Socials 11: Provincial Exam Review Preparation Essay Component



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Socials 11: Provincial Exam Review Preparation
Essay Component

· The following sections make up your course and what has been covered and    needs to be reviewed by you in order to be successful on the exam June 20th 


· This review is intended for you to be successful on the essay component of this exam
· Please note that essay questions may be formulated using differing language techniques. I will try at the end of each section to give you a couple of alternative ways of writing the question. The end result should the same support necessary to answer the following question
· After each question, I will write a possible OUTLINE of the events, concepts, people, etc that you need to cover in order to successfully answer this question. 
· An answer key of possible point form notes will be available during exam week.

UNIT ONE: Politics and Government

Question 1: Explain how federal and provincial governments are formed in Canada

Possible response may include:


· Steps to our election process ( from campaigning to tabulation)
· Our electoral system ( First Past the Post, Proportional, BC initiative- single transferable vote) and how it works

Question 2: Explain carefully how a bill becomes a law in the Canadian Parliamentary 


System

· Go through the steps of bill passage in both houses

Question 3: Describe the Canadian election system from the time an election is called 
Until the end of the Election Day

· This question is exactly the same as question 1

Question 4: Describe the major provisions of the Canadian Constitution including the 
Charter of Rights and Freedoms, and assess its impact on Canadian Society

· Division of Powers ( S.91 and S.92) and how this works to balance government and work for Canadians and creates the two levels of Government


· The Charter and how it represents our rights and how this is entrenched in our Constitution and mention the problems with its precursor, The Bill of Rights, 1960 and how it was a statute only
· Do a rundown of the major sections including the main rights and Freedoms including:
· Fundamental Freedoms       - legal rights
· Democratic Rights     - minority language rights
· Mobility Rights     - equality rights

· Discuss the Charter’s impact both positive and negative

Positive: our rights are entrenched and protected by the Constitution
They cannot be arbitrarily changed or taken away by Parliament (amending 
Formula—Aspects of the Constitution can be amended with the support of the federal parliament plus 7 provinces that represent more than 50% of the Canadian population)
Enforced by the Supreme Court of Canada 
We have rights that cannot be taken away
Gender and age equality is vital (s.15)

Negative: our rights are not absolute if they violate laws (S.1) It is the courts job to


Decide which violation is acceptable
Notwithstanding clause

POSSIBLE ALTERNATE QUESTION MAY BE:

Describe how the Charter of Rights and Freedoms has had an impact on Canadian Society

UNIT 2: Human Geography

Question 1: Explain the significance of changes in world population with reference to 
- Population pyramids—An inverted bar showing population data as cohort groups (age-sex
groups) expressed as a % of the region’s total population
- Distribution
- Density
- Demographic transition models—A model used to analyze and understand population 
    numbers and chart population change

· Define each of these terms and relate the significance of each to world population changes


· Can bring up case studies such as China’s one child policy

Question 2: As the 20th century begins, population growth rates have stabilized around 


The world.  Evaluate this statement.
· You may discuss the same items as question 1 but also include:
- improved technology, family planning, increase resource base, improved literacy rates, and opportunities for women

Question 3: Describe Canada’s and Canadian’s role in attempting to solve poverty problems in developing nations.


Same information as question 

Question 4: Global warming is the most important environment issue facing the world today. Evaluate this statement and describe Canada’s response to this issue

Same info as question 6 but focussed only on global warming

Question 5: Compare Canada’s standard of living with those of developing countries with reference to poverty, and key indicators of human development

** This question is similar to question 3

Discuss and explain the purpose of the HDI and the PQLI


Examine the key indicators of human development (GDP, education rates, fertility rates, 
Literacy rates, life expectancy rates, infant mortality rates, and impact of disease on 
Society)
How does Canada’s foreign policy work in relation to aid? What do we give and how do we
give it? 
What is our international aid objectives and program?
The role of CIDA and the Official Development Assistance program (ODA)
Role of non governmental organizations such as OXFAM
Role of World Health Organization in relation to this question
Importance of bilateral, multilateral, and tied aid
The value of debt reduction for these countries
Women and children

Question 6: Assess environmental challenges facing Canadians including global warming, ozone depletion, and fresh water quality and supply


· Define and discuss the impact of each of these environmental concerns. Assess what is


being done and what could be done as well
· You may also include what is being done (possible solutions) to solve these challenges( ie: Kyoto Accord, Montreal Protocol and CCF’s)

Unit 3: Autonomy and International Involvement


Question 1: Describe Canada’s evolution as a political autonomous nation

Halibut Treaty, WW1 ( battles, homefront efforts),League of Nations, Paris Peace Conference, Statute of Westminster, 1931, King-Byng Affair, WW2 (arsenal for democracy, evolution of the Canadian Flag and anthem, UN participation and Middle power, NATO, Peacekeeping and UNEF ( the major missions and Canada’s contributions)

Possible other ways to express this same question include:

a. Between 1914 and 1931, Canada moved from colonial status to independent nationhood. Evaluate the accuracy of this statement.
- Note that this question ends with the Statute of Westminster. Therefore, to answer this question you can only mention the period before it (WW1, 1920s, and ending with the Statute of Westminster)

B. “During the twentieth century, even though Canada was under the powerful influence of Britain and the USA, the country became and remains an independent nation.” Evaluate the accuracy of this statement using examples from throughout the twentieth century.


