Segment 1 Exam Review



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Segment 1 Exam Review

This review is neither a replica of the exam nor does it contain every concept in the module or what may be on the exam. This review contains only the concepts in the regular lessons. It is always best practice to review all lessons and assessments. Resubmitting is a great way to review/learn and improve your grade. In this review, questions 1 – 21 are the general topics for the multiple choice type questions on the module exam; questions 22-25 are covered as essays on the exam. There are approximately 61 questions (about 5 are essays) on the regular exam; approximately 74 questions (about 10 are essays) on the honors exam. The number in parenthesis corresponds to the lesson for that question.



Student Help Site (Teaching videos and all module reviews): http://bit.ly/ZtUhQK

Multiple Choice Topics

  1. What is science? (1.02)




  1. Define pseudoscience and list one example. (1.02)



  1. How can we increase the scientific reliability of scientific claims? (1.02)




  1. Describe important factors when testing a hypothesis. (1.02)




  1. Explain why the model of the atom has changed so much. (1.02)



  1. Why is it important to test alternative explanations to hypothesis? (1.03)



  1. Compare scientific theory and scientific law. (1.03)




  1. An infomercial claims their product will grow hair in 2 weeks. It has been advertised in many popular magazines as well. How could the company increase the scientific reliability of this claim? (1.03)



  1. Explain what a scientist could do to contribute to the strength of a scientific theory. (1.03)



  1. Environmental scientists and biologists investigate the causes of global warming. Explain how having scientists with different backgrounds and expertise will affect the predictions made by the group of scientists. (1.03)



  1. Scientists tracking the extinction of certain animals have found a sudden increase in the population of one species. One group of scientists have analyzed the data and hypothesized that new laws preventing hunting of this species have contributed to this change in population. Another group of scientists have hypothesized that this population trend is part of a cycle related to ecosystem changes. If these two groups of scientists have access to the same population data, describe how they could have formed two very different hypotheses. (1.03)



  1. A scientist in America published her findings from a scientific investigation that she conducted. What could this scientist do in order to strengthen the findings of her investigations? (1.03)



  1. According to the lesson, “Observation and experimentation have led some scientists to accept a theory about the origin of the universe, known as the Big Bang Theory. Scientific evidence suggests that our universe is ever-expanding from a hot and dense initial state. Some evidence that supports this theory is cosmic microwave background radiation that is uniform throughout the universe. This supports the notion that the gas which emitted this radiation long ago was very uniformly distributed.” Why is this considered a theory and not a law? (1.02-1.03)




  1. List 4 types of equipment commonly found in the lab and identify what it measures. What equipment do we need to determine density of a liquid? (1.04)




  1. Compare kinetic and potential energy; include at least 4 types of each. (1.05)




  1. Give an example of a situation where potential energy is being converted into

kinetic energy. (1.05)


  1. Define temperature. Give three common units to measure temperature. (1.05)




  1. Convert 2.34 cm to nm. (1.06)




  1. Is the following group of data accurate, precise, both or neither if the true measurement is 13.74 cm? Data collected: 12.45 cm, 12.75 cm, 12.52 cm. (1.07)




  1. How many significant figures are in the measurement 0.02040 cm? (1.07)




  1. Describe the implications of Rutherford’s experiment. (2.01)




  1. Why do theories sometimes evolve over time? (2.01)



  1. Describe the implications of Thomson’s cathode ray experiment. (2.01)




  1. How many protons, neutrons and electrons are in an atom of sulfur? (2.02)




  1. An atom has 50 electrons, 52 protons and 67 neutrons. What is the atomic mass and overall charge of this atom or ion? What is the identity? (2.02)




  1. Does chlorine-34 have the same number of neutrons as calcium-40? (2.02)




  1. The atomic and mass numbers for four different atoms are given below. Which two are isotopes? (2.03)




Atom

Atomic Number

Atomic Mass (amu)

A

29

63

B

30

63

C

29

65

D

28

65




  1. How many atoms are in 24.9 g of Al? (2.04)




  1. How many grams of gold are there in 5.35 moles? (2.04)




  1. Which of the following contains the greatest mass? (2.04)

    1. 23.7 g C

    2. 2.10 moles C

    3. 6.45 X 1023 atoms C




  1. Describe what happens when a gaseous atom is placed in a flame. (2.05)




  1. What is a line spectrum? (2.05)




  1. Describe how energy, frequency and wavelength are related. (2.05)




  1. What is the general electron configuration for a noble gas? (2.06)




  1. What would be the most likely charge of an ion formed from an atom with the electron configuration: 1s22s22p63s23p3 (2.06)




  1. Compare Moseley and Mendeleev’s periodic tables. (3.01)




  1. Explain how the modern periodic table was derived. (3.01)




  1. Could the following pair of elements, A and B, possibly be in the same group on the periodic table? Explain why or why not. (3.02)

A tends to form a 1+ ion; B tends to gain one electron.


