# Science Unit 4 Plan Grade 6 Force and Motion

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Science Unit 4 Plan

Force and Motion

Number of Days for Unit: 25 days

Unit 4: Force and Motion

NJDOE -Model Curriculum – NGSS

How can we predict the motion of an object?

Students use system and system models and stability and change to understanding ideas related to why some objects will keep moving and why objects fall to the ground. Students apply Newton’s third law of motion to related forces to explain the motion of objects. Students also apply an engineering practice and concept to solve a problem caused when objects collide. The crosscutting concepts of system and system models and stability and change provide a framework for understanding the disciplinary core ideas. Students demonstrate proficiency in asking questions, planning and carrying out investigations, designing solutions, engaging in argument from evidence, developing and using models, and constructing explanations and designing solutions. Students are also expected to use these practices to demonstrate understanding of the core ideas.

This unit is based on MS-PS2-1, MS-PS2-2, MS-ETS1-1, MS-ETS1-2, MS-ETS1-3, and MS-ETS1-4.

Student Objectives:

Apply Newton’s Third Law to design a solution to a problem involving the motion of two colliding objects. * [Clarification Statement: Examples of practical problems could include the impact of collisions between two cars, between a car and stationary objects, and between a meteor and a space vehicle.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to vertical or horizontal interactions in one dimension.] (MS-PS2-1)

Plan an investigation to provide evidence that the change in an object’s motion depends on the sum of the forces on the object and the mass of the object.[Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on balanced (Newton’s First Law) and unbalanced forces in a system, qualitative comparisons of forces, mass and changes in motion (Newton’s Second Law), frame of reference, and specification of units.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to forces and changes in motion in one-dimension in an inertial reference frame and to change in one variable at a time. Assessment does not include the use of trigonometry.] (MS-PS2-2)

Define the criteria and constraints of a design problem with sufficient precision to ensure a successful solution, taking into account relevant scientific principles and potential impacts on people and the natural environment that may limit possible solutions. (MS-ETS1-1)

Evaluate competing design solutions using a systematic process to determine how well they meet the criteria and constraints of the problem. (MS-ETS1-2)

Analyze data from tests to determine similarities and differences among several design solutions to identify the best characteristics of each that can be combined into a new solution to better meet the criteria for success. (MS-ETS1-3)

Develop a model to generate data for iterative testing and modification of a proposed object, tool, or process such that an optimal design can be achieved. (MS-ETS1-4)

Concepts:

Part A:

• For any pair of interacting objects, the force exerted by the first object on the second object is equal in strength to the force that the second object exerts on the first, but in the opposite direction (Newton’s third law).

• Models can be used to represent the motion of objects in colliding systems and their interactions, such as inputs, processes, and outputs, as well as energy and matter flows within systems.

• The uses of technologies and any limitations on their use are driven by individual or societal needs, desires, and values, by the findings of scientific research and by differences in such factors as climate, natural resources, and economic conditions.

• The more precisely a design task’s criteria and constraints can be defined, the more likely it is that the designed solution will be successful.

Formative Assessment:

Students who understand the concepts are able to:

• Apply Newton’s third law to design a solution to a problem involving the motion of two colliding objects.

• Define a design problem involving the motion of two colliding objects that can be solved through the development of an object, tool, process, or system and that includes multiple criteria and constraints, including scientific knowledge that may limit possible solutions.

• Evaluate competing design solutions involving the motion of two colliding objects based on jointly developed and agreed-upon design criteria.

• Develop a model to generate data to test ideas about designed systems, including those representing inputs and outputs.

• Analyze and interpret data to determine similarities and differences in findings.

• The change in an object’s motion depends on balanced (Newton’s first law) and unbalanced forces in a system Evidence that the change in an object’s motion depends on the sum of the forces on the object and the mass of the object includes qualitative comparisons of forces, mass, and changes in motion (Newton’s second law); frame of reference; and specification of units

• The motion of an object is determined by the sum of the forces acting on it; if the total force on the object is not zero, its motion will change.

• The greater the mass of the object, the greater the force needed to achieve the same change in motion.

• For any given object, a larger force causes a larger change in motion.

Explanations of stability and change in natural or designed systems can be constructed by examining the changes over time and forces at different scales.

Formative Assessments:

Students who understand the concepts are able to:

• Plan an investigation individually and collaboratively to provide evidence that the change in an object’s motion depends on the sum of the forces on the object and the mass of the object.

• Design an investigation and identify independent and dependent variables and controls, what tools are needed to do the gathering, how measurements will be recorded, and how many data are needed to support a claim.