- Note that the only difference here is that you must include autonomy or 
  Events that separate us from the US 
- This relationship is both positive and negative
POSITIVE: Korea, NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization 1949—defend Western 
Europe against any possible Soviet invasion) , NORAD (North American Air Defence Command 1957)

NEGATIVE: Vietnam, Cuban Missile Crisis, recognition of Chinese communism

Question 2: To what extent between 1939 and 1970 did Canada evolve from being an 
Insignificant nation to a middle power?

· This seems like question one and you may use some of the information from question 1 but your focus years are different.

Question 3: Evaluate to what extent Canada has helped the UN achieve its goal since 
1945

· Set up the UN Charter (Humphries), Canada seat in the security council 


· Suez Crisis (Pearson and creation of UNEF, peacekeeping force)
· Human Rights:  Refugees
· Peacekeeping missions that resulted in peace
· War in Iraq, War on terrorism
· Foreign aid, CIDA (Canadian International Development Agency 1968)—promotes sustainable development in developing countries,  and Canada’s involvement in UN organizations

Question 4: To what extent did Canada help the Allies achieve victory during the Second


World War?
· Canada declares war 1 week after Great Britain ( as an independent nation, not a colony)
· Promise of no conscription
· Commonwealth Air Training Plan—pilots were trained in Canada
· Convoys—Supplies to Great Britain and Russia; U-boat menace—Battle of Atlantic
· Hong Kong
· Dieppe
· RCAF (Royal Canadian Air Force)—bombing raids over Europe
· Invasion of Sicily and Italy—Battle of Ortona
· D-Day—Juno Beach
· Liberation of Holland
· Home front:
- Problem of conscription—more soldiers are needed, but there is a decreasing no. of volunteers and rising casualties—zombies
- War bonds to pay for the war
- Food rationing
- Women in industries
- National resources Mobilization Act (NRMA)—total war effort
- Total war—C.D. Howe
- War Measures Act
- Japanese-Canadians were sent to internment camps
- Family allowance—Unemployment insurance
- Aid for returning soldiers—loans, university
- Mackenzie King= wartime Prime Minister
- Ogdensburg Agreement—U.S. will defend Canada if attacked
- Hyde Park Agreement

Question 5: Assess Canada’s participation in World War One and the War’s impact? 

This question could also be asked towards the second World War OR
They could ask you to assess Canada’s role in BOTH wars.
This question could also be formulated to ask you to ”assess the war’s impact
On the homefront.
This question could also be formulated to ask you to assess the “military” 
Assistance Canadians gave during the war or wars

Possible answer/key concepts:


· Canada was automatically at war since it was a British colony
· Borden was the Prime Minister, and Laurier was the leader of the opposition
· Borden wanted to keep all Canadian Units together- Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF)- Volunteer army formed in 1914 after the outbreak of the war. By 1917, it was known as the Canadian Corps
· Battles developed Canadian pride, i.e. Ypres, Somme, Vimy Ridge, Passchendaele. The last 100 days of WW1 when the allies were attacking and the Germans were retreating, that Canadians distinguished themselves. This is called the 100 Day Campaign
· Arthur Currie, Canadian General, takes over Canadian Corps after Vimy Ridge
· Canada was a member of the Imperial war Cabinet
· Almost all Canada’s casualties (over 60,000 dead) came in fighting on Western Front in France and Belgium, i.e. Trench warfare
· For a small country (10 million), Canada contributed over ½ million men
· Canada signs the Paris Peace Settlement also known as the Treaty of Versailles as a separate nation
· Canada joins the League of Nations—formed in 1919. Chief advocate was President Wilson of the United States. 
· Canada by the end of the war has moved away British control. Although it was still a colony, there was a greater feeling of being Canadian first, British, second
· John McRae—In Flander’s Fields (poem)
· Billy Bishop—a war hero who served in the Royal Flying Corps during WW1, and became Canada’s greatest ace. He shot down 72 German planes. Won the Victoria Cross for valour
· Home front:
- Conscription split country—Military Service Act
- Union of government—Laurier and Liberals from Quebec refused to join
- Halifax explosion 1917—caused by collision of the Imo and the munitions ship
- Canada produced war materials
- Women in labor force—women had the right to vote
- Income tax
- Henri Bourassa was against war
- War Measures Act
- Some enemy aliens were interned
- Nationalism grows with Canadian victories
- Rationing