  1. Identify at least 1 element that Lithium would have properties most similar to. (3.02)




  1. Does the following ordered pair of elements show a decrease in ionization energy and an increase in radius? (3.03)

Cl and F


  1. Which element on the periodic table has the smallest atomic radius? (3.03)




  1. Identify a compound which experiences hydrogen bonding. (3.07)




  1. Identify a compound which contains only single bonds? (3.06)




  1. Identify a compound which contains both ionic and covalent bonds? (3.06)




  1. What will be the formula of a compound formed by magnesium and phosphorus? (3.05/3.08)



  1. What is the name of the acid with the formula HNO3? (3.08)




  1. What is the name of the acid with the formula H3N? (3.08)




  1. What is the name of the compound Pb(SO4)2? (3.08)




  1. What is the molar mass of Pb(SO4)2? (2.04/3.09)




  1. Define physical and chemical properties. (4.01)




  1. List three physical and three chemical properties. (4.01)




  1. Define extensive and intensive properties. Give an example of each. (4.01)




  1. When the following reaction is balanced with the lowest possible whole number coefficients, what is the coefficient in front of CO2? (4.02)

C2H4 + O2  CO2 + H2O


  1. Pick two chemicals, that when placed together would NOT produce a successful single-replacement reaction. (4.03)

  2. What is the balanced equation when sulfur trioxide reacts with water? (4.04)



  1. If 4.65 moles of barium react with excess bromine gas, how many grams of barium bromide can be produced? (4.06) Equation: Ba + Br2  BaBr2




  1. When 2.6 mol HCl react with 9.6 mol Mg(OH)2, what is the limiting reactant and how many moles of H2 can be formed? (4.07)

unbalanced equation: Mg(OH)2 + HCl  MgCl2 + H2O

  1. If the reaction of 3.75 moles of lithium with excess hydrofluoric acid produced a 96.5% yield of hydrogen gas, what was the actual yield of hydrogen gas? (4.08) Unbalanced equation: Li + HF LiF + H2


Essay Topics


  1. Create a question that can be tested through science. Create a question that cannot be tested through science Explain why these can or cannot be. (1.02)




  1. Pick one scientist (Dalton, Crookes, Thomson, Rutherford or Chadwick) and explain how the experiment led to specific changes to the model of the atom. (2.01)



  1. Write the complete balanced equation for the reaction between LiNO3 and Mg3P2. (4.02-4.05)



  1. List one of the products that forms when Mg(OH)2 decomposes. (4.04)



  1. Write the balanced equation for the combustion of C5H12. (4.05)



  1. If 5.24 grams of sodium nitrate reacts with 4.35 grams of aluminum phosphate to produce 2.50 g of sodium phosphate, what are the theoretical yield and percent yield of this reaction? Be sure to show the work that you did to solve this problem. (4.06-4.08) unbalanced equation: NaNO3 + AlPO4  Na3PO4 + Al(NO3)3


Segment 1 Exam Review ANSWER KEY

Multiple Choice Topics

  1. What is science? (1.02)

Science is the effort to increase an understanding of the world around us by using the knowledge acquired and to acquire new knowledge.


  1. Define pseudoscience and list one example. (1.02)

A pseudoscience is a practice or belief that claims to be science, but does not or cannot follow the scientific method. Astrology is an example.

  1. How can we increase the scientific reliability of scientific claims? (1.02)

We can increase the reliability by having the hypothesis tested by an independent organization. The greater number of scientists throughout the globe who conduct the experiment will increase the strength of any claim.

  1. Describe important factors when testing a hypothesis. (1.02)

A scientist should be unbiased, having no stake in the outcome of the experiment. The scientist should use creativity to design experiments and have other scientists test the hypothesis by conducting their own experiments. Once data is collected, the scientist should look at the variables to ensure this is the only explanation.

  1. Explain why the model of the atom has changed so much. (1.02)

Objective experimentation by independent organizations across the globe have brought about new discoveries which enhances our knowledge. Therefore, we must revise our current theories.

  1. Why is it important to test alternative explanations to hypothesis? (1.03) Ans: A scientist will strengthen support for a theory if he continues to test alternative explanations and determine them to be invalid. Without testing alternative, we can never be sure that the results we get are truly the only explanation.




