Shri a. K. Vajpayee assistant commissionor guwahati region

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  1. Who followed the policy of Golden Mean?

a. Matternich b. Mazzini

c. Louis Philippe d. Duke of Orleans

2. Napoleonic Code was introduced in the year of

a.1809 b.1807

b.1805 d.1804
3. What was Helairia Philike ?

a. A Secret Society b. A Political Party

c. A custom Union d. An Allegori
4. Who founded the revolutionary militia ‘Red Shirt’?

a. Wilson b. Tsar Alexander II

c. Garibaldi d. Matternich
5. Who was Frederick Sorrieu?

a. A Revolutionary b. Chancellor of Austria

c. King of Frame d. French Artist
6. Vienna Congress was convened in 1815 for what purpose?

a. To declare completion of German Unification.

b. To restore conservative regime in Europe.

c. To declare war against France.

d. To start the process of Italian unification.
7. Which year was known as the year of dear bread?

a. 1830 b. 1848

c. 1789 d. 1815
8. Name the state which led the process of Italian unification?

a. Rome b. Prussia

c. Sardinia Piedmont d. Vienna
9. Who said Cavour, Mazzini, Garibaldi: three her brain, her soul, her sword ?

a. Victor Emmannual b. George Meredith

c. Louis XVIII d. Guizot
10. Zollverein was a

a. Diplomatic institution b. Custom union

c. Administrative union d. Trade union
11. Who followed the policy of Blood and Iron for national unification?

a. Garibaldi b. Otto Von Bismark

c. Mazzini d. Matternich

12. United Kingdom of Great Britain came into existence in the year -

a. 1789 b. 1798

c. 1707 d. 1801

13. Who said that, Italy was merely a geographical expression?

a. Cavour b. Napoleon

c. Matternich d. Guizot
14. Which one was not included in the Balkan Region?

a. Croatia b. Bosnia Harzegovina

c. Serbia d. Spain
15. In which century nationalism emerged in Europe

a. 16th century b. 20th century

c. 19th century d. 17th century
16. Who was the king of France at the time of French Revolution?

a. Marie Antoniate b. Louis XVI

c. Czar Nicolas d. Edward II


1. c

2. d

3. a

4. c

5. d

6. b

7. b

8. c

9. b

10. b

11. b

12. c

13. c

14. d

15. c

16. b

17. Explain any three features of the class of landed aristocracy of Europe.

Answer -The three features of the class of landed aristocracy in Europe.

1. During the mid 18th century, a landed aristocracy was the dominant class in Europe both politically and socially.

2. They owned huge properties, big estates both in the rural and urban areas.

3. Their families were tied together by matrimonial relation and they wielded much power in their respective countries.

18. What were the dissimilarities between the process of unification of Italy and Germany?

Answer -Following were the dissimilarities between the processes of unification of Italy and Germany.

i. Piedmont was main state in unification of Italy but it was a weak state. But Prussia which was leading the German unification was a powerful state.

ii. Most of the Italian states were under great influence of Austria but Austria was only the head of German confederation of states.

iii. Bismark always favoured the use of force in the unification of Germany but Cavour hardly believed in use of force in unification of Ital

19. Who was Garibaldi? What were his main achievements?


i. Garibaldi was one of the great revolutionaries of Italy. He was born in 1807 and his parents wanted to make him a priest but he had no interest in this profession.

ii. He was a brave and courageous person who favoured the use of force for unification of Italy.

iii. He started “Young Italy” movement with Mazzini.

iv. He organized a force called ‘White Shirts’ which defeated Austrian forces to liberate Naples and Sicily. It was later joined by Sardinia. In this way Garibaldi played a great role in the unification of Italy.

20. What role did language play in developing nationalist sentiment?


i. Language played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments. After Russian occupation the Polish language was forced out of schools and the Russian language was imposed everywhere.

ii. In 1813 an armed rebellion against the Russian rule took place whish was ultimately crushed. Following this many members of the clergy in Poland began to use language as a weapon of national resistance.

iii. The use of Polish came to be seen as a symbol of the struggle against Russian dominance.

21. What is meant by ‘Imperialism’? Give two features of imperialism.

Answer-The term “Imperialism” means the practice extending the power, control or rule by a country over the political and economic life of area outside its own borders.

The following are the two main features of “Imperialism”

i. The first essential feature of imperialism is exploration of economic resources of the occupied areas for the benefit of the imperial country.

ii. The imperial power subordinates the interests of the colonies and establishes its monopoly over the trade of its colonies.

22. Study the given passage and answer the questions that follow.
‘A nation is the culmination of a long past of endeavors, sacrifice and devotion,a heroic past, great men, glory that is the social capital upon which one bases a national idea., to have common glories in the past, to have a common will in the present, to have performed great deeds together, to wish to perform still more, these are the essential conditions of being a people. A nation is therefore a large scale solidarity….. . Its existence is a daily plebiscite…… . A province is its inhabitants; if anyone has the right to be consulted, it is the inhabitants. A nation never has any real interest in annexing or holding onto a country against its will. The existence of a nation is a good thing, a necessary evil. Their existence is a guarantee of liberty, which would be lost if the world had only one law and only one master.’

    1. From whose speech have these words been quoted?

    2. Explain the meaning of plebiscite.

    3. Examine the concept of nation as given in the above passage.

Answer-These words have taken from speech of Ernst Renan a great French Philosopher (1823 -1992.

    1. Plebiscite means a direct vote by which all the people of a people of a region are asked to accept or reject a proposal.

    1. A nation is the culmination or a long past of endevours, sacrifice and devotion. It involves having common glories in the past, common will in the present performing great deeds together and wishing to perform still more

  1. Explain the concept of liberal nationalism which developed in Europe in early 18th century.

Answer-Liberalism meant different things to different people. In the political sphere, liberalism stood for:

i. equality before the law.

ii. Revolutionary French marked the first political experiment in liberal democracy in which right to vote and get elected was granted exclusive to property-owning men.

iii. Men without property and all women were excluded from political rights.

In the economic sphere liberalism stood for:

i. Freedom of markets and abolition of state-imposed restrictions on the movements of goods and capital.

ii. Customs union or ‘Zollarein’ was formed in Russia, joined by the German states.

iii. The union abolished tariff barriers.Reduced the number of currencies from thirty to two.

  1. Define nation? What were the significant aspects of the nation-state in the early 19th century?

Answer -According to Bryce, A nation is a nationality which has organized itself into a political body either independence or desiring to be independent. Thus a nation is a community which considers itself one and is held together by many ties. Following were the significant aspects of the nation-states in the early 19th century.

i. Each nation wanted to have its own independent state. That is why it was called a nation state.

ii. The nations-states held the people together on the basis of common territory, common language, common culture and economic independence.

iii. In some nation – state, the constitutional governments based on written or unwritten constitutions were established.

iv. The establishment of nation – states replaced the previous boundaries by new scientific system of boundaries.
25. Which factors led to rise of nationalism in Europe after 1830’s?

Answer-Following factors were responsible for the rise of nationalism.

i. Feudalism was one of the greatest obstacle in the way of nationalism. But various Feudal lords died in mutual wars and crusades also led to their fall. This led the way for decline of feudalism and rising of nationalism.

ii. In medieval period church was very powerful and had a great power all over the world. But people were awakened by the movements like renaissance and reformation. It led to decline in the authority and power of pope. This led to establishment of national church in many countries. Weakness of papacy and the Holy Roman Empire.

iii. Many wars have also arose sentiments of nationalism among the people.

iv. Foreign Rules: Foreign Rulers generally liked to suppress the subject nation which played an important part in the growth of nationalism.

v. Reaction against injustice and arbitrary rule of injust monarchs also gave birth to the feeling of nationalism.

vi. Contribution of great writers: The writings of great poets, politicians and philosophers like Machiavelli, Mills, Mazzini, Garibaldi went a long way in rousing political consciousness and national spirit among the people
26. Why did nationalist tension emerge in the Balkans?

Answer -The states between the Black sea and Adriatic Sea like the Bulgaria, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina etc. are known as the Balkans states. For a long time these states were a bone of contention between various European powers and Turkey. Following were the main causes for immergence of nationalist tensions in the Balkans.

i. The nationality of the people states were however Christians. The Muslims who were the ruling class oppressed them in many ways.

ii. By the beginning of the 19th century, the Turkish Empire became very weak. This encouraged the Balkan people who were mostly Christians.

iii. The French Revolution and the Napoleonic wars inspired the feelings of nationalism among them and they clamoured for independence.

iv. At the same time there was a clash of interests among the big powers in the Balkans. This also contributed to the emergence of nationalist tensions in the Balkans.

  1. What steps did the French revolutionaries take to create a sense of collective identity among the French people?

Answer -Following steps were taken by the French Revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity among the french people.

i. First, ideas of Fatherland (La Patric) and the Citizen (La Citizen) laid emphasis on the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution.

ii. A new French flag, the tricolour, was chosen to replace the former French monarch.

iii. An elected body of active citizens known as the National Assembly, was formed to manage the state affairs.

iv. New hymns were composed and martyrs were commemorated all in the name of the nation.

v. A centralized system was set up to formulate uniform laws for all citizens within the French territory.

vi. All custom duties were abolished and a uniform system of weights and measures were adopted.

  1. Regional dialects were discouraged and French was adopted as the common language of the nation.

The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China
(1) Indo-China is comprised of-------

(a) Vietnam, Laos and Combodia

(b) Vietnam, Siam and Combodia

(c) Laos, Combodia and Siam

(d) India, China and Japan

(2) The idea of civilizing mission was to-------

(a) Bring modern civilization to the Vietnam

(b) Destroy local cultures, religions and traditions

(c) Educate the native to civilize them

(d) All the above

(3) Who wrote the book 'The History of the Loss of Vietnam'?

(a) Phan Boi Chau (b) Phan Chu Trinh

(c) Huynh Phu So (d) Bao Dai

(4) Who was given the name the 'Mad Bonze' by the French?

(a) Phan Boi Chau (b) Nguyen Anh

(c) Huynh Phu So (d) Kenneday

(5) Hoa-Hao was a -----------

(a) Leader (b) Place (c) Movement (d) None of these

(6) Vietnam was deeply influenced by the----------

(a)Chinese cultures (b) French cultures

(c) Indian cultures (d) None of these

(7) Who was the founder of the Vetnamese communist party?

(a) Bao Dai (b) Phan Boi Chau (c) Sun Yat Sen (d) Ho Chi Minh

(8) Which provinces of Vietnam were called 'The Electrical Fuses of Vietnam'?

(a) Nghe and Ha Tinh(b) Mekong and Ha Tien (c) Ngu An and Ha Tien

(d) None of these.

(9) Who laid the coup in South Vietnam?

(a) Ngo Dinh Dien (b) Ho Chi Minh (c) Bao Dai (d) Sun Yat Sen

(10) Vietnam was divided by _________

(a) The Geneva Peace Negotiation (b) Paris Peace Negotiation

(c) Versailles Peace Negotiation (d) None of these.

(11) Who were Identured Labourers?

(a) Bonded Labourers (b) Independent Labourers

(c) Labourers who were widely used for the plantations (d) Daily Wage Labourers

(12) Who was Paul Bernard?

(a) A writer and policy maker (b) A philosopher (c) A politician (d) An Artist

(13) Confucious was a ___

(a) Philosopher (b) Leader (c) Military Commander (d) Writer

(14) Dien Bien Phu was_______

(a) A Fort where the Vietminh defeated the French troops

(b) A port city captured by the French

(c) A place where the American troops defeated the Vietnamese

(d) None of these.

(15) Why the USA did not want the Unification of Vietnam?

(a) The USA was worried about Communists gaining power.

(b) The US wanted to establish its colony.

(c) The US was an imperialist country.

(d) All the above

(16) North and South Vietnam unified as one country in

(a) 1975

(b) 1974

(c) 1954

(d) 1956

(1) a ,(2) d, (3) a, (4) c, (5) c, (6) a, (7) d, (8) a,(9) a,(10) a,(11) c,(12) a,(13) a,(14) a, (15)a, (16) a.
Read the extract and answer the questions that follow:

In Japan, Phan Boi Chau and Phan Chu Trinh spent time together, discussing their visions of Vietnamese independence, and debating their differences. This is what Phan Boi Chau later wrote about their discussions: ‘Thereafter over more than ten days, he and I debated time and again, and our opinions were diametrically opposed. That is to say, he wished

to overthrow the monarchy in order to create a basis for the promotion of popular rights; I, on the contrary, maintained that first the foreign enemy should be driven out, and after our nation’s independence was restored we could talk about other things. My plan was to make use of the monarchy, which he opposed absolutely. His plan was to raise up the people to abolish the monarchy, with which I absolutely disagreed. In other words, he and I were pursuing one and the same goal, but our means were considerably different.’

(Source: A NCERT pg 41)

(1) Who were Phan Boi Chau and Phan Chu Trinh?

(2) What did they want?

(3) How were their ideas different from each other?

Ans (1) Phan Boi Chau and Phan Chu Trinh were the nationlist leaders of Vietnam.

Ans (2) They wanted to overthrow foreign domination from Vietnam.

Ans (3) Phan Boi Chau wanted to make use of monarchy to resist the French. He was in favour of Constitutional Monarchy.

Phan Chu Trinh was intensely hostile to the monarchy and opposed to the idea of resisting the French with the help of the Royal Court. His desire was to establish a Democratic Republic.


Observe the given image and the questions that follow:

(a) Whose Image is this?

(b) What do you know about her?

(a) This is the image of Trieu Au.

(b) She was a brave Vietnamese woman. She lived in the third century CE.On growing she left her home and went into the jungles. She organised a large army and resisted Chinese rule. Finally when her army was defeated, crushed, she drowned herself. She became a sacred figure not just a Martyr who fought for the honour of the country. Nationalists popularised her image to inspire people to action.


Q.1. What were the causes for the defeat of the French forces in the Battle of Dien Bien


Ans: The French Commander Navarre faced the following problems in this battle-

(i) The valley where French garrisons were located flooded in the monsoon.