Question 6: Assess Canada’s participation in world affairs with reference to 


- Human rights, United Nations, Cold War, modern conflicts
· Member of the League of Nations in 1919
· Member of the U.N. 1945—goal is to maintain peace
· Pearson’s idea of mobilizing the U.N. Peacekeeping force to solved the Suez Crisis made him win the Nobel Peace Prize
· Canada contributed in to the U.N. army in the Korean War—naval/military forces at the Kap Y’ong battle
· Peace-keeping role through U.N. in: Cyprus, Haiti, East Timor, Somalia, Bosnia, Gulf War, Rwanada
· Colombo Plan— 1950s, built factories and infrastructure in Pakistan, India, and Sri Lanka(Commonwealth countries)
· Role in NORAD (North American Air Defence Command 1957)
· Role in NATO(North Atlantic Treaty Organization 1949—defend Western 
Europe against any possible Soviet invasion) 
· Cold War alliances
· Avro Arrow—A state-of-the-art fighter plane developed for the Royal Canadian Air Forces (RCAF) during the 1950s
· DEW line—Distant Early Warning Line—built across the Canadian Arctic during 1950s to detect surprise Soviet attacks 
· Bomarc missiles—An American defensive missilge deployed by Canadian forces during the 1960s
· Role through NATO in Afghanistan
· Refusal to send troops to Iraq unless it was passed by the U.N.
· Foreign aid—CITA, Ties Aid

Unit 4: Society and Culture


Question 1: To what extent did Canada become a more tolerant society during the 


Twentieth Century?

· At the turn of the century, Canada had allowed immigrants in (recall Clifford Sifton’s open door policy) 


· Discrimination ensued ( Chinese Head tax, Komogata Maru, enemy aliens, Japanese internment, SS St. Louis and Jewish immigration
· Aboriginal discrimination: Indian Act, Residential Schools, reservation system
· After World War Two, Canada became more tolerant
· Helped write the UN Human Rights Charter; led the way in this capacity. Amended its refugee status policies and allowed Jewish refugees into the country
· The Charter of Rights and Freedoms
· Multicultural Act (1982) and minority rights in the Charter. 
· Mosaic versus melting point 

Question 2: Describe the evolution of Canada’s social safety net from the 1920s to the


Present, and assess its success

· Same as question #3 except in relation to social programs ONLY


Question 3: Assess the development and impact of Canadian social policies and programs 


Related to immigration, the welfare state, and minority rights
· Development of Canadian social programs, immigration, welfare state, minority rights
1. Social programs and welfare state:
- Old age pension was the idea of the 1927 Progressive Party—Liberals implement the program
- Hardship of Great Depression—soup kitchens, relief payments ( Government issued food vouchers to those who could prove they owned nothing of value) ,  work camps (set up in isolated areas so that unemployed men would have somewhere to live and work) 
- Unemployment Insurance 1940 
- Family Allowance 1944 
- Medicare in Saskatchewan—Tommy Douglas, CCF (Cooperative Commonwealth Federation)—social democratic party formed in 1932, then in rest of Canada under Liberals Pearson 1965 
- Bill of rights 1961—Basic rights of Canadian federal government—Diefenbaker conservative 
- Welfare, workers’ compensation 
- Charter of Rights and Freedoms—in constitution signed by federal government (Trudeau) and provinces. It outlined the rights of individuals, equality before the law regardless of race or religion
2. Immigration and treatment of Minorities
- Laurier, Clifford Sifton, are immigrants from Europe settle in the prairie
- Komagata Maru, head tax on Chinese, quotas on Japanese—no vote until late 1940s
- Restrictions on the Chinese—Poll tax, and Japanese immigrants
- Anti-Semitism—St. Louis boat not allowed to enter
- Internment of the Japanese during WW2
- Indian Act—Assimilation of Aboriginal peoples, residential schools, poverty, restriction on voting 
- Trudeau—Multiculturalism Act 1988 Mulroney
- Color blind immigration under Pearson 1960s
- Immigration Act Trudeau—made it easier for family members

Question 4: Explain economic cycles with reference to the Great Depression and the 


Labour Movement in Canada

This question could also simply be for you to assess the impact that the Great Depression had on Canada and its social and labour movements of today.