  1. Compare scientific theory and scientific law. (1.03)

A scientific theory tries to explain why things happen the way they do in the natural world. A scientific law tells us what happens in nature (does NOT explain why). Remember this: Law is the ‘what’; theory is the ‘why’. A theory NEVER becomes a law as a why cannot become a what. Those are two completely different concepts.


  1. An infomercial claims their product will grow hair in 2 weeks. It has been advertised in many popular magazines as well. How could the company increase the scientific reliability of this claim? (1.03)

To increase reliability, an experiment should be repeated by independent organizations across the globe by scientists who are objective and gain nothing from the outcome.

  1. Explain what a scientist could do to contribute to the strength of a scientific theory. (1.03)

To increase the strength of a theory, a scientist should have numerous independent organizations across the globe test the theory by conducting their own experiments; these organizations should represent a variety of points of view, consider alternative explanations, and use creativity to design their experiments.

  1. Environmental scientists and biologists investigate the causes of global warming. Explain how having scientists with different backgrounds and expertise will affect the predictions made by the group of scientists. (1.03)

Scientists with diverse backgrounds and specialties will strengthen an experiment/theory as it shows that regardless of the specialty, the scientists agree on the results.

  1. Scientists tracking the extinction of certain animals have found a sudden increase in the population of one species. One group of scientists have analyzed the data and hypothesized that new laws preventing hunting of this species have contributed to this change in population. Another group of scientists have hypothesized that this population trend is part of a cycle related to ecosystem changes. If these two groups of scientists have access to the same population data, describe how they could have formed two very different hypotheses. (1.03)

Scientists with different backgrounds and specialists may interpret data differently. This will cause the need for more experimentation and data collection.

  1. A scientist in America published her findings from a scientific investigation that she conducted. What could this scientist do in order to strengthen the findings of her investigations? (1.03)

This scientist could have an independent organization formed by diverse scientist’s test her hypothesis by conducting experiments.

  1. According to the lesson, “Observation and experimentation have led some scientists to accept a theory about the origin of the universe, known as the Big Bang Theory. Scientific evidence suggests that our universe is ever-expanding from a hot and dense initial state. Some evidence that supports this theory is cosmic microwave background radiation that is uniform throughout the universe. This supports the notion that the gas which emitted this radiation long ago was very uniformly distributed.” Why is this considered a theory and not a law? (1.02-1.03)

A theory explains why something happens. In this example, the scientists are attempting to explain what their data shows. A law has been tested again and again and is accepted as what happens.


  1. List 4 types of equipment commonly found in the lab and identify what it measures. What equipment do we need to determine density of a liquid? (1.04)




Equipment:

Measures this variable:

Variable Units:

Graduated cylinder

volume

mL (base unit: L)

Triple beam balance

Mass

Kg, g (base unit: g)

Digital balance

mass

Kg, g (Base unit: g)

Ruler

length

in, cm, (base unit: m)

For a liquid, we need balance and a graduated cylinder

density

g/L, g/mL (common unit: g/L)



  1. Compare kinetic and potential energy; include at least 4 types of each. (1.05)

Potential energy is stored energy. Examples include: stored mechanical energy, chemical, nuclear and gravitational energy. Kinetic energy is energy in motion. Examples include: mechanical, electrical, radiant, sound and thermal energy.


  1. Give an example of a situation where potential energy is being converted into

kinetic energy. (1.05)

A ball that was sitting atop a hill begins moving down the hill. At the top, the ball has potential energy while it is sitting. The potential energy is converted into kinetic energy when the ball begins rolling down the hill.




  1. Define temperature. Give three common units to measure temperature. (1.05)

Temperature is the measure of a substances average kinetic energy. Three common units are the Kelvin, degrees Celsius (°C) and degrees Fahrenheit (°F – only in America)

  1. Convert 2.34 cm to nm. (1.06)

There are many ways to do this type of problem by simply moving the decimal the correct number of places or by using dimensional analysis. I personally like to convert back to the main unit (meters in this case), then to the other unit. This prevents a lot of silly errors that can occur when trying to take short cuts.
2.34 cm X X = 2.34 X 107 nm


  1. Is the following group of data accurate, precise, both or neither if the true measurement is 13.74 cm? Data collected: 12.45 cm, 12.75 cm, 12.52 cm. (1.07)

This data is pretty close to one other; therefore, they are considered precise. The group of data is not close to the accepted value of 13.74; therefore they are not accurate.


  1. How many significant figures are in the measurement 0.02040 cm? (1.07)

There are 4 significant figures 0.02040 cm. Here is a quick explanation if you have difficulty in which I explain all the rules into two basic categories:
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