(ii) The area was covered with bushes making it difficult for the troops and tanks to

move or trace the Vietminh anti-aircraft guns hidden in the jungle.

(iii) Supplies and reinforcements could not reach the French garrison.

(iv) From their base in the hills the Vietminh surrounded the French garrisons in the

valley below, digging trenches and tunnels to move without being detected.

Q.2. When did the Scholars Revolt occur? Why did it happen? What were the results?

Ans: The Scholars Revolt occured in 1868.This revolt was led by officials at the

Imperial Court.

These officials were angered by the spread of Catholicism and French power in


In Ngu An and Ha Tien provinces where over a thousand Catholics were killed by the Vietnamese. The French crushed the movement , but this uprising was in no way less important. It inspired other patriots to rise up against the colonial power.

Q.3. Explain any four steps taken by the French to exploit the natural resources of


Ans: (i) They led emphasis on the production of rice and rubber.

(ii) They built canals and drained lands in the Mekong delta to increase cultivation.

The vast system of irrigation works-- canal and earth works--- built with forced


(iii)They started infrastructure projects to help transport goods for trade, move

military garrisons and control the entire region.

(iv) Construction of a Trans-Indo-China rail network that would link the northern

and southern parts of Vietnam and China was begun.

Q.4. Describe the ideas behind the Tonkin free school. To what extent it was example of

colonial ideas in Vietnam? Ans. (i) The Tonkin free school was set-up in 1907to provide a western style education.

(ii) This education included classes in science, hygiene and French.

(iii) The school emphasised that it was not enough only to learn science and western ideas. They also had to look modern. It encouraged the adoption of western style such as having a short hair cut

Q.5. What were the differences of opinion between the two groups in Vietnam regarding

the introduction of French Education System?

Ans: Regarding imparting of French education to the Vietnamese the French authorities were themselves in dilemma.

One section wanted to introduce French so that they could get some citizens who were followers of the French civilization. They emphasised that the French language should be the medium of instruction.

Others resisted this idea because they felt it the Vietnamese were educated in French , they would seal the chances of the French citizens residing in Vietnam in getting jobs. They suggested that Vietnamese be taught in lower classes and French in the higher classes.

So the French followed a deliberate policy of failing the students in the final years so they do not get better jobs. Under such a deliberate policy as many as two-third of the students were failed and only one third were declared as passed.

Q.6. Explain the causes of the USA involvement in the war in Vietnam. What effect did this involvement have on USA?

Ans: In 1965 The USA intervened in Vietnam due to the following reasons------

(i) First and foremost was the fear of the speared of communism in Vietnam. US regarded the spread of communism a great danger to the capitalist countries. US was ready to fight against communism in any part of the world. So when communism showed its head in Vietnam ,she at once came forward to check it.

(ii) The second reason of US involvement in Vietnam was the humiliation that France had to face in Vietnam. Being the leader of capitalist countries, US wanted to crush Vietnam at all costs to save the prestige of the capitalist countries.

(iii) The Geneva conference had divided Vietnam into parts-- North Vietnam and South Vietnam. When the HO-Chi-Minh government in north Vietnam and National Liberation Front tried to unify the two parts of Vietnam, in the violation of the Geneva conference, US could not tolerate this. Hence, it declared to intervene in Vietnam.
Effects of this involvement on the USA:------

(i) Even though US had advance technology and a brilliant army, they had finally bowed before the determination, courage and patriotic spirit of the Vietnamese people. They lost their prestige.

(ii) About 47,244 died in the battle and 3,03,704 were wounded.

(iii) Many were critical of the government policy that they saw it as indefensible. The US media and films played a major role in criticising the war.

Q.7. Write the features of the Ho-Chi-Minh trail in the Vietnamese war against USA.

Ans: (i) The story of the great leader Ho-Chi-Minh is one way of understanding the nature of the war that the Vietnamese fought against the US. It symbolises how the people of Vietnam used their limited resources to their advantage.

(ii) Network of footpaths and roads was used to transport men and materials from the North to the South.

(iii)The trail was improved from the late 1950s and from 1967 about 20000 North Vietnamese troops came South each month on this trail.

(iv)The trail had support bases and hospitals along the way. In some parts supplies were transported in trucks, but mostly they were carried by porters who were mainly women. These porters carried about 23 kilos on their backs or 70 kilos on their bicycles.

(v) Most of the trail was out side Vietnam in neighbouring Laos and Combodia with branch links extending into South Vietnam.

(vi)The US regularly bombed this trail trying to disrupt supplies but it failed because they were rebuilt very quickly.

Q.8 What was the role of women in the anti-imperialist struggle in Vietnam? Compare this with the role of women in the National struggle in India.

Role of women in the Anti-Imperial struggle in Vietnam :-

i) The women of Vietnam played an important role in the anti-imperial struggle in Vietnam.

ii) They worked as porters and carried 25 kilos of food or war materials on their backs.

iii)They nursed the wounded and dug tunnels to save their army from the attacks of the imperialistic powers.

iv)As many as 1.5 million women worked in the army. They neutralised tens of

thousands of bombs and shot down many enemy planes.

v) They kept open many strategic roads and guarded key points. Without their heroism the shape of the Vietnamese struggle for Independence would have been quite different and difficult.
Role of Indian Women :-

Indian women also played an important role in the freedom struggle in India. There is no doubt that the Vietnamese men showed great heroism and patriotism, but we can not forget the role of Rani Laxmi Bai, Sarojini Naidu, Vijaya Laxmi Pandit , Aruna Asaf Ali etc. in the freedom struggle of India. Who can and how can one forget the great heroism shown by a small girl of thirteen years named Queen Gaidnilieu. She was a brave Heroine of Nagaland raised the standard of revolt against the foreign rule. She was captured and was sentenced to life imprisonment.

Q.9 Explain the reasons for the popularity of Go East Movement.

Ans. Vietnam was occupied by France in about 1886. Since nobody like the dominance

of their country by a foreign power. So at different times various movements were

started in Vietnam. One such movement known as Go East Movement was started

in the first decade of 20th century. This movement had close relations with Japan

and China. This movement became very popular because:

i) Both Japan and China being very close to Vietnam provided models for those

who were looking for a change.

ii) Some Vietnamese people who were escaping the French police, Japan and

China provided them an ideal place of refuge.

iii) These early Vietnamese who looked for foreign arms and help expected to get

the same from the Japanese as fellow Asians.

iv) Moreover Japan could give them great inspiration because she had not only

modernised itself but also had successfully resisted colonialism by the west.

v) Japan had proved its military capability by defeating Russia in 1907.

vi) By establishing relations with China and Japan they hoped to achieve their

primary objective of driving out the French and re-establish the Nguyen


Q.10 Discuss the contribution of Ho-Chi-Minh in Vietnamese Nationalist Struggle.

i) In February 1930 Ho-Chi-Minh brought together competing nationalist groups

to establish the Vietnamese communist party. It was later renamed the Indo-

Chinese communist party.

ii) In 1940s the Vietnamese people under Ho-chi-Minh's leadership resisted the

Japanese occupation and organised a people's army called the Vietminh.

iii) The nationalists now had to fight against the Japanese as well as the French. By

the time the second world war, indeed, the Vietminh controlled a large part of


iv) In August 1945 the democratic republic of Vietnam was formed and Ho-Chi-

Minh was made the President.

v) In 1954 the French were defeated by the Vietminh at Dien-Bien-Phu. In the

peace negotiation in Geneva the Vietnamese were persuaded to accept the

division of the country into North Vietnam and South Vietnam. Ho-Chi-

Minh and the communists took power in the north and Bau-Dai's regime came to power power in the south .With the help of Ho-Chi-Minh the National Liberation

Front fought for the unification of the country.

vi) Ho-Chi-Minh died on 3rd September 1969. He led the party successfully for

over 40years struggling to preserve Vietnamese autonomy.


Nationalism in India

(1) Why did Gandhiji travel to Champaran?

(a) To meet his relatives

(b) To launch a Satyagraha against the Indigo planters

(c) To help the mill workers of Champaran

(d) To organise a rally

(2) In which session of the Indian National Congress was the non-cooperation movement adopted?

(a) Nagpur Session of December 1927

(b) Nagpur Session of December 1920

(c) Kolkata Session of December 1928

(d) Lahore Session of December 1920

(3) Which act gave the government the power to detain political prisoners without trial for up to two


(a) Rowlatt Act 1919

(b) Government of India Act 1919

(c) Rowlatt Act 1920

(d) Emigration Act of 1859

(4) Who was Alluri Sitaram Raju?

(a) Leader of a Militant Guerrilla movement.

(b) A leader of the Indian National Congress

(c) A peasant

(d) An officer in the British government

(5) Oudh Kisan Sabha was set up by -

(a) Mahatma Gandhi

(b) Nehru

(c) Nehru & Baba Ramchandra

(d) Sardar Patel

(6) When did the Jallianwalla bagh massacre take place-

(a) 1918

(b) 1919

(c) 1920

(d) 1921
(7) Dandi March was undertaken to protest against -

(a) The Salt Tax

(b) protest against Rowlatt Act

(c) To protest against Indigo tax

(d) launched Quit India Movement

(8) The Non-Cooperation movement due to-

(a) Chauri Chaura incident

(b) Jallianwalla Bagh Massacre

(c) All of the above

(d) Lahore incident

(9) Why did the Indians oppose the Simon Commission?

(a) It did not want to give power to Indians

(b) It had no Indian Members

(c) It has mixed Member

(d) None of this

(10) Satyagraha means-

(a) Fight against injustice

(b) Complete independence

(c) following the path of non-violence

(d) All the above

(11) What is the meaning of the term “begaar”?

(a) Peasants forced to work without payments

(b) Independent Labourers

(c) Labourers who were widely used for the plantations

(d) Daily Wage Labourers

(12) Rowlatt Act gave the government enormous power to-

(a) Repress political activities

b) To imprison people without trial

(c) To tighten their control over Indians

(d) All the above
(13) Different Social Groups who joined the Non-cooperation movement of 1921 were-

(a) Teachers and Students

(b) Merchants and Traders

(c) Country peasants

(d) All the above

(14) Poona Pact of September 1932 was signed between

(a) Mahatma Gandhi and Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose

(b) Motilal Nehru and Bal Gangadhar Tilak

(c) Jawahar Lal Nehru and Dr.B R Ambedkar

(d) Dr.B R Ambedkar and Mahatma Gandhi

(15) Civil Disobedience movement was about-

(a) Withdrawal of Non-Cooperation Movement

(b) Launching of Quit India movement

(c) actively define government rules and regulations

(d) none of the above

(16) Khilafat Committee was formed in-

(a) Madras in March 1919

(b) Bombay in March 1919

(c) Calcutta in March 1919

(d) Delhi in March 1919


(1) b ,(2) d, (3) a, (4) c, (5) c, (6) b, (7) a, (8) a,(9) b,(10) d,(11) a,(12) d,(13) d,(14) d, (15)c, (16) b.

The Independence Day Pledge, 26 January 1930

‘We believe that it is the inalienable right of the Indian people, as of any other people, to have freedom and to enjoy the fruits of their toil and have the necessities of life, so that they may have full opportunities of growth. We believe also that if any government deprives people of these rights and the oppresses them, the people have a further right to alter it or to abolish it. The British Government in India has not only deprived the Indian people of their freedom but has based itself on the exploitation of the masses, and has ruined India: economically, politically, culturally, and spiritually. We believe, therefore, that India must severe the British connection and attain Purna Swaraj or Complete Independence.’

(1) What do you understand by the term Purna Swaraj?

(2) How did the British Government exploited the Indian masses?


Ans (1) Complete Independence

Ans (2). The British Government in India has not only deprived the Indian people of their freedom but has based itself on the exploitation of the masses, and has ruined India economically, politically, culturally, and spiritually.


Observe the given image and the questions that follow:

(a) Which historic event is depicted in this picture?

(b) What do you know about this event?

(a) The Dandi March led by Mahatma Gandhi

(b) Mahatma Gandhi started his famous salt march accompanied by 78 of his trusted volunteers. The march

was over 240 miles, from Gandhiji’s ashram in Sabarmati to the Gujarati coastal town of Dandi. The volunteers walked for 24 days, about 10 miles a day. Thousands came to hear Mahatma Gandhi wherever he stopped, and he told them what he meant by swaraj and urged them to peacefully defy the British. On 6 April he reached Dandi, and ceremonially violated the law, manufacturing salt by boiling sea water.


Q.1. How was the first World War responsible for the growth of the Indian national movement?

Ans: First of all, the war created a new economic and political situation.

  1. It led to a huge increase in defence expenditure which was financed by war loans and increasing taxes:

  2. Customs duties were raised and income tax introduced.

  3. Through the war years prices increased –doubling between 1913 and 1918 – leading to extreme

hardship for the common people.

  1. Villages were called upon to supply soldiers, and the forced recruitment in rural areas caused

wide spread anger.

  1. Then in 1918-19 and 1920-21, crops failed in many parts of India, resulting in acute shortages of food.

This was accompanied by an influenza epidemic. According to the census of 1921, 12 to 13 million people perished as a result of famines and the epidemic.

People hoped that their hardships would end after the war was over. But that did not happen.

Q.2. Explain the idea of Satyagraha?

Ans: The idea of satyagraha emphasised the power of truth and the need to search for truth. It suggested that if the cause was true, if the struggle was against injustice, then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor. Without seeking vengeance or being aggressive, a satyagrahi could win the battle through non-violence. This could be done by appealing to the conscience of the oppressor. People – including the oppressors – had to be persuaded to see the truth, instead of being forced to accept truth through the use of violence. By this struggle, truth was bound to ultimately triumph. Mahatma Gandhi believed that this dharma of non-violence could unite all Indians.

Q.3. Arrange the following in Chronological Order.

Ans: a) Congress adopts the demand for ‘Purna Swaraj’.

b)Second Round Table Conference.

c)Non-Cooperation and Khilafat movement launched.

d)Chauri Chaura

e)Jallianwala Bagh massacre.

f)Gandhiji begins Civil Disobedience Movement by breaking salt law at Dandi.

