Anatomy & Physiology – AHS 131 – Lecture and Laboratory – 4 Credits SEMESTER: Spring 2014 INSTRUCTOR: Dr. Steven Lindner PHONE: 516-827-1933 eMAIL: Steven.Lindner@ ncc.edu OFFICE: CLASS MEETING TIME and ROOM: COURSE DESCRIPTION AHS 131 is designed to introduce the student to the basic anatomy and physiology of the human body. Detailed analysis will then be given to the organization, chemical composition, cellular components and composition, major tissues and organs systems of the body. In addition, the anatomy and physiology of the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, and nervous system are discussed. This analysis entails both a microscopic anatomical evaluation of tissues and a gross anatomical evaluation of the body form. Sufficient detail is presented and reinforced to satisfy post-graduate requirements and prepare the student for future health related studies. COURSE OBJECTIVE To provide the student with the vocabulary and critical thinking skills necessary to understand and discuss the basic concepts of Human Anatomy & Physiologyand to formulate an understanding of the basic concepts of the chemical and the cellular levels of organization as well as the design and function of the following human skeletal, muscular and central and peripheral nervous systems. To examine the wide variety of cellular functions and physiological processes, metabolism, that enable the human organism to maintain a balanced internal environment, or homeostasis. COURSE CONTENT
The definition of anatomy and physiology, levels of body organization, life processes, body fluids, homeostasis, and feedback systems.
The organization of matter, chemical bonds, chemical reactions, structure and significance of the inorganic substances (water, acids, bases, and salts), pH, buffer systems, enzymes, and the structure and significance of organic compounds (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids).
The parts of the cell, the plasma membrane, transport processes across the plasma membrane, vesicular transport, the cytoplasm, the cytosol, and the organelles, including the cytoskeleton, centrosome, flagella and cilia, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex, lysosomes, peroxisomes, mitochondria, and the nucleus.
The types of tissues, classification of tissues, cell junctions, epithelial tissues (including covering, lining and glandular epithelium), connective tissues (including loose, dense regular and irregular, cartilage, and blood connective tissues), membranes, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue.
The structure and function of the skin (epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis) and its epidermal derivatives, including hair, glands, and nails. Factors contributing to skin color and deep wound healing, and a comparison of the structural and functional differences in thin and thick skin.
The functions of the skeletal system, the structure and classification of bone, histology of bone, the blood and nerve supply of bone, and intramembranous and endochondral ossification. The physiology of bone growth in width and length, along with the factors that affect bone growth and development. Bone remodeling as a homeostatic process and bone’s role in calcium homeostasis. Fractures and the effects of exercise on bone tissue. Osteoporosis, rickets and osteomalacia are included as examples of homeostatic imbalances.
The various types of joints, structural classification (fibrous, cartilaginous, and synovial), and functional classification (synarthroses, amphiarthroses, and diarthroses) of joints. The anatomy, operation, and location of these classes of joints, the movements of synovial joints, anatomy of the shoulder and knee joints. Clinical disorders including torn cartilage, bursitis, sprain strain, rheumatism, and arthritis are briefly studied.
The physiological characteristics of muscle tissue and its histological classification into skeletal, cardiac, and smooth types, the connective tissue components of skeletal muscle, the nerve and blood supply, the microscopic anatomy of a skeletal muscle fiber including the sarcolemma, T tubules, sarcoplasm, myofibrils, sarcoplasmic reticulum, filaments, sarcomere, and muscle proteins. The sliding filament mechanism of skeletal muscle contraction and the relationship of neuromuscular junction.
Muscle metabolism is broken down into the three sources for ATP production, muscle fatigue, and oxygen debt. The multiple factors that combine to allow the body to adjust muscle tension. Cardiac and smooth muscle are compared and contrasted to skeletal muscle. Medical disorders including myasthenia gravis and muscular dystrophy are discussed.
The relationship between bones and muscles, movement produced by skeletal muscles relative to muscle attachment sites, lever systems and leverage, effects of fascicle arrangement, and coordination within muscle groups. The criteria for naming skeletal muscles. The general disorders discussed include running injuries and compartment syndromes.
The structures of the nervous system and their basic functions, along with the organization of the nervous system. The histology of neurons and neuroglia, the process of myelination, and the comparison between gray and white matter. Electrical signals in neurons are discussed based upon ions channels, the resting membrane potential, graded potentials, the action potential, saltatory conduction, speed of nerve impulse conduction, and comparison of electrical signals produced by excitable cells. Electrical and chemical synapses and excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials, removal of neurotransmitters, and the different classes of neurotransmitters.