· Relate economic poor times (depression or recession) to the development of labor movements, i.e. One big union after WW1, Winnipeg General Strike 1919—at the end of WW1, started off with building and metalworkers who walked off the job and demanded for higher wages, “On to Ottawa Trek” 1935—people from relief camps attempted to go to Ottawa by train to protest against camp conditions
· Describe effects of the Great Depression, i.e. Unemployment 1/5 of labor force, relief, work camps, development of new parties—Social Credit, CCF—Cooperative Commonwealth Federation 1932, Union nationale—Founded by Maurice Duplessis 1930s, Reconstruction Party, soup kitchens, King Five-cent speech 1930 election loss, Bennett 1935 election loss, Ottawa conference, Riding the rods (rails)
· After-effects: UIC 1940, Family Allowance 1944

Question 5: Describe the role of women in terms of social, political, and economic change 


In Canada
· Right to vote
· Famous Five women’s case—women as persons
· First female MP (Agnes Macphail was the first woman ever to be elected to the House of Commons)  and magistrate (1916, Emily Murphy became the first woman judge in the British Empire)
· Pay and employment equity
· First female Prime Minister
· Female members of armed forces, police, fire departments, etc

Question 6: Assess the impact of the Conscription Crisis, Quebec nationalism, 


Bilingualism, and regionalism on Canadian Identity.
· Quebec and Canada
- Conscription in both world wars
- Boer War Support
- Quiet revolution—“Maitres chez nous “, slogan of Liberal party during 1962 election. It meant to strengthen Quebec’s control of its economy by encouraging more French participation in business activities 
- October Crisis—FLQ (Front de la liberation de Quebec) 1970, members of the FLQ kidnapped James Cross in Montreal and demanded release of jailed FLQ members. Pierre Laporte was killed. 
- Parti Quebecois— Seperatist party formed Rene Levesque in 1970
- Commission on bilingualism and biculturalism—when Pearson was Prime Minister
- Official Languages Act—passed by Trudeau in 1969 
- Bill 101—Rene Levesque and Parti Quebecois in 1977, which made French the only official language in Quebec
- Referendum (Province-wide vote on a specific issue)  1980—Sovereignty association
- Repatriation of constitution—amending formula—notwithstanding clause ( allows governments to pass a law that violates a specific freedom under the Charter of Rights and Freedoms)—Quebec didn’t sign 
- Meech Lake Accord 1987 by Mulroney (attempt to satisfy the constitutional demands of the Quebec government), Charlottetown Accord 1992 (amend the constitution in Canada, main provisions were to accept Quebec as a distinct society, recognize Aboriginal self-government)
- Bloc Quebecois—Luckien Bouchard separatist party
- Referendum 1995—Lucien Bouchard
- Clarity bill—Chretien government
· Regionalism ( a concern for the affairs of one’s own region over those of the country)
- Quebec language culture separatist parties, i.e.  ‘‘maitres chez nous”
- Western Canada—growth of Progressive Party after WW1, Social credit, Cooperative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) in 1930s, Reform Party 1990s (later became the Alliance party)
- Have no provinces
- National energy policy and Alberta

Question 7: Discuss the relationship between English and French Canadians during the Twentieth century

- Note this question may come in many different formats but you will
  will use the same notes to answer it

Question 8: Discuss the challenges faced by Aboriginal people in Canada during the 


Twentieth Century. 
· Describe the impact of the Indian Act on the Aboriginal people (i.e. Marginalization and dependency) 
· Describe the impact of residential schools on Aboriginal people
· Identify various Aboriginal responses to challenges (i.e. negotiation, protests—Oka Confrontation (Began over a decision by the Oka Town Council to expand a golf course into Mohawk land) , Court cases delgam
· Demand for self-government by Nisga’a and Nunavut
· What are challenges and benefits for Aboriginals on and off reserves
· Comprehensive land claims, specific land claims, cut off lands
· Assimilation
· Assembly of First Nations
· Right to vote

Question 9: Describe and analyze Canada’s immigration policy during the twentieth 


Century
· Same answer as Question #1 (Unit 4)
· Exclude Aboriginals from the question
· Add in the point system of the 1970s

Question 10: Discuss what it means to be Canadian with reference to: distinctive 


Canadian programs and policies and important Canadian cultural and scientific 
Achievements.
· CBC (Canadian Broadcasting Corporation)—publicly owned radio service in 1936, its purpose was to provide Canadian-produced entertainment and news in competition with the many American radio stations that people listed to at the time
· Massey Commission—established in 1949, it was to investigate the state of Canadian culture, Canada council grants
· CRTC (Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission)—promotion and playing of Canadian artists
· Universal health care—medicare
· Peacekeeping role—Pearson won the Nobel Peace Prize
· Refusal to go to Iraq unless U.N. led action
· Gun control
· Multiculurism—celebrate ethnic differences
· Small military
· Queen as head of state
· NDP Political Party
· Free trade
· Autopact (Automotive Products Agreement)—to create a single North American market. It allowed Canada and the U.S. to import cars from each other without paying import taxes

----The End----


Have fun, people!! YOU CAN DO IT!!! =P 


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