Ans. e, c,d,a,f,b

Q.4. How did Gandhiji want the Non Cooperation Movement to unfold? Explain Ans. Gandhiji proposed that the movement should unfold in stages. It should begin with the surrender of titles that the government awarded, and a boycott of civil services, army, police, courts and legislative councils, schools, and foreign goods. Then, in case the government used repression, a full civil disobedience campaign would be launched.

Q.5 Different social groups that participated in the civil disobedience movement. Why did they join the movement?

Ans. 1. In the countryside rich peasant communities, being producers of commercial crops, they were very hard hit by the trade depression and falling prices.

2. The poorer peasantry were not just interested in the lowering of the revenue demand.

3. Business classes wanted protection against imports of foreign goods, and a rupee

sterling foreign exchange ratio that would discourage imports.

Q.6. What do you know about the Rowlatt Act? How did Gandhiji plan to oppose this act?How did the Colonial government react to the popular upsurge?

Ans: a)This Act had been hurriedly passed through the Imperial Legislative Council despite the united opposition of the Indian members. It gave the government enormous powers to repress political activities,and allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years.

b)Mahatma Gandhi wanted non-violent civil disobedience against such unjust laws, which would start with a hartal on 6 April1919.Rallies were organised in various cities, workers went on strike in railway workshops, and shops closed down.
c) Alarmed by the popular upsurge, and scared that lines of communication such as the railways and telegraph would be disrupted, the British administration decided to clamp down on nationalists. Local leaders were picked up from Amritsar, and Mahatma Gandhi was barred from entering Delhi.
On 10 April 1919, the police in Amritsar fired upon a peaceful procession, provoking widespread attacks on banks, post offices and railway stations. Martial law was imposed and General Dyer took command. d)On 13 April 1919 the infamous Jallianwalla Bagh incident took place. On that day a crowd of villagers who had come to Amritsar to attend a fair gathered in the enclosed ground of Jallianwalla Bagh. Being from outside the city, they were unaware of the martial law that had been imposed. Dyer entered the area, blocked the exit points, and opened fire on the crowd, killing hundreds
Q.7. Write how Indians began to have a sense of national identity and a feeling of collective belonging?

Ans: The sense of nationalism and a feeling of collective belonging came partly through the experience of united struggles. But there were also a variety of cultural processes through which nationalism captured people’s imagination. History and fiction, folklore and songs, popular prints and symbols, all played a part in the making of nationalism. Apart from that the following efforts by intellectuals, scholars and nationalist leaders helped to reinforce those feelings:

(i) through reinterpretation of history. By the end of the nineteenth century many Indians felt that to instill a sense of pride in the nation

(ii) As the national movement developed, nationalist leaders became more and more aware of such icons and symbols in unifying people and inspiring in them a feeling of nationalism..

(iii) Movement to revive Indian folklore. In late-nineteenth-century India, nationalists began recording folk tales sung by bards and they toured villages to gather folk songs and legends. These tales, they believed, gave a true picture of traditional culture that had been corrupted and damaged by outside forces..

(iv) Leaders created an image of the nation in the form of ‘Bharat Mata’.This helped to create an image with which people can identify the nation.

Q.8 Write about the significance of the Poona Pact of September 1932.
Dr B.R. Ambedkar, who organised the dalits into the Depressed Classes Association in 1930, clashed with Mahatma Gandhi at the second Round Table Conference by demanding separate electorates for dalits. When the British government conceded Ambedkar’s demand, Gandhiji began a fast unto death. He believed
that separate electorates for dalits would slow down the process of their integration into society. Ambedkar ultimately accepted Gandhiji’s position and the result was the Poona Pact of September 1932.It gave the Depressed Classes (later to be known as the Schedule Castes) reserved seats in provincial and central legislative councils, but they were to be voted in by the general electorate.
Q.10 Write about the role played by women in our struggle for freedom.
Women picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops. Many went to jail. In urban areas these women were from high-caste families; in rural areas they came from rich peasant households. Moved by Gandhiji’s call, they began to see service to the nation as a sacred duty of women. Yet, this increased public role did not necessarily mean any radical change in the way the position of women was visualised. Gandhi
was convinced that it was the duty of women to look after home and hearth, be good mothers and good wives. And for a long time the Congress was reluctant to allow women to hold any position

of authority within the organisation. It was keen only on their symbolic presence.

The making of a global world

  1. Write the correct answer of the following questions-

1. What was the use of cowries during Indus Valley civilization-

a) as a toy

b)as an instrument

c)as a means of transportation

d)as a form of currency.

2. The term used to describe Indian indentured labour was—

a) Porter

b) Coolie

c) Juggler,

d) Rikshaw puller.
3. Henry Morton Stanley was-




4. Rinderpest spread in Africa through—

a )Cattle


c) Human

d)None of these.
5. A major supplier of wheat in the world market was—

a) Africa

b) Eastern Europe

c) North America

d) Asia.
6. Who produced the T-Model Ford car-?

a) Henry Morton Stanley

b) Ebenezer Howard

c) Barry Parker

d) Henry Ford.
7. What were the ‘Corn Laws?’

a) Laws to restrict the import of corn

b) Laws to restrict the export of corn

c) Laws to restrict the export and import of corn

d) None of the above
8. IMF stands for—
a) International Military Force

b) International Monetary Fund

c) Indian Monetary Fund

d) Indian Military Force

9. The Great Depression began around in—

a) 1929

b) 1935

c) 1999

d) 1945
10. ----was a famous economist.

a) Henry Ford

b) John Maynard Keynes

c ) Henry Stanley

d)Barry Parker.
11. NIEO stands for-

a) New International Economic Order

b) New Indian Economic Organisation

c) New International Export office

d) New Indian Exchange office
12 .The main aim of the post-war international economic system was to-

a) To preserve economic stability

b) To maintain status

c) To increase export

d) To reduce war loans
13. MNCs works in ---

a) Only on country

b) Many countries

c) Two countries

d) None of these.
14. The Bretton Woods is a –

a) Palace

b) Place

c) Country

d) Institution

15. Bretton Woods System was based on which types of rates?

a) Fixed

b) Floating

c) Base

d) Inflation

Hints; 1.d,2.b,3.a,4.a,5.c,6.d,7.a,8.b,9.a,10.b,11.a,12.a,13.b,14.b,15.a.
2. What do you mean by the term ‘globalisation’?

Hints: By the term globaliaation we mean increasing integration between different economies of the world. This is achieved by removal of barriers on free flow of goods, services and capital among the nations.

3. What do you know about silk route?

Hints: The silk routes were the routes through which trade and culture mingling of far-flung parts of the world took place. China was know for the trade of silk since ancient period. Chinese silk cargoes used to travel through routes and from there it got its name the ‘silk route’.

4. What are the cowries?

Hints: The cowries are seashells which were used as money in international exchange of goods all the way from Maldives to China and East Africa.

5. What was the Irish Potato Famine?

Hints: Potato was introduced to Europe from America. Potato was and is a relatively cheap food. Europe’s poor came to rely entirely upon potato as their staple food. In mid 1840s, a disease destroyed the potato crop in Ireland. The poor peasants had no alternative food to substitute potato which resulted in a widespread famine in which thousands of people died.

6. Write the circumstances behind the formation of G-77.

Hints :Most developing countries did not benefit from the fast growth of the Western economies experienced in the 1950s and 1960s.Therefore they organized themselves as a group popularly know as the Group of 77 or G-77 and a New International Economic Order (NIEO) was demanded by them to get following facilities-

1. Actual control over their natural resources

2. More assistance in development

3. Fair prices for raw materials

4. Better market for their manufactured material.

7 . What are the main flows within international economic exchange?

Hints: The following flows are observed within international economic exchange—

  1. Trade-It refers largely to trade in goods; goods were exported to one nation and imported by another .

  2. Labour-It refers to the migration of labour from one country to another. Industrial revolution in Europe and resultant economic activities led to a tremendous increase in demand for labour.

  3. Capital-Capital moves from one country to another for short –term or long term investments over long distances wherever profit is maxi mum.

All these flows represented that a world economy was gradually emerging. In a world economy, different economies get integrated and come to depend upon each other for varied needs.
8. What were the main impacts of the Great Depression on the world?

Hints: 1. World trade declined disastrously due to uneven demand and supply, unemployment was a major problem resulted by the Depression.

2. Due to overproduction of agricultural products prices of these things fell sharply.

3. Households were ruined and business collapsed.

4. Many major banks and currencies collapsed in the world.

5. USA was the most affected country both on the agricultural and industrial fronts.

6. Unemployment soared and the US banking system collapsed.

In a nut shell, the Great Depression put very adverse effects on the society, economy, politics and international relations.

9 .Explain, why were the Corn Laws abolished in Britain?


In the early 19th century Britain ,to protect the interests of big landlords the British Govt. had imposed the restrictions on the import of corn. But during this time demand of agricultural products were increasing very sharply due to following reasons-

a) Rapid growth in population

b) Growth of industrialization

c) Rapidly growing urban centers

d) Shortage of agricultural labourers.

e) Domestic production of agricultural products could not keep pace with the demand. As a result, there was a sharp increase in their prices.

This price rise adversely affected the industrialists and the urban dwellers. The government was forced to abolish the Corn Laws, so that import could result in increased supply of corn and bring their prices down.

10. Write the factors that led to the end of the Bretton Woods system and the beginning of globalisation.
Hints; The important reasons behind the end of Bretton Woods system--

1) Decline in economic power of the USA.

2) Changes in the international Financial System

3) Unemployment in Industrialised countries

4) Shifting of Production Enterprises

5) Changes in Russia and China

Q11. Write different measures of liberalization taken by the Govt. of India.


  1. Exemptions in industrial licensing for few industries

  2. Permission for raw material’s import

  3. Extending investment limit of small industries

  4. No MRTP Companies.

  5. Expansion of Industries

  6. Reduction in the number of industries reserved for public sector.

Passage based question Answer

2.Read the Passage carefully and give answer to the questions given-
Multinational corporations (MNCs) are large companies that operate in several countries at the same time. The first MNCs were established in the 1920s.Many more came up in 1950s and 1960s as US busines expanded worldwide and Western Europe and Japan also recovered to become powerful industrial economies. The worldwide spread of MNCs was a notable feature of the 1950s and 1960s.This was partly because high import tariffs imposed by different governments forced MNCs to locate their manufacturing operations and become ‘domestic producers’ in many countries as possible.
Q1. What do you mean by MNCs?

Q.2.Why did MNCs come up during 1950s and 1960s?

Q3. Write one reason for spread of MNCs during 1950s and 1960s?


The Age of Industrialisation


  1. The first Asian country to be industrialized was -

A) Japan (b) India (c) china (d) Afghanistan

Ans.. (b) India

  1. Spining jenny was devised by him-

  1. James watt (b) James Hargreaves (c) John Simon (d) James Albert Ans.. (b)

  1. It is the first industrial city in England-

  1. Manchester (b) London (c) oxford (d) Wales

Ans.. (b)

4 this city connected India to the gulf and red sea port in the pre colonial period.

  1. Mumbai (b) surat (c) madras (d) calicut

Ans.. (b)

5 Which one is the flourishing industry of England ?

  1. Cotton industry (b) jute industry (c) iron and steel industry (d) i.t Ans.. (c)

6 Which indian entrepreneur set up six joint stock companies in India in 1830 ?

  1. Dinshaw petit (b) Dwarka Nath Tagore (c) Jamshedjee Tata (d) Seth Hukum Chand Ans.. (b)

7 Who established the first jute mill in India ?

  1. Dinshaw petit (b) Dwarkanath tagor (c) Jamshedjee tata (d) Seth Hukumchand Ans.. (d)

8 Elgin mill was set up at

  1. Luknow (b) Calicut (c) Kanpur (d) madras Ans.. (c)

9 When was the telephone invented ?

  1. 1885 (b) 1976 (c) 1876 (d) 1776 Ans.. (c)

10 Where was the first jute mill established ?

  1. surat (b) delhi (c) culcutta (d) bombay Ans.. (c)

11 The Tata iron and steel company was formed

  1. 1807 (b) 1907 (c) 1957 (d) 1865 Ans.. (b)

12 Where was the first cotton textile mill established in ?

  1. Surat (b) Channai (c) Bombay (d) Calcutta Ans.. (c)

13 The machine age in India started in-

  1. 1850 (b) 1900 (c) 1950 (d) 1890 Ans.. (a)

14 Who was the inventor of steam engine ?

  1. James Mill (b) James watt (c) James Albert (d) James Hargreaves

Ans.. (b)

15. The age of modern Industrialisation began in-

(a) France (b) England (c) Japan (d) America Ans.. (b)

  1. How did farming methods change due to industrialization ?

Ans.. (i) Steel plough used in place of wooden plough

(ii) Harrow in place of wooden Weeder

(iii) Mechanical drill for seed sowing , reaping and threshing machines.

  1. What was the purpose of James Hargreave’s spinning jenny ?

Ans.. The purpose of the spinning jenny was to provide more cotton thread for the weavers which could spin 80 threads simultaneously.

  1. Mention any two economic effects of the industrial revolution ?

Ans. (a) Village economy expanded to become economy of the nation with large scale industrial production.

  1. Trade and commerce found larger scope all over the world.

  1. Explain the meaning of the word, capitalism’

Ans.. The new economic system of society with individual ownership of production in large scale and for profit motive , the workers under this system, do not own any thing but work for wages.

  1. What was the result of the import of Manchester cloth to India ?

Ans. (i) It ruined the cloth industry in India because the Manchester cloth was cheap, showy, and durable.

(ii) The weavers were forced to give up their ancestral profession of cloth weaving and had to work as labourers in urban areas.


  1. Why did the women workers in Britain attack the spinning jenny?

Ans. The fear of unemployment made women workers hostile to the introduction of new technology. This was the reason of aggressive attack from women in England on one of the woolen industry in which spinning jenny was first installed.

  1. How does industrialisation help in raising the level or the standard of living ?

Ans. (i) The industrialisation had facilitated the mankind by meeting their primary necessities of food, clothes and shelter.

(ii) The machines have relieved man of tiredness and unpleasant jobs.

(iii) The machines have brought leisure for man e.g. Sports goods, arts/ painting made by using machines.

