen and Jo Labanyi, eds. Spanish Cultural Studies: An introduction (Oxford 1995), pp. 406-418.

Morgan, Tony. ‘1992: memories and modernities’ in Barry Jordan and Rikki Morgan-Tamosunas, eds., Contemporary Spanish Cultural Studies (London: Arnold 2000), pp. 58-67.



Further Readings for Essays:


Brooksbank Jones, Anny. Women in Contemporary Spain (Manchester 1997).

Conversi, Daniele. The Basques, the Catalans and Spain: Alternative Routes to Nationalist Mobilization (London 1997).

Heywood, P. The Government and Politics of Spain (London 1995).

Hooper, John. The New Spaniards (London 1995).

Sullivan, John. ETA and Basque Nationalism: the Fight for Euskadi (London 1988).
Guidelines for Book Review:

For this assignment you must write a review of approximately 500 words of a book that relates to a Latin American or Spanish topic that is relevant to the course. The review should provide a critical evaluation of the book. The following checklist should provide you with some guidelines as to what you should include:


-brief summary of the content

-outline of arguments and conclusions drawn in it

-background and perspective of the writer (are they ‘insiders’ to the subject matter or well-known experts in the field; historians; first-hand witnesses of events; travel writers, etc)

-comment on the style and accessibility of the writing and the likely response of the audience

-compare with other books that you have read adding any further relevant information that you know about the topic

-agree or disagree with the conclusions


Guidelines for Essays:

Research for your essay should include some of the recommended readings for your topic. Wider research in books and journals is likely to improve your grade.



Your essay should present the main debates on the topic and sustain a clear argument. You should assess different interpretations and come to some conclusion, however tentative, about the strengths and weaknesses of different views. In so far as possible, treat theoretical or analytical issues in your essay. Do not regard your essay as a narrative of 'what happened', though a presentation of this material should form part of your background material. Essays should be competent analytical reviews. While I do not expect you to make original contributions, all efforts to do so, however modest, will be highly appreciated. Both the argument and the style of presentation are important, as is the use of correct sentence structure, grammar and spelling.
Please write your assignments on a word processor and be sure to keep a copy of both.
BOTH ASSIGNMENTS MUST HAVE CITATIONS AND A BIBLIOGRAPHY IN AN ACCEPTED FORMAT. If in doubt about citation formats sign up for a study session with Dilly Fung and/or consult the Chicago Manual of Style.









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