The principal anatomical and functional features of the spinal cord and its coverings, the meninges, and the vertebral column. The spinal cord is discussed in terms of its functions as a conduction pathway and a reflex center. Reflexes are explained, important reflexes are categorized according to type, and several clinically important reflexes are discussed. The major nerves emerging from the cervical, brachial, lumbar, and sacral plexuses are considered.
The principal anatomical and functional features of the brain, cranial meninges, and blood supply, as well as the formation and circulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is discussed. The brain stem, cerebellum, diencephalon, cerebrum, basal ganglia, limbic system, cerebral cortex areas and functions, and the function and location of the cranial nerves are considered.
The comparison of the somatic and autonomic nervous systems (ANS), the anatomy of the autonomic pathways includes discussions of the pre- and post-ganglionic neurons and the autonomic ganglia and plexuses. The ANS neurotransmitters and receptors are considered. The sympathetic and parasympathetic responses and the autonomic innervation of each of the major body organs and glands. The control of ANS functions by autonomic reflexes and higher brain centers concludes the study of the ANS.
The meaning and levels of a sensation and the components of a sensation. Receptors are studied in terms of structural classification, location (interoreceptors and exteroreceptors), types of stimuli detected, and adaptation. The somatic sensations examined include tactile sensations, thermal sensations, pain sensations, and proprioceptive sensations (muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs).
ADOPTED TEXTBOOK Martini, Frederick, (2008). PRINCIPLES OF ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY (9TH edition). New York: Pearson Publishing
ADOPTED LABORATORY MANUAL Wood, Michael G. (2013). Laboratory Manual for Human Anatomy and Physiology: Main Version, (5TH edition). New York: Pearson Publishing.
Four (4) non-cumulative Lecture Exams.................................................... 50% of Final Grade
All lecture exams will be announced in advance (see syllabus for Dates). Each exam will consist of multiple-choice questions and true-false questions and is worth 100 points. The lecture final exam will NOT be cumulative. Make-up exams will be available but must be taken within 1 week of the scheduled exam or during a scheduled time that we have agreed upon. These make up exams can be essay format. If you do not make up the exam within 1 week you will receive a zero for that exam – NO EXCEPTIONS. Therefore you MUST contact me immediately if you are ill and will miss an exam so that we can schedule your make up exam. Please provide a doctor’s note if possible for your absence. ALL exams count toward your final grade. We do not drop the lowest grade.
Four (4) non-cumulative Laboratory Exams…………………………….. 50% of Final Grade
All laboratory exams will be announced in advance (see syllabus for Dates). Each exam will consist of 50 fill-in-the-blank questions relating to histological specimens, anatomical models and any additional information at the discretion of the instructor. Make-up exams are at the discretion of the instructor and may NOT be available.
ALL exams count toward your final grade. We do not drop the lowest grade.
An extra point may be added to your Final Overall Average with good attendance and class participation.
YOUR FINAL COURSE GRADE THAT IS REPORTED TO THE REGISTRAR WILL CONSIST OF
50% OF THE FINAL LECTURE GRADE ADDED TO 50% OF THE FINAL LABORATORY GRADE.
Attendance to lectures and laboratories is mandatory. Unexcused absences in excess of 10% of the total class meeting time may result in being dropped from the class. Active participation in class discussions and laboratory exercises is vital to learning. The lectures, discussions, and laboratory exercises adhere to the syllabus and the examinations and quizzes are based primarily (but not entirely) on the lecture noteswhich may include information not discussed in the textbook. In general, students who do not attend lecture and laboratory on a regular basis usually perform inadequately on the examinations. The lecture period also provides the student with an opportunity to have their questions answered. Therefore, attendance, participation and homework are required and will be
considered when computing the final grade. Students who anticipate the necessity of being absent from a scheduled examination for ANY reason must provide notice of the date(s) to the instructor at the beginning of the semester, preferably in writing. Each UNEXCUSED absence causes credit to be deducted from the FINAL GRADE calculation. If any student accumulates TWO (2) UNEXCUSED absences from the lecture classes and
TWO (2) UNEXCUSED absences from the laboratory sessions (for a total of FOUR (4) UNEXCUSED absences), he or she will receive a FAILING grade. ACADEMIC HONESTY and INTEGRITY STATEMENT All students are expected to abide by the College’s Policy on Academic Honesty. This policy may be viewed in the Nassau Community College Catalogue. Procedures for Handling Violations of Academic Honesty by Students at Nassau Community College are detailed in Faculty Policy Series #ll (rev. 2004.)