(iv) Large scale production of several kinds of goods has brought many articles of comfort and luxury within the easy reach of even a common man.

3. Write an essay on industrialization in India.

Ans. 1. In India, limited industrial revolution started only in certain regions or cities of the country in second half of the 19th century. An important development in this field was the establishment of machine based industries in India.

2. The machine age in India began with cotton textile, jute industry and also coal mining industry. The first textile mill was started in Bombay by Cawasjee Nanabhoy in 1853,and the first jute mill was set-up in Rishra (Bengal) in 1855.

3 in 1879, there were 56 cotton textile mills and 200 cotton mills in India in 1905.

4 .In 1901 there were over 36 jute mills employing nearly 1,15,000 persons. The coal mining industry employed about 1,00000 persons in 1906.

5. Other industries developed between 1850 and early years of 20th century were cotton mills, rice, flour and timber mills leather tanneries, woolen textiles, sugar mills, iron and steel works and mineral industries like salts, mica, and saltpeter.

above mentioned industries of india had a very stunted growth in comparison with England owing to presence of several hurdles.

4. How did the industrial revolution in England affect India’s economy ?

Ans. India’s economy was affected in the following manner;

  1. The surplus production was brought to India by lifting trade barriers. Thus, India was reduced to importer from exporter of cotton textiles to England.

  2. Handicraft sector lost jobs because of machine-made textile imported in India besides several other tricks played by the British to see them wind-up.

  3. The British government in India forced the Indian farmers to sell their raw material at cheap rates to the British factory owners.

  4. In India agriculture was the only occupation of the people. That too was looted by permanent settlement and ryotwari systems adopted by the British in order to exploit more and more revenue.

  5. Before industrial revolution india was a major producer of cotton, woolen and silken cloth. But now she suffered a severe set back in these industries ,as the British machine made cloth was cheaper than the Indian cloth.

  1. Bring out the social consequences of the industrial revolution.

Ans. Social consequences

  1. Division of society: - as a result of the industrial revolution , the society was divided into two distinct classes –the capitalists and the labourers. The rich became more rich and the poor became poorer.

  2. Insanitary conditions in the towns:- as a large number of people shifted from villages to industrial towns. Thus, the towns were overcrowded. There was no arrangement for housing, sanitation, ventilation, drainage etc.

  3. Unsatisfactory conditions of the factory workers :- the workers had to work in factories which were poorly ventilated, poorly lighted and were extremely unhealthy.

  4. Exploitation of women and children:- women and children were employed in large numbers in the factories as they were cheaper and easy to manage.

  5. Promotion of arts and culture :- machines brought more leisure to man. These utilized for the promotion of arts and culture in the society.

Passage based question Answer

  1. Give the Answers to following questions from the passage.

The condition of the Indian workers in modern factories and plantations in the 19th century was miserable. They had to work between 12and 16 hours a day. There was no weekly holiday or off. Women and children worked the same long hours as men. Wages were extremely low, ranging from Rs. 4 to 20 per month. The factories were overcrowded, dump places, without proper arrangement for light and air were completely unhygienic. Work on machines was hazardous and accidents were very common events.

Q.1 How many working hours in a day was there in the period of industrial revolution ?

Ans. Between 12 and 16 hours a day.

Q.2 How many wages were given to Indian labourers in the period of industrialization.

Ans.. Rs. 4 to 20 per month.

Work, Life and Leisure: Cities in the Contemporary World
1. What was not a reason for providing mass housing scheme for the workers ?

A) concern for the poor

B) fear of social disorder

C) threat to public health

D) none of the above

Ans . (c)

2. Bombay was first under which control ?

A) Portuguese b) English c) French d) Dutch

Ans . ( a )

3 .Which of the following not a presidency city ?

A) Madras b) Bombay c) Calcutta d) Lucknow

Ans . ( d )

4. When was the first underground railway established in the world ?

A) 10th Jan , 1893 b) 11th Jan 1793 c) 10th Jan , 1863 d) 11th Feb ,1863

Ans . (c )
5 .Which of the following cities has developed in a planned manner ?

A) Delhi b) Madras c) Singapore d) Lucknow

A) ( c )

6. Which movie did Dada Saheb Phalke make ?

A) CID b) Raja Harishchandra c) Guest House d) Tezab

Ans .( b )
7. When did Bombay become the capital city of Bombay Presidency ?

A) in 1718 b) in 1818 c) in 1918 d) in 1819

Ans . (D)

8. Who was the chief architect of Paris ?

A) Baron Haussman b) Charles Dickens c) Charles Booth d) none of these

Ans .(a)
9. Who designed the garden city of New Earswick ?

A) Baron Haussman b)Charles Dicken c) Barry Parker d) All of the above

Ans . ( c)

10. Name a famous writer associated with Hindi cinema

A) Ismal Chugtal b) Sadat Hassan Manto c) A& B both d) none of these

Ans . ( c)
11. When was the Rent Act passed in Bombay ?

A) 1917 b) 1918 c) 1818 d) none of these

Ans . (b)

12. Who was the architect of London ?

A) Ebenzer Howard b) Baron Haussman c) Charles Booth d) Charles Dicken

Ans . ( a )
13. When did the Bombay film industry make its first appearance ?

A) 1913 b) 1915 c) 1917 d) 1918

Ans . (a)

14. When did the incident of bloody Sunday happen?

A) Oct , 1887 b) Sept , 1887 c) Nov , 1887 d) Dec , 1887

Ans . ( c )

15. Who wrote several volumes on London labour ?

A) Henry b ) Mayhew c) Henry Mayhew d) Danny Mayhew

Ans . ( c )
1. Give two reasons why the population of London expanded from the middle of the 18th century ?

Ans . A) Industrial Migration: People from the region around London migrated there in order to get employment in the factories.

B)Housing and Transportation : Migrants had to live in one room apartments, which proved hazardous for health. Therefore ,London authorities began to expand its limits and garden cities were established.
2. How does the existance of a population affect each of the following -

A) A private land lord

B) A police superintendent in charge of law and order.

C) A leader of a political party

Ans .

A) Effect on Private land lord:

i) Increase in density of population leads to increase the price of land and subsequent increase in rents
ii)Enabled exploitation of migrant population through extractive rents

B) A police superintendent in charge of law and order :

i) Increase in criminals and petty thieves like cheats, pickpockets etc.

ii. For the police superintendent in charge of laws and order a large urban population posed many possibilities of social tension and disorder. Thus, led to increase in authority and process.

C ) A leader of a political party :

i. Needs a multilevel agenda catering to diverse groups .

ii. Increase the accountability .
2. Describe in three points , the social changes in the city of London with respect to entertainment and leisure of the people due to industrialization .
Ans . A) Social changes in London with respect to entertainment and leisure:

Industrialization brought two contrasting social classes in England – the rich and poor – the working class.

To the Wealthy – Long annual ‘London season’, Cultural events such as opera, theatre and classical music performances.
B) For the working class – It was meeting in pubs and taverns to have a drink , exchange news and sometimes organise for political action.

Entertainment for common people- libraries , art galleries museums etc . which were established by the government

Music halls became popular for lower class people.
C. Cinemas in the early 20th century become mass entertainment; industrial workers spent their holidays by the sea.
3 . What were the changes in the kind of work available to women in London between the 19th & 20th century? Explain the factors that led to this change
Most of the working women in the nineteenth century were migrants , belonging to far off places with their families to the industrial centre of London.

The women did not get jobs in factories, therefore, they took up the jobs of maid servants, worked in lodges, cooked, washed clothes, cared for babies, etc .They also earned by tailoring washing and match box making.

They became the helping hand in the domestic lives of the well to do families in London.

But the working status of women changed in light of the following:

A) After the 1st World War started in 1914, the status and lives of women changed,

B) Women were now employed in factories on a large scale because during war- time , factories were asked to increase their production. Men went to fight the war , therefore , all the responsibility fell on the shoulders of women.

4. Explain the social changes in London which led to the need for the underground railways in London ?
Ans . Between the two World Wars the responsibility for housing the working classes was accepted by the British state which built one million cottages.

1. This made the new forms of transport like underground railways necessary.

Underground railways solved the means of travelling in the city.

Any other relevant point

5. Mention various measures which were taken to decongest London in the 19th & 20th century .
Ans. Greening the open spaces.

Reducing pollution.

Landscaping the city.

Creating a green belt around London.

Development of Garden City.

Building of apartments.

Building of family cottages.

Any other relevant point.


1. Explain the social changes in London which led to the need for the underground railways ?Why was the development of the underground railway criticised ?

i) Pollution levels made people aware of needs for new lungs for the city.

ii. Constant flow of migrants led to growth of slums congestion of localities and pollution.

iii. It was a totally new mode and people were afraid to travel underground.

iv. The houses that obstructed the railway line were smashed down.
2. A large city population was both a threat and an opportunity. Explain

Ans . Large city population led to development of new means of transportation, providing a wide market to the industry . Thus, it comes as an opportunity. But on the other hand can sometimes become a threat too.

In the severe winter of 1886, when outdoor work came to a standstill .The London poor exploded in a riot, demanding relief from the terrible conditions of poverty. Alarmed shopkeepers closed down their establishments, fearing the 10,000 strong crowd that was marching from Deptford to London. The marchers had to be dispersed by the police. A similar riot occurred in late 1887;this time , it was brutally suppressed by the police in what came to be known as the bloody Sunday of November 1887.
3. Explain the social life of people living in Bombay.
Ans. i. The homes were small so streets and neighbourhood were used for a variety of activities and social functions.

ii. Liquor shops and akharas came up on many empty spots.

iii .Streets were used for playing and other leisure activities .

iv. Caste and family groups in the mill neighbourhoods were headed by someone who was similar to a village headman. Sometimes, the jobber in the mills could be the local neighbourhood leader. He settled disputes , organized food supplies, or arranged informal credit . He also brought important information on political developments

4. What was the need of under ground railways in London?
Ans. i .The London underground railway partially solved housing crisis by carrying large masses of people to and fro, London.

ii. People who wanted to live in garden suburbs and still work , could work in the city and use underground railways.

5. Calcutta had a long history of air pollution. Examine the reasons.
i . High level of pollution was the result of the huge population that depended on dung and wood as fuel in their daily life.

ii . Smoke from the chimneys of industrial units was also responsible for air pollution.

iii . The city was built on marshy land, the resulting fog combined with smoke to produce thick black smog.

Print Culture and Modern World


  1. Print technology of China was brought to Italy by the great explorer.

    1. Marco Polo

    2. Columbus

    3. Vasco Da Gama

    4. Magellan


  1. An annual publication giving astronomical data was known as

    1. Chapbook

    2. Penny book

    3. Almanac

    4. Journal


  1. The Portuguese introduced the printing press in

    1. Bombay

    2. Calcutta

    3. Madras

    4. Goa


  1. The oldest Japanese book Diamond Sutra was printed in

    1. AD 686

    2. AD 868

    3. AD 668

    4. AD 866


  1. The earliest kind of print technology was first developed in

    1. India

    2. China

    3. Britain

    4. None of the above


  1. Metal frames in which types are laid and the text composed is known as

    1. Platen

    2. Galley

    3. Printing press

    4. Cylindrical press


  1. Protestant Reformation movement is related to the religion

    1. Buddhism

    2. Hinduism

    3. Christianity

    4. Jainism


  1. The Grimm brothers of Germany published

    1. Newspapers

    2. Folk tales

    3. Ballads

    4. Novels


  1. The first Indian to publish a newspaper was

    1. Ram Mohan Roy

    2. Bal Gangadhar Tilak

    3. Gangadhar Bhattacharya

    4. Ranade

10. The newspaper Shamsul Akhbar was published in

a) Hindi

b) Persian

c) Arabic

d) Urdu


11. Rashundari Debi wrote the autobiography

a) Amar Jibone

b) Istri Dharm Vichar

c) Saachi Kavitayan

d) Ghulamgiri

12. In 1878 the Vernacular Press Act was modelled on the

a) French Press Laws

b) British Press Laws

c) Irish Press Laws

d) Scottish Press Laws


13. A liberal colonial officer who formulated new rules to restore the freedom of the press in India was

  1. Warren Hastings

  2. William Bentinck

  3. Thomas Macaulay

  4. None of the above


14. The book Chotte Aur Bade Ka Sawal is about the topic of

a) Religion

b) Philosophy

c) Science

d) Caste System


15. Penny magazines were specially published for

a) Children

b) Workers

c) Women

d) Men



  1. Describe in brief how printing developed in Japan.

  1. Buddhist missionaries from China introduced hand writing technology around AD 768-770

  2. The oldest Japanese book Diamond sutra was printed in AD 868

  3. Pictures were printed on textiles, playing cards and money.

  4. Printing of visual material led to interesting publishing practices

  5. Book of various types related to women, musical instruments, calculations, tea ceremony, flower arrangements, proper etiquette, cooking, and famous places were printed

  6. In medieval Japan works of poets and prose writers were regularly published.

  1. “Access to books created a new culture of reading” support this statement.

    1. Earlier reading was confined only among the elite now books reached out wider sections to people this lead to the emergence of reading public.

    2. To attract readers printers published and illustrated popular ballads and folk tales. These were sung and recited in gatherings in the villages and in taverns in towns.

    3. New forms of popular literature appeared in print targeting new audiences.

    4. Books sellers employed peddlars and chapman to sell low price books serving many different purposes and interest.

    5. Lending libraries in England became instrumental for educating white collar workers artisans and lower middle class peoples.

    6. Women and children became important category of readers when books related to their interest were printed.

  1. What were the contribution of scientists in the development of popular literature?

    1. Ideas of scientists became accessible to the people due to print technology.

    2. Ancient and medieval scientific texts maps and scientific diagrams were compiled and published.

    3. When scientists like Isaac Newton published their discoveries and inventions it helped to influence a much wider circle of scientically minded readers which helped to promote scientific development.