• Make logical and conceptual connections between evidence and explanations.

Examine the changes over time and forces at different scales to explain the stability and change in designed systems

NGSS

Performance Expectations:

Students who demonstrate understanding can:
 MS-PS2-1. Apply Newton’s Third Law to design a solution to a problem involving the motion of two colliding objects.* [Clarification Statement: Examples of practical problems could include the impact of collisions between two cars, between a car and stationary objects, and between a meteor and a space vehicle.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to vertical or horizontal interactions in one dimension.] MS-PS2-2. Plan an investigation to provide evidence that the change in an object’s motion depends on the sum of the forces on the object and the mass of the object. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on balanced (Newton’s First Law) and unbalanced forces in a system, qualitative comparisons of forces, mass and changes in motion (Newton’s Second Law), frame of reference, and specification of units.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to forces and changes in motion in one-dimension in an inertial reference frame and to change in one variable at a time. Assessment does not include the use of trigonometry.]

Science and Engineering Practices

3. Planning and Carrying Out Investigations

• Plan an investigation individually and collaboratively, and in the design: identify independent and dependent variables and controls, what tools are needed to do the gathering, how measurements will be recorded, and how many data are needed to support a claim. (MS-PS2-2)

6. Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

• Apply scientific ideas or principles to design an object, tool, process or system. (MS-PS2-1)

1. Asking Questions and Defining Problems

• Define a design problem that can be solved through the development of an object, tool, process or system and includes multiple criteria and constraints, including scientific knowledge that may limit possible solutions. (MS-ETS1-1)

7. Engaging in Argument from Evidence

• Evaluate competing design solutions based on jointly developed and agreed-upon design criteria. (MS-ETS1-2)

Disciplinary Core Ideas:

PS2.A: Forces and Motion

• For any pair of interacting objects, the force exerted by the first object on the second object is equal in strength to the force that the second object exerts on the first, but in the opposite direction (Newton’s third law). (MS-PS2-1)

• The motion of an object is determined by the sum of the forces acting on it; if the total force on the object is not zero, its motion will change. The greater the mass of the object, the greater the force needed to achieve the same change in motion. For any given object, a larger force causes a larger change in motion. (MS-PS2-2)

• All positions of objects and the directions of forces and motions must be described in an arbitrarily chosen reference frame and arbitrarily chosen units of size. In order to share information with other people, these choices must also be shared. (MS-PS2-2)

ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting Engineering Problems

• The more precisely a design task’s criteria and constraints can be defined, the more likely it is that the designed solution will be successful. Specification of constraints includes consideration of scientific principles and other relevant knowledge that are likely to limit possible solutions. (MS-ETS1-1)

ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions

• There are systematic processes for evaluating solutions with respect to how well they meet the criteria and constraints of a problem. (MS-ETS1-2)

• A solution needs to be tested, and then modified on the basis of the test results, in order to improve it. (MS-ETS1-4)

• There are systematic processes for evaluating solutions with respect to how well they meet the criteria and constraints of a problem. (MS-ETS1-2), (MS-ETS1-3)

• Sometimes parts of different solutions can be combined to create a solution that is better than any of its predecessors. (MS-ETS1-3)

• Models of all kinds are important for testing solutions. (MS-ETS1-4)

ETS1.C: Optimizing the Design Solution

• Although one design may not perform the best across all tests, identifying the characteristics of the design that performed the best in each test can provide useful information for the redesign process—that is, some of those characteristics may be incorporated into the new design. (MS-ETS1-3)

The iterative process of testing the most promising solutions and modifying what is proposed on the basis of the test results leads to greater refinement and ultimately to an optimal solution. (MS-ETS1-4)

Cross Cutting Concepts

Systems and System Models

• Models can be used to represent systems and their interactions—such as inputs, processes and outputs—and energy and matter flows within systems. (MS-PS2-1)

Stability and Change

• Explanations of stability and change in natural or designed systems can be constructed by examining the changes over time and forces at different scales. (MS-PS2-2)

Connections to Engineering, Technology,  and Applications of Science

Influence of Science, Engineering, and Technology on Society and the Natural World

• The uses of technologies and any limitations on their use are driven by individual or societal needs, desires, and values; by the findings of scientific research; and by differences in such factors as climate, natural resources, and economic conditions. (MS-PS2-1)

• All human activity draws on natural resources and has both short and long-term consequences, positive as well as negative, for the health of people and the natural environment. (MS-ETS1-1)