It is expected that every student conduct themselves in an academically honest manner. A zero-tolerance policy toward cheating will be enforced. Any student who knowingly uses unauthorized materials during an exam, copies or shares information from the test of another student, or submits someone’s work or words as their own,will receive a zero score on the examination or assignment and be reported to the Department Chair and the Dean of Students. DISABILTY RELATED CONCERNS If you have a physical, psychological, medical or learning disability that may have an impact on your ability to carry out the assigned coursework, I urge you to contact the staff at the Center for Students with Disabilities (CSD), Building U, (516) 572-7241, TTY (516) 572-7617. The counselors at CSD will review your concerns and determine to what reasonable accommodations you are entitled as covered by the Americans with Disabilities Act and section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. All information and documentation pertaining to personal disabilities will be kept confidential.
HOMEWORK Please read the appropriate textbook chapters and Laboratory Exercises prior to the scheduled class in order to enhance your understanding of the information presented. Present questions about material you do not understand in class and lab so that the instructor can clarify this information for you. ELECTRONIC DEVICES Please turn all cell phones, I pods and the like OFF (not vibrate or silence mode) prior to the beginning of the lecture classes and the laboratory sessions and refrain from reading the newspaper, conducting distracting conversations, doing work for other courses and surfing the world wide web. If you are using your phone, etcetera during class you will be asked to leave class and you will miss the material and be marked absent for that class.
Videotaping of the Lecture and/or Laboratory classes is at the discretion of the instructor. You must ask for your instructor’s permission prior to any taping or recording.
No disruptive or disrespectful behavior will be tolerated at any time. Please respect your instructor and your fellow classmates. OTHER CONSIDERATIONS Students not meeting the above expectations will be graded on the material submitted prior to the last day of class. A grade of INCOMPLETE will be considered only upon consultation with the instructor. Students are encouraged to contact the instructor in person or by e-mail for questions about the course content and their grades.
OFFICIAL WITHDRAWALS from the class are authorized by the instructor of the Lecture Class. The student must fill out an official withdrawal form and this form must be signed by the instructor. UNOFFICIAL WITHDRAWALS will result in a FAILING grade (F) for the course. There are no extra credit assignments to improve your grade average. The course POWERPOINT PRESENTATIONS are available on AHS Common Blackboard site (accessible through ncc.edu). Instructors can use Blackboard to distribute announcements, syllabi, class notes, grades, etcetera. Therefore, check it often. Communication via e-mail may also be utilized through the students’ official NCC account. The instructor reserves the right to revise or amend these requirements and/or the grading criteria, as necessary.
GRADING SCALE (No Deviations Are Permitted):
90 to 100
85 to 89
80 to 84
75 to 79
70 to 74
65 to 69
60 to 64
Less than 59
ALL POWERPOINTS can be downloaded at www.NutritionChiroDoc.com
#15 Neural review Final Exam 100 Questions 11-15 & Powerpoints
ALL 4 EXAMS ARE NON-CUMULATIVE. ALL 4 EXAMS COUNT TOWARDS YOUR FINAL GRADE. MAKE UP EXAMS CAN BE WRITTEN ESSAY FORMAT.
HOMEWORK EACH WEEK IS TO READ THE CHAPTER AND ANSWER PRACTICE QUESTIONS AT THE END OF THE CHAPTER PRIOR TO CLASS. For example, if we will be covering chapter 2 in class, please read that chapter prior to class. I will be covering the material at a rapid pace, going over the major topics from that chapter, if you have not reviewed that chapter prior to class you might be confused during the lecture and you will not be able to ask questions about the material you have read.
IN ADDITION, YOU ARE TO REVIEW AND FILL IN THE DEFINITIONS FOUND IN YOUR STUDY OUTLINE PRIOR TO OUR CLASS MEETING FOR THAT CHAPTER. This will allow you to ask questions about terms you did not understand or were confusing. YOU ARE RESPONSIBILE FOR and WILL BE TESTED ON ALL THE CHAPTERS ON THIS CURRICULUM.
TENTATIVE SCHEDULE FOR LAB AND EXAMINATIONS
HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY I LABORATORY (AHS 131)
E Building, Room 107
WEEK 1: Exercise 1 01-21-14 Safety Exercise 2 Intro to Anatomy and Physiology:
EXAMS ARE NON-CUMULATIVE. ALL 4 EXAMS COUNT TOWARDS YOUR FINALGRADE.
HOMEWORK EACH WEEK IS TO READ THE EXERCISES AND ANSWER LAB QUESTIONS IN THE LAB REPORT PRIOR TO OUR CLASS MEETING. For example, if we will be covering exercise 25 in class, please read that exercise prior to class. We will be covering the material at a rapid pace, going over the major topics from that exercise, if you have not reviewed that exercise prior to class you might be confused during the lab and you will not be able to ask questions about the material you have read. IN ADDITION, YOU ARE TO REVIEW AND FILL IN THE LAB REPORTS. YOU ARE RESPONSIBILE FOR and WILL BE TESTED ON ALL THE EXERCISES ABOVE.