    4. In this way ideas of science reasoning and rationality became popular themes of literature.

  1. How were manuscripts written before the age of print? List some draw backs of manuscripts

    1. In India manuscripts were written in Sanskrit, Arabic, Persian and various vernacular languages.

    2. Manuscripts were copied on palm leaves or hand made paper. Pages were beautifully illustrated.

    3. Paper was pressed between wooden covers or sewn together to ensure preservation.

Its drawbacks

  1. Preparation of manuscripts needed a lot of time. They were very expensive.

  2. Manuscripts were fragile so they had to be handled carefully.

  3. They could not be read easily as the script was in different styles.


  1. Throw light on the contribution of Indian women in publication.

    1. As various types of reading book material focussed on lives and feelings of women it encouraged women not only to read but also to write.

    2. Rashsundari Debi a young married women from an orthodox family who learnt to read in secrecy in her kitchen wrote her autobiography Amar Jiban which was published in 1876. This was the first autobiography written in Bengali language.

    3. Kailashbhasini Debi another lady of Bengal wrote books highlighting the miserable condition of women, how they were imprisoned in their household, kept in ignorance and forced to do hard domestic work but were treated very unjustly by family members whom they served.

    4. Tarabai Shinde and Pandita Ramabai of Maharashtra wrote with passionate anger about the miserable lives of upper caste Hindu women especially widows.

  1. Discuss some merits of printed books.

    1. Printed books reached out to wider sections of people increased literacy level and created a new reading culture.

    2. Books became a source of progress and enlightenment.

    3. New ideas through print made people think differently and take action.

    4. It introduced a new world of debate and discussions.

    5. When publishers used different technology to print books became affordable for poor people also.

    6. Ideas of scientists and philosophers, thinkers became accessible to all common people.

    7. This led people to question established principles and attack blind beliefs. In Europe it led to the reformation movement. In India social reformers and nationalist leaders used it as a vehicle to spread their ideas.

These books helped to bring about a lot of change in all parts of the world.

  1. How did the print culture create the conditions for French Revolution? Explain

    1. Print culture popularised the ideas of Enlightened thinkers. Their writings provided a critical commentary on tradition superstition and despotism. This led to a new culture of reasoning and rationality. Ideas of philosophers like Voltaire and Rousseau were published and circulated in this way people came to know about good practices of the church and the despotic rule.

    2. Printed culture created a new world of debate and dialogue. All values, norms and institutions were re-evaluated and discussed by a public that had become aware of the power of reason and recognised the need to question existing ideas and beliefs this led to new ideas of social revolution came into being.

    3. By the 1780’s there was an outpouring of literature that mocked the royalty and criticised their morality. Through cartoons and caricatures evils of the monarchy were projected and circulated this made the people turn against the monarchy.

    4. Printed material thus helped people to think differently and take action.

  2. What led the colonial government to pass the vernacular

Press Act in 1878. How did it affect vernacular newspaper?

    1. Nationalists in India used print media to publish the evil effects of British rule and spread new ideas.

    2. As vernacular newspapers became assertively nationalist the colonial government decided to take strong measures.

    3. In 1878 the Vernacular Press Act was passed which provided the government with extensive rights to censor reports and editorials in the Vernacular Press.

    4. The Government started keeping regular track on vernacular newspapers newspapers. If it published any material which was considered to be seditious, the government seized the press and confiscated the printing machines.

    5. Despite repressive measures nationalist newspapers grew in numbers in all parts of India. When Bal Gangadhar was imprisoned for publishing news in his Kesari in support of Punjab revolutionaries it resulted in widespread protest all over India.

  1. What was the impact of print technology on the poor people in India?

    1. In the 19th century publishers brought out cheap books which was affordable to the poor.

    2. Public libraries was set up in towns and cities and in prosperous villages.

    3. Several social reformers like Jyotiba Phule, B.R. Ambedkar and E.V. Ramaswamy wrote on issues like caste discrimination and exploitation which was read by people all over India.

    4. Local protest movements and sects criticised ancient scriptures and welcomed a new and just future through their journals.

    5. Workers in factories started publishing their contributions, e.g. – Kashi Baba, a Kanpur mill owner wrote and published ‘Chhote Aur Bade Ka Sawal’ in 1939 to show links between class and caste exploitation.

    6. In Kanpur, a Mill worker published collection of poems called ‘Sacchi Kavitayein’.

    7. Social reformers sponsored public libraries to educate mill workers in Bombay and Bangalore.

This is how Mercier describes the impact of the printed word, and the power of reading in one of his books:

‘Anyone who had seen me reading would have compared me to a man dying of thirst who was gulping down some fresh, pure water. Lighting my lamp with extraordinary caution, I threw myself hungrily to the reading. An easy eloquence, effortless and animated, carried me from one page to the next without my noticing it. A clock struck off the hours in the silence of the shadows, and I heard nothing. My lamp began to run out of oil and produced only a pale light, but still I read on. I could not even take out time to raise the wick for fear of interrupting my pleasure. How those new ideas rushed into my brain! How my intelligence adopted them!’

Quoted by Robert Darnton, The Forbidden Best-Sellers of Pre-Revolutionary France, 1995.


    1. Who is the author of this passage?

    2. In what way does he compare a man who is reading?

    3. Write how books benefited him.

Novel, Society and History

1. Oliver Twist was written by-

a. Emile Zola b. Thomas Hardy c. Jane Austen d. Charles Dickens

2. Jane Austin’s famous novel was-

a. Hard Times b. Pride and Prejudice c. Jane Eyre d. Jungle Book

3. Which of the following novels was not written by Charles Dickens?

a. Hard Times b. Germinal c. Oliver Twist d. Pickwick Papers

4. Who wrote ‘Jungle Book’?

a. Charlotte Bronte b. R. L. Stevenson c. Rudyard Kipling d. None of these

5. The earliest Indian novel was written in which of the following language?

a. Tamil b. Hindi c. Bengali d. Telugu

6. The first modern novel in Malayalam-

a. Swarna Lekha b. Indu Lekha c. Sindu Lekha d. None of these

7. Who is the pioneer of modern Hindi literature?

a. Bharatendu Harishchandra b. Srinivas Das c. Devaki Nandan Khatri d. Munshi Premchand

8. The first modern Hindi novel is:

a. Parikhsha-Guru b.Godan c.Chandrakanta d. Sevasadan

9. Which was the first novel written by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee?

a. Anandmath b. Sultana’s Dream c. Muktamala d. Durgeshnandini

10. Which one of the following novel is written by Rokeya Hussein?

a. Pariksha Guru b. Godan c. Anandmath d. Sultana’s Dream

11. Which of the following novels deals with caste oppression?

a. Sultana’s Dream b. Indu Lekha c. Saraswativijayam d. Godan

12. Which was the first historical novel written in Bengal?

a. Anandamath b.Anguriya Binimoy c. Sultana’s Dream d. Durgesh Nandini

13. Who was the central character of Prem Chand’s Rangbhoomi?

a. Tulsidas b. Surdas c. Kabirdas d. None of these

14. Which of the following novel was not written by Munshi Premchand?

a. Rangbhoomi b. Godan c. Sewasadan d. Pariksha-Guru

15. Name the novel which was based on the effect of industrialization.

a. Hard Times b. Oliver Twist c. Germinal d. Pickwick Papers


1. d 2. b 3.b 4. c 5. c 6. b 7. a 8. a 9. d 10. d 11. c 12. b 13. b 14. d 15. a

16. Read the following passage and answer the question given below it:

“Dear children, don’t read these novels, don’t even touch them. Your life will be ruined. You will suffer disease and ailments. Why did the good Lord make you – to wither away at a tender age? To suffer in disease? To be despised by your brothers, relatives and those around you? No, no. You must become mothers; you must lead happy lives; this is the divine purpose. You who were born to fulfill this sublime goal, should you ruin your life by going crazy after despicable novels?”
a.- Mention the source of the above given paragraph.

b.- Analyse the message given by the writer to children.

c.- Name the women social reformer of Calcutta (Kolkata), 1880- 1932.
17.-Explain any three reasons for the popularity of novels in eighteenth century in Europe?


* The words created by novels were absorbing and believable and seemingly real.

*Novels allowed individuals reading in private, as well as the joy of publicly reading or discussing stories with friends or relatives.

18.- Write a note on Jane Austen’s portrayal of women?

HINTS- The novels of Jane Austin gives us the glimpses of the world of women in rural society in early nineteenth century Britain. The main characters of Jane Austin’s novel “Pride and Prejudice” are entangled with marriage and money.

19. When did novels develop in India ?

HINTS- * Some of the earliest Indian novels are written in Bengali and Marathi.

*The earliest novel in Marathi was “Yamuna Paryatan”(1857).

* “Indulekha”was first modern novel in Malayalam.

* “Pariksha-Guru was first modern Hindi novel.

20.-Describe the development of novel in Hindi?

HINTS-.* Pariksha-Guru(1882) was first modern Hindi novel.

* The writing of Devaki Nandan Khatri created novel reading in the public in Hindi.

*It was with the writing of Premchand that the Hindi novel achieved excellence.

21.- Explain any two features of the early Bengali novel?

HINTS-* The early Bengali novels lived in two worlds. Many of these novels were based on historical events. Other novels described domestic life in contemporary settings.

*The language used in Bengali novels was colloquial at first. Meyeli was also used.

22- Write in brief about Charles Dickens novels which was based on the effect of industrialization?

HINTS-.* Charles Dickens wrote about the terrible effects of industrialization on people’s lives and characters in his novel “Hard Times”. In his novel “Oliver Twist”, Dickens focussed on the terrible conditions of urban life under industrial capitalism

23. Describe the features of the novels which were written for the young boys in 19th century in Europe?

HINTS-.* Novels for young boys idealized a new type of man: Some one who was powerful assertive, independent and daring.( Books like Rudyard Kipling’s “Jungle Book” became great hits.)

24.- Give an assessment of the contribution made by Vaikkam Muhammad Busheer to Malayalam literature ?

HINTS-.* Vaikkam Muhammed Basheer was one of the early Muslim writers to gain big name and fame as novelist in Malayalam.

*Basheer had little formal education.

*Basheer’s short novels and stories were written in the ordinary conversational language .

25.- Name the first modern novel in Hindi ,who wrote this novel? State four characteristics of this novel.

HINTS-* The first modern Hindi novel – “Pareeksha-guru”.

* It was written by Shrinivas Das.

* “Pareeksha-guru” reflects the inner and outer worlds of the newly emerging middle classes. The novel tries to teach the ‘right way’ to live.

26.- Describe how the works of Munshi Premchand reflect the social conditions of the Indian society in the early 20th century?

HINTS-.*Munshi Premchand was one of the greatest literary figures of modern Hindi and Urdu literature.

* His novel “Sevasadan” (1916) discusses the lives of ordinary people and social issues.

* The central character of his novel “Rangbhoomi” Surdas is a visually impaired beggar from the so-called (un-touchable) caste.

* His novel “Godan” is an epic on Indian peasantry.


1. 59 per cent of the country’s total population who speaks Dutch, lives in

a. Wallonia region

b. Brussels

c. Flemish region

d. none of these

2. Why did the Sri Lankan Tamils launched parties and struggled

a. to adopt majoritarianism

b to recognise Sinhalese as the only official language

c. to recognise Tamil as an official language

d. to dominate other language

3. Main significance of Belgian Model of Power Sharing

a. Majoritarianism

b. power shared in all ethnic groups according to their population

c. on the basis of adult franchise

d. none of the above

4. What is a coalition government?

a. power shared among different social group

b. power shared among different levels of government

c. power shared among different political parties

d. power shared among different organs of government

5. Where is the parliament of European Union

a. Belgium

b. Britain

c. Germany

d. France

6. Which of the following community is in majority in Sri Lanka

a. Tamil

b. Sinhala

c. Buddhist

d. Hindu

7. Which one of the following is the 3rd tier of government in India

a. Community Government

b. State Government

c. Panchayati Raj Government

d. b & c

8. Federalism is :

a. a form of unitary government

b. a government with two or multi levels of government

c. a form of autocratic government

d. a & c.

9. Which of the following is not a federal country

a. India

b. Belgium

c. USA

d. Malaysia

10. Which of the following is an example of holding together federation

a. Spain

b. Australia

c. India

d. a & c

11. How many languages are scheduled in the Indian Constitution?

a. 22

b. 21

c. 18

d. 20

12. How many subjects are enlisted in the Concurrent List

a. 66

b. 62


d. 66

13. When did the Panchayati Raj System become a constitutional entity

a. 1992

b. 1991

c. 1993

d. 1995

14. Which of the following is very important factor for better understanding between Centre and State’s Government:

a. Emergence of regional political party

b. the beginning of the era of coalition government

c. when no single party got a clear majority

d. all the above factors

15. Why is there a need for third level of government in India

a. a large number of problems and issues which are best settled at the local level

b. Indian states are large and internally very diverse

c. a & b

d. none of above.

Answers: 1.c 2.c 3.b 4.c 5.a 6.b 7.c 8.b 9.d 10.d 11.a 12.c 13.a 14.d 15.c

1. What are the accommodation for Central government and capital Brussels government in Belgian Model?

Ans.: A. Constitution prescribes that the number of Dutch and French-Speaking ministers shall be equal in the Central Government. Some special laws require members from each linguistic group. Thus, no single community can make decisions unilaterally.

B. Brussels has a separate government in which both the communities have equal representation. The French speaking people accepted equal representation in Brussels as Dutch is accepted in the Central government.

2. Explain in brief two reasons in favour of power sharing,.


“While prudential reasons stress that power sharing will bring out better outcomes, moral reasons emphasize the very act of power sharing as valuable.” Explain.

Ans.: A. Power sharing is good because it helps to reduce the possibility of social conflict between social groups. Since social groups often lead to violence and political instability, power sharing is a good way to ensure the stability of political order.

B. Power sharing is the very spirit of democracy. A democratic rule involves sharing power with those affected by its exercise, and who have to live with its effects. People have a right to be consulted on how they are to be governed. A legitimate government is one where citizens, through participation, acquire a stake in the system.

3. In what ways local government has helped to deepen democracy in our country? What are the difficulties faced by the local governments?