• The uses of technologies and limitations on their use are driven by individual or societal needs, desires, and values; by the findings of scientific research; and by differences in such factors as climate, natural resources, and economic conditions. (MS-ETS1-1)

Assessments
Suggested Formative Assessments:

• Participation in investigation (following the procedures of the lab and scientific drawing) and class discussion

• Journals (observations, claims and evidence, conclusion)

• Lab Report Responses to reading materials

• Notebook Investigation Entries

• Student Observations

• Anecdotal Notes during Performance task

• Homework

Summative Assessments:

Pre-Assessment

Essay Responses

Projects

Post Assessment

Discovery Education Tech Book Unit Overview

Part A. Force and Motion - Straight Line Motion

Part B. Interaction of Force and Mass
Teachers begin each part of the unit by engaging students in a phenomenon/anchoring event. The anchoring event is a specific event in which students observe and provide their explanation of the event. More information about anchoring events can be found here: goo.gl/ULVptn As students learn about forces and motion they will take their learning and connect it back to their original explanation of the anchoring event. Groups are an effective method for working with explanatory models. More information about them can be found here: http://ambitiousscienceteaching.org/tools-face-to-face/#Smallgroup
After presenting students with the event, students will explore Newton’s Laws through reading core interactive text, inquiry based investigations, and videos. Listed below are high leverage resources teachers can use. Paired with the resources are links to instructional strategies that would be effective for implementation. Teachers are encouraged to have students work in a guided inquiry style lesson, but if students need additional structure the teacher should provide that. Additional detailed instructional ideas can be found at Part A: https://google.discoveryeducation.com/learn/techbook/units/aca7980d-a6c7-475d-9d82-87d45a377a7e/concepts/26f1b297-b9d6-49e4-b3c3-b4f4e0150c90/lesson/overview and Part B; https://google.discoveryeducation.com/learn/techbook/units/aca7980d-a6c7-475d-9d82-87d45a377a7e/concepts/46b1fc10-8fdc-4e55-a6b6-14b34ae5cb71/lesson these “model lessons” should not be implemented as is, but can be a valuable resource for teachers looking for strategies and suggestions as they craft their plan. The class should keep a summary table for all learning experiences. More on summary tables with samples can be found at: http://ambitiousscienceteaching.org/tools-face-to-face/#Summtable
Students will provide scientific explanation using their conceptual understandings of Newton’s Laws to explain phenomena through daily documentation. Students should regularly revisit and revise their original explanations around the phenomena. Strategies for working on and improving scientific explanations can be found here: http://ambitiousscienceteaching.org/tools-face-to-face/#Sticky
Students will finalize their scientific explanations of the anchoring event. They should use a teacher created rubric to evaluate their explanation and include evidence to support their claim. The rubric listed in the explain tab of Discovery Education is a starting point for the rubric, and could be used, but the teacher may want to add specific details related to force and motion. Student’s original and revised explanations serve as formative assessments measuring progress, while the final explanation should be the summative assessment. Students could submit this as an essay, a digital media project, or some other representation that allows them to communicate their claim, evidence, and reasoning. https://google.discoveryeducation.com/learn/techbook/units/aca7980d-a6c7-475d-9d82-87d45a377a7e/concepts/46b1fc10-8fdc-4e55-a6b6-14b34ae5cb71/tabs/0df56444-5400-41eb-a6ce-de52b7efb950
*What students should understand: (To be shown in their final products)- comes from the evidence statement
Given a problem to solve involving the collision of two objects, students design a solution to protect one of the colliding objects. Students will identify the components within the system and collision, the force exerted on the second object by the first object, how newton’s third law will be applied to designing the solution, and the technologies (any human made material or device) that will be used in the solution. Students will describe how specific criteria and constraints are applied to the solution. They should describe how the criteria are appropriate and the constraints, (which may include but is not limited to; cost, mass and speed of objects, time, materials.) Students will use their knowledge of Newton’s Third Law to systematically determine how well the design meets the specified criteria and constraints. They will identify the value of the solution to society, and determine how the choice of technologies that are used in the design is affected by the constraints of the problem and the limits of technological advances.

##### Key Vocabulary

speed, inertia, action, force, acceleration, measure, position, velocity, motion, action, work, thrust, weight, mass, inertia, wedge, friction, force,conservation of mass, acceleration, wheel, lever, simple machine, balance, gravity

Discovery Education Tech Book - Connection

Course:

Matter and Energy
Unit:

Forces and Motion

Concepts:

Straight Line Motions

Interactions of Force and Mass

High Leverage Learning Experiences and Resources

Part A. Straight Line Motion

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