Educational Decisions and Corresponding Types of Assessment
SCREENING/BENCHMARKING DECISIONS: Tier 1: Brief screenings to quickly indicate whether students in the general-education population are academically proficient or at risk.
PROGRESS-MONITORING DECISIONS: At Tiers 1, 2, and 3, ongoing ‘formative’ assessments to judge whether students on intervention are making adequate progress.
INSTRUCTIONAL/DIAGNOSTIC DECISIONS: At any Tier, detailed assessment to map out specific academic deficits , discover the root cause(s) of a student’s academic problem.
OUTCOME DECISIONS: Summative assessment (e.g., state tests) to evaluate the effectiveness of a program.
Source: Hosp, M. K., Hosp, J. L., & Howell, K. W. (2007). The ABCs of CBM: A practical guide to curriculum-based measurement. New York: Guilford Press.
NYSED RTI Guidance Document: October 2010
Source: New York State Education Department. (October 2010). Response to Intervention: Guidance for New York State School Districts. Retrieved November 10, 2010, from http://www.p12.nysed.gov/specialed/RTI/guidance-oct10.pdf
Source: New York State Education Department. (October 2010). Response to Intervention: Guidance for New York State School Districts. Retrieved November 10, 2010, from http://www.p12.nysed.gov/specialed/RTI/guidance-oct10.pdf; p. 19
Tier 1: The Key Role of Classroom Teachers in RTI Jim Wright www.interventioncentral.org
RTI ‘Pyramid of Interventions’
Tier 1: Universal interventions. Available to all students in a classroom or school. Can consist of whole-group or individual strategies or supports.
Tier 2 Individualized interventions. Subset of students receive interventions targeting specific needs.
Tier 3: Intensive interventions. Students who are ‘non-responders’ to Tiers 1 & 2 are referred to the RTI Team for more intensive interventions.
Source: New York State Education Department. (October 2010). Response to Intervention: Guidance for New York State School Districts. Retrieved November 10, 2010, from http://www.p12.nysed.gov/specialed/RTI/guidance-oct10.pdf; p. 12
Can be delivered within classrooms or throughout the school.
Is an ongoing process of developing strong classroom instructional practices to reach the largest number of struggling learners.
All children have access to Tier 1 instruction/interventions. Teachers have the capability to use those strategies without requiring outside assistance.
Tier 1 instruction encompasses:
The school’s core curriculum.
All published or teacher-made materials used to deliver that curriculum.
Teacher use of ‘whole-group’ teaching & management strategies.
Tier I instruction addresses this question: Are strong classroom instructional strategies sufficient to help the student to achieve academic success?
Tier I (Classroom) Intervention
Tier 1 intervention:
Targets ‘red flag’ students who are not successful with core instruction alone.
Uses ‘evidence-based’ strategies to address student academic or behavioral concerns.
Must be feasible to implement given the resources available in the classroom.
Tier I intervention addresses the question: Does the student make adequate progress when the instructor uses specific academic or behavioral strategies matched to the presenting concern?
The Key Role of Classroom Teachers as ‘Interventionists’ in RTI: 6 Steps
The teacher defines the student academic or behavioral problem clearly.
The teacher decides on the best explanation for why the problem is occurring.
The teacher selects ‘evidence-based’ interventions.
The teacher documents the student’s Tier 1 intervention plan.
The teacher monitors the student’s response (progress) to the intervention plan.
The teacher knows what the next steps are when a student fails to make adequate progress with Tier 1 interventions alone.
Interventions: Potential ‘Fatal Flaws’
Any intervention must include 4 essential elements. The absence of any one of the elements would be considered a ‘fatal flaw’ (Witt, VanDerHeyden & Gilbertson, 2004):
Clearly defined problem. The student’s target concern is stated in specific, observable, measureable terms. This ‘problem identification statement’ is the most important step of the problem-solving model (Bergan, 1995), as a clearly defined problem allows the teacher or RTI Team to select a well-matched intervention to address it.
Baseline data. The teacher or RTI Team measures the student’s academic skills in the target concern (e.g., reading fluency, math computation) prior to beginning the intervention. Baseline data becomes the point of comparison throughout the intervention to help the school to determine whether the intervention is effective.
Source: Witt, J. C., VanDerHeyden, A. M., & Gilbertson, D. (2004). Troubleshooting behavioral interventions. A systematic process for finding and eliminating problems. School Psychology Review, 33, 363-383.