Ans.: Indian democracy has deepened through decentralization . This new system of local government is the largest experiment in democracy conducted anywhere in the world. There are now about 36 lakh elected representatives in the panchayats and municipalities etc., all over the country. This number is bigger than the population of many countries in the world. Constitutional status for local governments has helped to deepen democracy in India. It has also increased women’s representation and voice in our democracy.

At the same time, there are many difficulties. While elections are held regularly, gram sabhas are not held regularly. Most state governments have not transferred significant powers to the local governments. Nor have they given adequate resources.

4. Examine the significance of three fold distribution of legislative powers between Union Government and the State Government.

Ans.: 1. The list system shows that most federations that are formed by “holding together” do not give equal power to its constituent units. All states in the Indian Union do not have identical powers. Some states enjoy a special status.

2. This sharing of power between the Union Government and the state governments is basic to the structure of the constitution.

3. The parliament cannot on its own change this arrangement. Any change to it has to be first passed by both the Houses of Parliament with at least two-third majority. Then it has to be ratified by the legislative of at least half of the total States.

4. The judiciary plays an important role in overseeing the implementation of constitutional provisions and procedures. In case of any dispute about the division of powers, the High Courts and the Supreme Court make a decision.

5. Examine with example, the main difference between a federal form of government and a unitary one?
Ans.: Federal governments differ from unitary governments in the way political power is spread. In unitary system power is centered with the central authority and in federal system, Power is allocated to the state and local level governments.

In federal system power allocated seperately to the central and state level governments and is codified in the constitution. In unitary system there is no codification of the power.

In federal system the focus is on national and state issues and in unitary system the focus is completely on gaining power.

Example: Countries such as France, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom use the unitary system of government, The United States and Canada, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Germany, India, Mexico, and Switzerland use the federal system of government.


1. What are the different forms of power sharing in modern democracies? Give an example of each of these?


1. Power is shared among different organs of the government as legislature, executive and judiciary.

Legislature: The legislature is concerned with passing the laws, controlling the finance of the state and deliberating on matters of public importance. Executive: The executive machinery implements the policies of the government and executes the laws made by the legislative bodies. Judiciary: The judiciary is concerned with the interpretation of the laws and has the power to punish those who commit crimes or break the laws. Since no particular organ enjoys unlimited power in its area, it acts in-built checks and balances in the system. Since all the organs are at the same level to exercise different powers, it is also called horizontal distribution of power. Example: The constitution of India divides powers between the executive, legislature and judiciary.

2. Power is shared among governments at different levels such as between one federal or general government for the entire country and various regional or state governments at the sub-national level. Its aim is to reconcile national unity, interests and power with states rights and interests. The powers and rights are various levels of the country are clearly specified to avoid clashes and conflicts. This is called federal division of power and the divisions relating to higher and lower levels of the government are called vertical division of power. Example: Indian constitution establishes a dual polity in which the powers are divided between the union and the state governments.

3. Power is shared among various social groups which can be based on religious or linguistic lines. Community government as followed in Belgium falls into the category were all the major communities get power relating to their social matters. Also in some countries legal laws are made to represent the socially weaker sections in the legislature to ensure broad-based decision making.Example: Community government style as followed in Belgium.

4. Power is shared among various political parties so that there is competition among them to gain majority in the parliament. The multi-party system provides enough option for the voters to choose from and also keeps the ruling party under pressure to perform better and deliver to win majority in the future, sometimes several parties join together to prove their majority and thus, form a coalition government.

Example: The multi-party system as followed in India where there are national regional parties. Denmark also has about a dozen parties and the government is always by party coalitions.
2. What are the demerits of local self government?

Ans.1. Irregular Elections: In most states, election to panchayats are irregular and uncertain leading to monopoly of the previously elected powers.

2. Domination of Upper Caste: The Panchayati raj system is mostly dominated by the rich farmers, money lenders, and upper caste people.

So the Panchayati raj Act provides for reservation for SCs and STs in proportion to their population.

3. Ignorance, Illiteracy and poverty of the villagers: Ignorance about the rights is high among the villagers. Also illiteracy and poverty of the people lead to less enthusiasm about the Panchayati raj system.

4. Excessive Official Control: District officials interfere universally in the working

of the panchayats and also dissolve it or suspend it according to their will.

5. Lack of Adequate Funds: A lot of money is needed for the development activities and the sources of income are limited. This leads to ill-functioning of the panchayat system.

3. Examine the factors that make India a federal country. Write the name of two routes through which federations have been formed.
Ans. 1. Divisions of powers: The most important feature of federation is the division of powers between the central government and various state governments.

2. Written and Rigid Constitution: The second feature of a federal government is that it has a written, rigid and a supreme constitution.

3. An Independent Judiciary: India has an independent judicial system. The supreme court of India has original powers and has the exclusive authority of settling disputes between the government of India and one or more states, or between two or more states. Two routes of federation: (a) Coming together federation and (b) Holding together federation.
4. Explain the working of rural local government. What are the powers and responsibilities of panchayats?
Ans. Under the 3-tier system of decentralization, Zilla Parishad is the apex body at the District level. It is followed by Panchayat Samitis at the block level as the second tier and is further followed by Gram Panchayats as the third tier. Each village, generally, has a gram panchayat whose members are elected by the entire adult population of that village. A few gram panchayats are joined together to form a Panchayat Samiti or Block, all the Panchayat Samitis in a district collectively make the Zillah Parishad.

According to the constitutions, Panchayats shall be given power and authority in relation to following matters:

Preparation of plan for social development of the village.

Implementation of schemes for economic development of the village.

It will charge and collect all the due taxes, duties, tolls and fees.
5. What is majoritarianism? What’s wrong with a majority rule?
Ans. Majoritarianism is a political philosophy which asserts the majority of the population (majority by language, religion or any other identifying factor) has. It often results in preferential Policies being followed, favoring the majority group in university positions and government jobs and other opportunities and interests, thus denying the minority equal rights and opportunities

Advocates of majoritarianism argue that majority decision making is intrinsically democratic and that any restriction on majority decision making is intrinsically undemocratic. The only restriction acceptable in majoritarianism at present is that the present majority, denying the minority group equal representation in the governance and equal political rights. This results in tyranny of the majority which breeds the feeling of alienation among the minority group. Also the insensitivity to their language and culture and ignorance of their interests results in feeling of resentment and conflicts (often violent) among the groups which causes political instability and tensions in the country.

1. Here are three reactions to the language policy followed in India. Give an argument and an example to support any of these positions.
Sangeeta: “the policy of accommodation has strengthened national unity”.
Arman: “language based states have divided us by making everyone conscious of their language.”
Harish: “this policy has only helped to consolidate the dominance of English over all other languages.”
Ans. The reactions of Sangeeta in all of above reactions is being very close to the fact that the policy of accommodation of main languages has strengthened the national unity. Unlike Sri Lanka, the leaders of our country adopted a very cautious attitude in spreading the use of Hindi. According to the constitution the use of English for official purposes was to stop in 1965. However, many non Hindi speaking states demanded that the use English to continue.



  1. Some people, belonging to the same religion, often feel that they do not belong to the same community because-

  1. Their caste or society is different.

  2. Their religion is different.

  3. Social differences divide similar people,

  4. None of the above.

  1. In Mexico Olympics John Carlos and Smith received the winner’s medal without wearing shoes. Why?

  1. To represent Black poverty.

  2. To revolt against the white.

  3. To create tension between whites and black.

  4. To show their supremacy.

  1. Society is fairly homogeneous, i.e. there are no significant ethnic differences in –

  1. Germany (b) Sri Lanka (c) Belgium (d) China

  1. Which is the third crucial factor in deciding the outcome of politics of social divisions?

  1. People perceiving their identities.

  2. Political leaders raising the demands.

  3. Expression of various kinds of demands.

  4. Government reaction to the demand.

  1. Overlapping differences signifies-

  1. Religions and linguistic differences.

  2. Cross-Cut social differences.

  3. Some social difference overlaps with other differences.

  4. Cultural differences.

  1. The Civil Rights Movement in the USA covered the period-

  1. 1954-1968 (b) 1960-1980

(c) 1981-1987 (d) 2001-2007

  1. Democracy is the best way to fight for recognition and accommodate-

  1. Diversity (b) repression (c) Hostility (d) Poverty

  1. Among the following, which country suffered disintegration due to political fights on the basis of religion and ethnic identities-

  1. Belgium (b) India (c) Yugoslavia (d) Netherland

9.Which element shows the basic unity in India?

  1. Cultural Unity (b) Discrimination

(c) Unity in language (d) Religious Equality


  1. a 2. a 3. c 4. d 5. c 6. a 7. a 8. c 9. d


1.Read the following passage from a famous speech by Martin Luther King Jr. in 1963. Which social division is he talking about? What are his aspirations and anxieties? Do you see a relationship between this speech and the incident in Mexico Olympics mentioned in this chapter?
“I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the colour of their skin but by the context of their character. Let freedom ring and when this happens, and when we allow freedom ring- when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God’s children-black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles.Protestants and Catholics – will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual: ‘Free at last! Free at last! Thank God Almighty. We are free at last’. I have a dream that one day this nation will raise up and live out the true meaning of its creed; “we hold these truth to be self – evidence all men are created equal”.
Ans: - Martin Luther King Jr. is talking about racism in USA. He is referring to the segregation policies adopted by the white towards coloured people. He hopes for a country where there will be security for all and racial abuse will not occur. Everybody will be treated equally irrespectively. The speech and incident in the Mexico Olympics are both part of a movement.
2.What is the basis of social divisions-
Ans: - Language and regions, gender, caste, physical ability and disability and religion.
3.Who is a Migrant?
Ans: - Anybody who shifts from one region or country to another region within a country or to another country, usually for work or other economic opportunities is called a migrant.
4.Who was Martin Luther King Junior?
Ans: - Martin Luther King Junior was one of the prominent supporters of Civil Rights Movement in the USA. He was also a supporter of Mahatma Gandhi.
5.What was action taken against Negro athletes of Mexico Olympics?
Ans: -i. The International Olympic Association held Carlos and Smith guilty of violating the Olympic spirit by making a political issue.

  1. Their medals were taken back. Back home they were subjected to a lot of criticism.

  2. Norman Peter from Australia, who had won Silver medal and supported Smith and Carlos putting Human Rights badge was not included for the next Olympic team.

6.How do social differences overlap?


  1. Social differences take place when some divisions or social differences overlap each other.

  2. The difference between blacks and whites becomes a social division in USA because the blacks tends to be poor, homeless.

  3. In our country, Dalits tends to be poor,landless,socially deprived and face discrimination.

7.Who are African-Americans?

Ans:- African-Americans or Afro-American or Black are the terms used to refer mainly to the descendants of Africans who were brought into America as slaves between the 17th and the early 19th century.

8.What do you know about Civil Rights Movement?

Ans:- Civil Rights Movement took place in the USA during 1954-1968. It refers to a set of events and reform movements aimed at abolishing legal racial discrimination against African-Americans. It was led by Martin Luther King Jr. the movement practicised non-violent methods of Civil Disobedience against racial discriminatory laws and practices.

  1. Do you agree, are all the social differences based on accident by birth?

Ans:- No, I do not agree with the point that all social differences are accident by nature. Social difference means difference in a set of people due to their different race, language or culture. We can not choose which culture and family to be born in and as male or female. It is by birth that a person belongs to a particular community. Some social differences are due to a person’s own choice. He chooses which religion to follow and what to study in his life.
So, social groups are formed due to a person’s own decision and can not be termed as accident by birth.

  1. On what basis are social differences originated?

Ans:- Social differences are originated on the following basis-

  1. Based on accident of birth-

  1. Normally, we don’t choose to belong to one community we belong to it simply because we were born into it.

  2. We all experience social difference social differences based on accident of birth in our everyday life.

  1. Based on physical abilities or disabilities-

  1. There are discrimination based on gender, they are tall or short, have different kinds of complexion or have different physical abilities and disabilities.

  2. All kinds of social differences are not based on accident of birth.

  1. Differences based on choices-

Differences are based on choices like-

  1. Some people are atheists, they do not believe in God or any religion.

  2. Some people choose to follow a religion other than one in which they were born into .

  3. Most of us choose what to study, occupation and which games or sports or cultural activities to take part in.

  1. Give examples to prove that social differences cross-cut each other.


  1. If social differences cross-cut one another, it is difficult to put one group of people against the other.

  2. It means the groups that share common interest on one issue are likely to be on opposit sides on a different issue.

  3. In Northern Ireland, class and religion overlap with each other. A Catholic is more likely to be poor and they suffer discrimination.

  4. In the Netherlands, class and religion tend to cross-cut each other. Catholics and Protestants are both likely to be poor or rich. The result is that Catholics and Protestants have had conflicts in Northern Ireland, while they do not do so in the Netherlands.

So, cross-cutting social differences are easier to accommodate.

  1. Discuss three factors that determine the outcome of political social divisions.

Ans:- Social divisions affect politics. But the outcomes may differ. It may result in conflict, violence or even disintegration of the country.
There are three factors which are-

  1. How people perceive their identities-

If people see their identities in singular and exclusive terms, it becomes difficult to accommodate. It is much easier if people see their identities are multiple and are complementary with the national identity.

  1. How political leaders raise the demand of any community-

It is easier to accommodate demands that are within the constitutional framework and are not at the cost of another community. The demand for ‘Only Sinhala’ was at the cost of the interest and identity of Tamil community in Sri Lanka. Yugoslavia, the leaders of different ethnic communities presented their demands which could not be accommodated within a single community.

  1. How the gout reacts to demands of different groups-

The rulers should be are willing to share power and accommodate the reasonable demands of minority community, social threatening for the country. But if they try to suppress such a demand in the name of national unity the state may lead to disintegration.

  1. How do social divisions affect politics? Give examples.

Ans:- Combination of politics and social divisions is very dangerous and explosive. If people start competing in terms of some existing social division, it can make social division into political divisions and lead to conflicts, violence or even disintegration of a country.


  1. Northern Ireland- Its population is divided into two major seats of Chrisianity-53% per cent Protestant and 44% Roman Catholics.

  2. The Catholics were represented by the ‘Nationalist Party’ who demand that Northern Ireland be unified with the Republic of Ireland a predominantly Catholic country.

  3. The Protestants were represented by ‘Unionists’ who wanted to remain with the UK which is predominantly Protestant.

  4. Hundreds of civilians, militants were killed in the fight between Unionists and Nationalists and between security forces of UK and Nationalists.

  5. In 1998 the UK Govt. and Nationalist reached a peace treaty after which the nationalists suspended their armed struggle.

  1. Yugoslavia- Political competition along religious and ethnic lines led to disintegration of Yugoslavia in to six independent countries.

Like this we can say social divisions may affect politics.


Gender, Religion and caste

  1. In India seats are reserved for women in

  1. Lok Sabha

  2. State legislative assembly

  3. Panchayati raj bodies

  4. None of these

Ans: Panchayati raj bodies.

  1. Consider the following statements on the meaning of communal politics. Communal politics is based on the belief that

  1. One religion is superior to that of others

  2. People belonging to different religions can live together happily as equal citizens

  3. Followers of particular religion constitutes one community.

  4. State power can not be used to establish the domination of one religious group over others.

Which of the statements is/ are correct?

  1. a,b,c and d.

  2. a,b and d

  3. a and c

  4. b and d

Ans: a and c

  1. Literacy rate means

  1. Ratio of educated people among the whole population of a country.

  2. Ratio of uneducated people among the whole population of a country

  3. Ratio of educated women in the country.

  4. All the above.

Ans: Ratio of educated people among the whole population of a country.

  1. When we speak of gender division we usually refer to

  1. Biological difference between men and women.

  2. Unequal roles assigned by the society to men and women.

  3. Unequal child sex ratio.

  4. None of these.

Ans: Unequal roles assigned by the society to men and women.

  1. According to the census of India, 2001, what is the literacy rate of India

  1. 45.68%

  2. 58.45%

  3. 65.38%

  4. 66.48%

Ans: 65.38%

  1. According to the census of India, 2001, what is the percentage of the schedule tribes in India

  1. 6.8%

  2. 8.2%

  3. 10.4%

  4. 12.5%

Ans: 8.2%.

  1. Which among the following statements about Indian constitution is wrong? It

  1. Prohibits discrimination on grounds of religion.

  2. Gives official status to one religion.

  3. Provides to all individuals freedom to profess any religion.

  4. Ensures equality of citizens within religious communities.

Ans: Gives official status to one religion.

  1. Major religion of Sri Lanka is

  1. Buddhism

  2. Jainism

  3. Hinduism

  4. Christianity.

Ans: Buddhism.

  1. What is the percentage women’s reservation seat in the Lok Sabha in India

  1. 15%

  2. 21%

  3. 33%

  4. None of these.

Ans: None of these.

  1. Who among the following did not work to end the caste system.

  1. Jyotiba Phule

  2. Mahatma Gandhi

  3. Jawaharlal Nehru

  4. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar

Ans: Jawaharlal Nehru

  1. Which one is not related to secularism

  1. There is no official religion for the state.

  2. There is a particular official religion for the state.

  3. The Constitution prohibits discrimination on grounds of religion.

  4. All the citizens have right to choose any religion.

Ans: There is a particular official religion for the state.

  1. A person who believes in equal rights and opportunities for women and men is known as

  1. Communalist

  2. Feminist.

  3. Secularist.

  4. Castiest.

Ans: Feminist.

  1. A ladder like formation in which all the caste groups are placed from the highest to the lowest castes is called

  1. Occupational mobility

  2. Caste hierarchy

  3. Caste inequality

  4. None of these

Ans: Caste hierarchy.

  1. A system where father is the head of the family is known as

  1. Patriarchy

  2. Matriarchy

  3. Hierarchy

  4. None of these

Ans: Patriarchy.


Q1. What is sexual division of labour?

Ans: Sexual division of labour means the work is divided between the males and the females according to their gender. While dividing the work, the capability of a person is not considered and only the gender is taken into consideration. Generally, all the household – unpaid work is assigned to the females and males are supposed to go out for work and earn money for the family.

Q2. What is meant by communal politics?

Ans: The use of religion in politics where one religion is shown as superior to another religion is called communal politics. Here, one religious group is against the other religious group. It believes that followers of one religion belong to the same community and their interests, ideas and opinions are the same. It also believes that people belonging to different religions cannot be a part of the same community.

Q3. What is the role of politics in caste?

Ans: Casteism believes that every caste is a separate social community. People from different castes have different ideas, believes, interests etc. There is politics in caste also. Every caste group tries to increase its members by including various sub castes and neighboring castes. Different castes join together and form a coalition and then they demand to the government jointly.

Q4. What are the negative results of the caste in politics?

Ans: Political parties try to use caste to gain votes in the elections. They appeal to particular caste groups to ensure their votes in the election. They promise that the interest of the different caste groups would be taken care of and their demands would be fulfilled. Those promises help the political parties in gaining their support.

As a result, it might lead to division of political parties on the basis of caste where one political party represents one caste exclusively.

Q5. How is the caste system a threat to democracy?

Ans: Caste system implies denial of equality and freedom, hence is contrary to the principles of democracy.

  1. This type of politics is responsible for creating social tensions, violence and fear.

  2. It has given rise to instability of the political system.

  3. Political decision making has become scare.

Q6. What are the dimensions of gender inequality?

Ans: Gender inequality can be seen in the following:

  1. Low percentage of women in Parliament and state legislatures.

  2. Smaller share of women among senior officials and managers and among professional workers.

  3. Low literacy rate etc.


Q1. State four different forms of communal politics with one example each.

Ans: Communalism can take various forms in politics:

  1. People often believe that the ideas of their religion are superior to the ideas of other religions.

  2. People of a particular religion often want the maximum representation of their religion in the politics. This often results in domination of those belonging to the majority community.

  3. Communalism in politics sometimes takes the shape of political mobilization on communal lines.

  4. It leads to riots and violence. People demand separate state for people of separate religion at the cost of the other religion.

Q2. What are the constitutional provisions that make India a secular state?

Ans: The constitutional provisions that make India a secular state are as follows:

  1. There is no official religion in India. Every religion is given equal status.

  2. The constitution gives freedom to people to follow any religion of their choice.

  3. It does not allow any discrimination on the basis of religion.

  4. The state has the power to intervene in religious matters if they threaten the peace of the state.

Q3. What do you mean by sex ratio? Account for the declining sex ratio in India.

Ans: Sex ratio is defined as the number of females per thousand males in a country.

The unfavourable sex ratio in India can be attributed to the following factors:

  1. High maternal mortality rate.

  2. Low status of women.

  3. Neglect of girl child.

  4. Female foeticide.

  5. Patriarchal society.

  6. Preference for son etc.

Q4. Identify different measures aimed at gender empowerment in India?

Ans: Following are the measures aimed at gender empowerment:

  1. Women have been recognized as a separate target group since 1980s in developmental plans, for raising their status at par with men.

  2. National Commission for Women has been set up.

  3. Under the National Policy of Employment of Women, 2001 has increased the welfare and support service for women.

  4. The Equal Wages Act provides that the equal wages should be paid to both men and women for equal work.

Q5. What is communalism? Mention various factors which are responsible for the growth of communalism in India?

Ans: Communalism means to distinguish people on the basis of religion and to treat the persons belonging to one’s own religion as friends and others as enemies.

Factors of growth of communalism:

  1. When economic and social distance between two communities increases.

  2. Communally included media have an easy way to reach their followers.

  3. This has taken the form of terrorism and militancy from across the border.

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Popular Struggles And Movements

  1. What was the aim of the extraordinary movement that Nepal witnessed in 2006?

a)Restoring democracy. b)Abolishing untouchability.

c)Bringing down military rule. d)Division of Nepal.

Ans. (a) Restoring democracy.
2) How did King Gyanendra take advantage of the weak democratically elected government?

a)He rigged the elections.

b)He dismissed the Prime Minister.

c)He dismissed the parliament.

d)Both (b) and (c).

Ans.. (d) Both (b) and (d).

3)The”SEVEN PARTY ALLIANCE” was formed by:

a)Maoist insurgents. b)Non-governmental organizations.

c)Major political party. d)Local people.

Ans.. c)Major political party.

4)What was the cause of struggle for the people of Bolivia?

a)Monarchy. b)Poverty.

c)Unemployment d)Privatisation of water.

Ans.. d)Privatisation of water.

5)What was the Bolivian Protest called?

a)Bolivian War. b)Bolivia’s Water War.

c)Water of Bolivia. d)Bolivian Crisis.

Ans.. b)Bolivia’s Water War.

6)Democracy evolves through:

a)Popular struggles. b)Significant decision.

c)Popular demands. d)Shared feelings.

Ans..a)Popular struggles.
7)How did people protest in the KITTIKO-HACHCHIKO movement?

a)Planted saplings b)Plucked more trees.

c)Plucked eucalyptus plant and planted other saplings.

d)Plucked all eucalyptus trees on the 30,000 hectare of land.

Ans.. c)Plucked eucalyptus plant and planted other saplings.
8)The protest in Bolivia was lead by-

a)The people. b)Political party.

c)Municipalities. d)FEDECOR.

Ans.. d)FEDECOR.

9)Which out of the following is a feature of PRESSURE GROUPS ?

a)Directly control on political power.

b)Attempt to influence government policies.

c)Have a loose organization.

d)Directly control political power.

Ans.. b)Attempt to influence government policies.

10)Which out of the following depends much more on spontaneous mass participation?

a)Movements. b)Pressure groups.

c)Political parties. d)Interest groups.

Ans.. a)Movements.

11)Which out of the following can be classified as a type of public interest group?

a)Trade unions. b)FEDECOR.

c)Doctors. d)Teachers.

Ans.. b)FEDECOR.

12)Which out of the following is an example of movements growing into political


c)Asom Gana Parishad. d)BAMCEF

Ans.. d)BAMCEF

13)Which out of the following is not a single issue movement:

a)Narmada Bachao Andolan.

b)Nepalese movement.

c)Environmental movement.

d)None of these.

Ans.. c)Environmental movement.

14)Pressure groups with _______ public support but more money can hijack public discussions:

a) Moderate b) Less

c) No d) More

Ans.. b) Less

15) Which of the following is an example of a sectional interest group ?

a) FEDECOR b) Human rights organizations

c) Trade Unions d) Anti-liquor movements

Ans.. c) Trade Unions.


  1. What is an interest group? Clarify the difference between interest group and pressure group.

Ans: a. When people belonging to common interests organise themselves, they form an interest group.

b. They are voluntary groups which represent the social, economic or political interests of a particular section of the society.

When an interest group starts seeking government help for the promotion of its interests and tries to influence the laws and policies of the government it turns into a pressure group.

  1. Give any two features each of sectional and promotional pressure groups in India.

Ans: a. Sectional interests groups seek to promote the interests of a particular section or group of people. They are called sectional interest groups because they represent a section of the society. On the other hand, public interest groups seek to promote collective rather than selective good.

b. The sectional interest groups work for the well-being and betterment of their own members and not of the society in general. On the other hand, the aim of public interest groups is to fight for the general welfare of the society and not for the good of its own members.

  1. How does a movement differ from an interest group?

Ans: Movement has a loose organisation. Its decisions are more informal and flexible. They depend more on spontaneous mass participation and do not struggle in a very organized way.

On the other hand, interest groups have an organisation duly elected by its members which work in an organised manner. The decisions of interest groups are very formal.

  1. Give a comparative analysis of the protest movements in Nepal and Bolivia.

Ans: a. The movement of Nepal was to establish ‘Democracy’ while the struggle in Bolivia involved claims on an elected democratic government.

b. The popular struggle in Bolivia was about one specific policy, while the struggle of Nepal was about the foundation of the country’s politics.

c. Both these struggles were successful but their impact was at different levels.

  1. Describe the main reasons of the popular struggle against privatisation of water in Bolivia.

Ans: The popular struggle in Bolivia started when the Bolivian elected government sold its municipal water supply rights to a multinational company. The company immediately raised the price of water. Many people received water bill of Rs.1000 in a country where average income is around Rs.5000 a month. This led to a spontaneous popular protest.

The struggle ended when water supply was restored to the municipality at old rates.


  1. Describe the relationship between pressure groups and political parties.

Ans.. The relationship between pressure groups and political parties are given below :

    1. In many cases, the pressure groups are being formed or led by political parties. These pressure groups act as extended arms of political parties. e.g. labour unions are formed by different political parties.

    2. Sometimes political parties grow out of movements. e.g. when the Assam movement led by students against the foreigners, came to an end, it led to the formation of Asom Gana Parishad.

    3. In most cases, relationship between parties and interest or movement groups is not so direct. They often take positions that are opposed to each other. Movement groups have raised new issues that have been taken up by political parties. Most of the new leaders of political parties come from interest or movement groups.

  1. Explain how the activities of the pressure groups are useful in the functioning of a democratic government.

Ans.. a) Pressure groups and movements have deepened democracy in many ways. Putting pressure on the rulers is not an unhealthy activity in a democracy as long as everyone gets opportunity.

b) Governments can often come under undue pressure from small groups of rich and powerful people. Public interest groups and movements perform a useful role of countering these undue influence and reminding the government of the needs and concerns of ordinary citizens.

c) Even the sectional interest groups play a valuable role. Where different groups function actively, no single group can achieve dominance over one society. If one group brings pressure on government to make policies in its favour, another will bring counter pressure, not to make policies in the way the first group desires. The government gets to hear about different sections of the populations what they want.

  1. What do you know about Bolivia’s popular struggle ?


Discuss briefly the populous struggle of the Bolivia.

Ans.. Bolivia is a Latin American Country which is very poor. Due to the pressure of World Bank, government gave up the control of municipalities over water and sold its rights to a Multi-National company (MNC) in the city of Cochabamba.

  1. Company very quickly increased the price by four times and started to collect bills for it. In a country like Bolivia, where average income of the people is around Rs.5000/- per month, people were given Rs.1000/- as water bills. Due to this reason, spontaneous popular protest started in Bolivia.

  2. In Jan,2000, many human rights organizations and other parties organized a four day general strike. Government agreed to negotiate and strike was called off but nothing happened.

  3. Police started brutal repression and agitation was again started in February. Government imposed material law but the protest of the people forced MNC officials to leave the city. The government conceded to the demands of the strike and the contract with MNC was cancelled.

  4. Supply of water was given to Municipalities. This was known as Bolivia’s Water War.

  1. Which type of conclusions could be drawn from popular struggles of Nepal and Bolivia ?

Ans.. In Nepal people tried to restore democracy by over throwing the authority of the king and they succeeded in it. In Bolivia people tried to defy the government’s rule of paying bills of water to an MNC and they also succeeded in it. We can draw many conclusions from both the movements.

    1. Democracy can be restored with the help of people. It is possible that any important matter could be resolved with consensus. In democracy, there is always a conflict between those who have power and those who want to gain power.

    2. Conflicts in democracy can be resolved through mobilization of masses.

    3. At the time of conflicts, many new political organizations come into being. People participate in that protests which is being held by new political organizations. With the help of political organizations, public protests become more effective.

  1. How can we participate in any type of struggle in democracy?

Ans. The meaning of democracy is government of the people, for the people and by the people. Ours is a representative government, where the elected representatives make policies for the country. Many a times people disapprove these policies and start to oppose them.

Many a times, people come into direct conflict with government. They struggle against the government with the help of peaceful marches, protests, strikes, violent struggles etc. e.g. popular struggle in Nepal and Bolivia.

In democracy we can participate in any struggle in two ways : -

a) Direct participation in election –

One can make ones own political party, call for mass mobilization, contest elections and win over the majority.

b) Indirect participation –

Pressure groups can be formed and protest movements can be started to pressurize the government to amend its policies. Pressure groups share political power without taking part in politics.

HOTS ( High Order Thinking Skills Questions) : -

1. In 1984, the Karnataka government set up a company called Karnataka Pulpwood Ltd. About 30,000 hectares of land was given virtually free of this company for 40 years. Much of this land was used by farmers as grazing land for their cattle. However, the company began to plant Eucalyptus trees on this land which could be used for making paper pulp. In 1987, a movement called Kittiko-Hachchiko started a non-violent protest, where people plucked the Eucalyptus plants and planted saplings of trees that were useful to the people.

Suppose you belong to any of the following groups, what arguments would you put forward to defend your side : a local farmer, and environmental activist, a government official working in this company or just a customer of paper. Choose any one option.
Ans.. 1. AS A LOCAL FARMER :- We should have formed a farmer union. We would meet the highest official of the government with the request that the grazing land belong to the farmers and they should not be deprived from their common land.

  1. AS AN ENVIRONMENTAL ACTIVIST :- Being an environmental activist, we should have taken out procession, followed by demonstration to draw the attention of the government and force the government to cancel the contracts with the company.

  1. AS A GOVERNMENT OFFICIAL :- Being a part of government institution, we would try to convince the farmers about the benefit like employment, development of the village, better facilities to the villagers etc.

  1. AS A CONSUMER OF PAPER :- We should request the government to give back the land to the farmers. The government should look for new patches of land where trees can be planted to provide raw materials for paper industries.


Political Parties

  1. What is meant by two-party system?

  1. Two parties run the government

  2. Two members run a party

  3. Two parties contest elections

  4. None of these

Answer: c-

  1. What system of government does India have?

  1. One-party system

  2. Two-party system

  3. Multi-party system

  4. None of these

Answer: c- Multi party system

  1. What is an ‘alliance’?

  1. One party contests elections

  2. Several parties join hands for contesting elections

  3. Two parties contest elections

  4. None of these

Answer: b-

  1. What are ‘National parties’?

  1. Parties which have units in various states

  2. Parties which have no units

  3. Parties which have units in two states

  4. Parties which have units in all states

Answer: (a)

  1. On what ideologies does the Indian National Congress rest?

  1. Communalism (b) Socialism (c) Federalism (d) Secularism

Answer: (d)

  1. The Bhartiya Janta Party (BJP) came to power in 1998 as the leader of :

  1. United Progressive Alliance

  2. Left front

  3. National Democratic Alliance

  4. None of these

Answer: ©

  1. Who is the founder of the Bahujan Samaj Party ( BSP)?

  1. Jyotiba Phule (b) Kanshi Ram (c) B.R. Ambedkar (d) Sahu Maharaj

Answer: (b)

  1. The main base of BSP is in

  1. Punjab (b) Delhi (c) Haryana (d) Uttar Pradesh

Answer: (d)

  1. Which party enjoys a strong hold in Tripura, West Bengal and Kerala?

  1. CPI (M) (b) CPI (c) BSP (d) BJP

Answer: (a)

  1. Which out of the following is a ‘state party’?

  1. INC (b) AGP (c) BJP (d) CPI(M)

Answer: (b)

11. What is 'defection'?

a) Loyality towards a party

b) Changing party allegiance

c) Political Reforms

d) None of these

Answer: (b)
12. Which out of the following is a feature of Partisanship?

    1. Inability to take a balance view

    2. Similarity of views

    3. Represents the individual

    4. None of these

Answer: (a)

13. Who is a Partisan?

      1. Disloyal party member

      2. Staunch party member

      3. Estranged party member

      4. None of these

Answer: (b)

14. How many parties are registered with the Election Commission of India?

  1. About 500

  2. About 650

  3. About 700

  4. About 750

Answer: (d)

15. What is meant by a one party system?

  1. One single party runs the government

  2. One single person runs the party

  3. When the king rules the country

  4. When one party is allowed to contest elections

Answer: (a)
1. Why do we need political parties?

Ans. (i) Political parties are easily one of the most visible institutions in a democracy.

(ii) For most ordinary citizens, democracy is equal to political parties.

(iii) Political parties in a populated country like India help in forming the government. Political parties have become omnipresent in democracies all over the world.

2. What are the main features/characteristics of a political party?

Ans. Features/Characteristics:

(i) They agree on some policies and programmes for the society with a view to promote collective good .

(ii) Since there can be different views on what is good for all, parties try to persuade people why their policies are better than others.

(iii) They seek to implement these policies by winning popular support through elections.

(iv) Parties are a part of society and thus involve partisanship.

(v) A party is known by what it stands for, which policies it supports and whose

interests it upholds.

3. What party system can be ideal for any country? Why did India choose to have a multi-party system?

Ans. Party system is not something any country can choose. It evolves over a long time, depending on the nature of the society, its social and regional divisions, its history of politics and its system of elections.

These cannot be changed quickly. Each country develops a party system that is conditioned by its special circumstances.

India has evolved a multi party system. It is because the social and geographical diversity. In such a large country is not easily absorbed by two or even three parties. No system is ideal for all countries and all situations.

Q.4. What is the difference between a National party and a State party?

Ans. There are three major differences between a national party and regional/ state party.

i. National parties have influence all over the country or in several states of India. The influence of a state party is limited to a state or a region.

ii. National parties take interest in national as well as international issues; whereas regional or state parties are interested in promoting regional / state interest only.

iii. The national parties have to harmonise the national as well as state interests; whereas state parties usually stand for greater autonomy for states.
Q.5. What is the role of the opposition party in a democracy?

Ans. i. Opposition parties mobilize opposition to the government.

ii. It keeps its different views in front of the parliament and criticises the government for its failures or wrong policies.

iii. By doing this, it can keep a check on the ruling party, which is made to move on the track.


  1. What are the main functions of a political party?

Ans: Main functions of a political party are:

(i) To contest elections: In democracies, elections are fought mainly

among the candidates put up by political parties. Parties select

their candidates in different ways. In India, top party leaders

choose candidates for contesting elections.

(ii) Forming policies and programmes: Parties put forward different

policies and programmes and the voters choose from them.

Each of us may have different opinions and views on what

policies are suitable for the society.

(iii)Making laws: When parties come into power, they make laws

for the country. Formally laws are debated and passed in the

legislature. Members of the ruling party follow the directions

of party leaders, irrespective of their personal opinions.

(iv)Parties form and run government: Parties recruit leaders, train

them and then make them ministers to run the government in

the way they want.

(v) Role of opposition: Parties that lose in elections, play the role

of opposition to the parties in power by criticizing the govt. for

its failures or wrong policies.

(vi)Shaping public opinion: They raise and highlight issues. Parties

have lakhs of members and activists spread all over the country.

Many of the pressure groups are extension of political parties

among different sections of the society. Parties, sometimes also

launch movements for the resolutions of problems faced by


(vii)Access to government machinery and welfare schemes: For any

ordinary citizen, it is easy to approach a local party leader than

a government officer. That is why they feel close to parties even

when they do not fully trust them. Parties have to be responsive

to people’s needs and demands.

  1. Why modern democracies cannot exist without political parties?

Ans: (i) We can understand the necessity of political parties by imagining

a situation without parties. Every candidate in the elections will

be independent. So no one will be able to make any promises to the

people about any major policy changes.

(ii) Elected representatives will be accountable to their constituency

for what they do in the locality. But no one will be responsible for

how the country runs.

(iii) India also has non-party based elections to the panchayats in many

states. Although parties do not contest formally, it is generally

noticed that the village splits into more than one fraction, each of

which puts up a ‘panel’ of its candidates. This is exactly what the

party does. That is why, we have political parties in almost all

countries of the world.

(iv) The rise of political parties is directly linked to the emergence of

representative democracies, large-scale societies need representative democracy. Large societies needed some way to bring

various representatives together so that a responsible government

could be formed.

  1. Describe the various party systems existing in various countries.

Ans: i) One-party system:

(a) In some countries, only one party is allowed to control and

run the government. It is called a one-party system.

(b) We cannot consider one party system as a good option

because this is not a democratic option.

(c) Any democratic system must allow at least two parties to

compete in elections and provide a fair chance for the

competing parties to come to power.

Example- Communist party China.

(ii)Two-party system:

(a) In some countries, power usually changes between two main parties.
(b) Here, only the two main parties have a serious chance ofwinning majority seats to form the government. Example- USA and UK


(iii)Multi-party system:

  1. If several parties compete for power, more than two parties

have a reasonable chance of coming to power, either on their own or in alliance with others, it is called a multi-party system.

  1. The multi-party system often appears very messy and leads

to political instability.

  1. At the same time, this system allows a variety of interests

and opinions to enjoy political representation.

Example: India.Coalition government: NDA. UPA, Left Front.

  1. What are the challenges of political parties?

Ans: (i) Lack of internal democracy:

(a) All over the world, there is a tendency of political parties

towards the concentration of power in one or few leaders at the


(b) Parties do not keep membership register.

(c) They do not regularly hold organisational meetings.

(d) They do not conduct internal elections regularly.

(e) Ordinary members of the party do not have sufficient

information on what happens inside the party.

  1. As a result, the leaders assure greater powers to make the

decisions in the name of the party.

(ii) No transparency:

  1. Since most political parties do not practice open and

transparent procedures for their functioning, there are very

few ways for an ordinary worker to rise to the top in a party.

(b) Those who happen to be the leaders are in a position of unfair advantage to favour people close to them or even their family members.

(c) In many parties, the top positions are always controlled by members of one family.

(d) This is also bad for democracy since people who do not have adequate experience or popular support come to occupy positions of power.

(iii) Money and muscle power:

  1. Since parties are focussed only on winning elections, they tend to use short cuts to win elections.

  2. They tend to nominate those candidates who have or can raise lots of money.

  3. Rich people and companies who give funds to the parties tend to have influence on policies and decisions of the party.

  4. In some cases, parties support criminals who can win elections.

  5. Democrats all over the world are worried about the increasing role of rich people and big companies in democratic politics.

(iv) Meaningful choices:

  1. In order to offer meaningful choice, parties must be

significantly different.

  1. In recent years, there has been a decline in ideological

differences among parties in most parts of the world.

  1. Those who want really different policies have no option

available to them.

  1. Sometimes, people cannot elect very different people either,

because the same set of leaders keep shifting from one to another.

  1. Suggest some reforms to strengthen the parties so that they perform their duties well.

Ans: (a) The Constitution was amended to prevent elected MLAs

and MPs from changing parties. MLAs and MPs were indulging

in Defection in order to become ministers or for cash rewards.

Now the law says that if any MLA or MP changes his/her party

he or she will lose the seat in the legislatures.

(b) The Supreme Court passed an order to reduce their influence of

money and criminals. Now, it is mandatory for every candidate

who contests elections to file an affidavit giving details of his

property and criminal cases pending against him if any.

(c) The Election Commission passed an order making it necessary

for political parties to hold their income tax returns.

Besides these, many suggestions are often made to reform

political parties:

(i) It should be made necessary for political parties to regulate

the internal affairs of political parties. It should be made

compulsory for political parties to maintain a register of its


(ii) Parties should be asked to give at least one third of the seats

to women.

(iii) There should be state funding of elections. The government

should give parties money to support their election


(iv) Ordinary citizens, pressure groups, movements and media

can play an important role by pressurizing political parties

to bring in reforms.

Read the passage and answer questions below:
Muhammad Yunus is a famous economist of Bangladesh. He

received several international honours for his efforts to promote

economic and social development for the benefit of the poor. He

and the Grameen Bank started jointly, he received the Nobel Peace

Prize for year 2006. In February 2007, he decided to launch a political

Party and contest in the parliamentary elections. His objective was to

foster proper leadership, good governance and build a new

Bangladesh. He felt only a political party different from the traditional

ones would bring about new political culture. His party would be

democratic from the grass root levels.

The launching of the new party, called Nagarik Shakti

(Citizen’s Power), has caused a stir among the Bangladeshis. While

many welcomed his decision, some did not like it. “Now I think

Bangladesh will have a chance to choose between good and bad

eventually have a good government,” said Shahedul Islam, a

government official. “That government, we hope, would not only

keep itself from corruption but also make fighting corruption and

black money a top priority.” But leaders of traditional political parties who

Dominated the country’s politics for decades were apprehensive.

There was no debate (over him) winning the Nobel, but politics is

different- very challenging and often controversial,” said a senior

leader of the Bangladesh Nationalist Party. Some others were highly

critical. They asked why he was rushing into politics. “Is he being

planted by the mentors from outside the country,” asked one political

1. Do you think Yunus made a right decision to float a new political