Sample Endnotes and Bibliography



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Sample Endnotes and Bibliography
Please put your notes on separate pages following the body of your manuscript. Follow that with a list bibliography of all the sources you used. The examples below include most of the types of sources you will need to record in your endnotes and bibliography. They are taken, with some minor revisions and by permission, from The Chicago Manual of Style, 13th ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982). In writing endnotes, there are several important considerations to remember:
1. You must have a note for every quotation, and for every important statement of fact. It is almost always better to err on the side of too many notes rather than too few.
2. The note is not a substitute for making your point clear in the body of the text. Don't just refer your reader to an article that supports the point you are trying to make. Make the point, and make clear how the evidence that exists (and that may be reported in the article) supports your point. Then give the reference in an endnote.
3. Number all the notes in a chapter in succession. Do not use asterisks (*) or other symbols.
4. Be complete in the first note to a particular source.
5. Give enough information in later notes to the same source so that your reader can easily tell to which item you are referring.
6. Your goal is not to defend yourself against critics. It is to help your reader find out more about the subject should she be interested in doing so. It is kind to your reader to help her save steps by being as informative as possible.
7. Endnotes are also places where you can make parenthetical comments that will inform the diligent reader, but that are not absolutely essential to your argument. Exercise restraint, however--notes are not places for mini-essays on esoterica.
Note: The N form below is the form to follow in constructing endnotes and footnotes. The B form is for bibliography entries.
Book--single author
N 1John Hope Franklin, George Washington Williams: A Biography (Chicago: University of

Chicago Press, 1985), 54.


B Franklin, John Hope. George Washington Williams: A Biography. Chicago: University of

Chicago Press, 1985.


Book--two authors
N 2Brian W. Kernighan and Dennis M. Ritchie, The C Programming Language (Englewood

Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1978), 185.


B Kernighan, Brian W., and Dennis M. Ritchie. The C Programming Language. Englewood

Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1978.


Book--three authors
N 3Mary Lyon, Bryce Lyon, and Henry S. Lucas, The Wardrobe Book of William de

Norwell, 12 July 1338 to 27 May 1340, with the collaboration of Jean de Sturler

(Brussels: Commission Royale d'Histoire de Belgique, 1983), 42.


B Lyon, Mary, Bryce Lyon, and Henry S. Lucas. The Wardrobe Book of William de

Norwell, 12 July 1338 to 27 May 1340. With the collaboration of Jean de Sturler.

Brussels: Commission Royale d'Histoire de Belgique, 1983.


Book--more than three authors
N 4Martin Greenberger, and others, eds., Networks for Research and Education:

Sharing of Computer and Information Resources Nationwide (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT

Press, 1974), 50.



or

4Martin Greenberger, et al., eds., Networks for Research and Education: Sharing of

Computer and Information Resources Nationwide (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press,

1974), 50.


B Greenberger, Martin, Julius Aronofsky, James L. McKenney, and William F. Massy, eds.

Networks for Research and Education: Sharing of Computer and Information

Resources Nationwide. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1974.
Book--no author given
N 5The Lottery (London: J. Watts [1732]), 20-25.
B The Lottery. London: J. Watts, [1732].
Note: in this example, the brackets [] surround the date of publication because, although the date is known, it is not printed on the book. In similar fashion, you might encounter a book whose author you know, but on which that author's name does not appear. In that case, you are free to use the normal format with the author's name first, but in brackets.
Book--translated or edited by another
N 6Jean Anouilh, The Lark, trans. Christopher Fry (London: Methuen, 1955), 86.
B Anouilh, Jean. The Lark. Translated by Christopher Fry. London: Methuen, 1955.
Book--one of a series
N 7Ellen Pollak, The Poetics of Sexual Myth: Gender and Ideology in the Verse of Swift

and Pope, Women in Culture and Society Series (Chicago: University of Chicago Press,

1985), 124.


B Pollak, Ellen. The Poetics of Sexual Myth: Gender and Ideology in the Verse of Swift and

Pope. Women in Culture and Society Series. Chicago: University of Chicago Press,

1985.
Book--edition other than first


N 8M. M. Bober, Karl Marx's Interpretation of History, 2nd ed. (Cambridge, Mass.:

Harvard University Press, 1948).


B Bober, M. M. Karl Marx's Interpretation of History. 2nd ed. Cambridge, Mass.:

Harvard University Press, 1948.


Book--reprint edition
N 9Neil Harris, The Artist in American Society: The Formative Years, 1790-1860

(New York: George Braziller, 1966; reprint, Chicago: University of Chicago Press,

1982), 43-44 (page references are to reprint edition).

or

9Neil Harris, The Artist in American Society: The Formative Years, 1790-1860

(Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982; orig. New York: George Braziller,

1966), 43-44.
B Harris, Neil. The Artist in American Society: The Formative Years, 1790-1860. New

York: George Braziller, 1966; reprint, Chicago: University of Chicago Press,

1982.

or

Harris, Neil. The Artist in American Society: The Formative Years, 1790-1860.

Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982; orig. New York: George Braziller,

1966.
Book--privately printed


N 10Frank Budgeon, Further Recollections of James Joyce (London: Privately printed,

1955), 10.


B Budgeon, Frank. Further Recollections of James Joyce. London: Privately printed,

1955.
Book--chapter by one author in book by another


N 11Mary Higdon Beech, "The Domestic Realm in the Lives of Hindu Women in Calcutta,"

in Separate Worlds: Studies of Purdah in South Asia, ed. Hanna Papanek and Gail Minault

(Delhi: Chanakya, 1982), 115.
B Beech, Mary Higdon. "The Domestic Realm in the Lives of Hindu Women in Calcutta." In

Separate Worlds: Studies of Purdah in South Asia, ed. Hanna Papanek and Gail

Minault, 110-38. Delhi: Chanakya.


Article in a journal
N 12Richard Jackson, "Running Down the Up-Escalator: Regional Inequality in Papua

New Guinea," Australian Geographer, 14 (May 1979), 180.


B Jackson, Richard. "Running Down the Up-Escalator: Regional Inequality in Papua New

Guinea." Australian Geographer, 14 (May 1979), 175-184.


Article in a magazine
N 13Bruce Weber, "The Myth Maker: The Creative Mind of Novelist E. L. Doctorow,"

New York Times Magazine (October 20, 1985), 42.
B Weber, Bruce. "The Myth Maker: The Creative Mind of Novelist E. L. Doctorow." New

York Times Magazine (October 20, 1985), 42.
Article in a newspaper
N 14Andre Camille, "Deciding Who Gets Dibs on Health-Care Dollars," Wall Street

Journal (March 27, 1984), 30, 34.
B Camille, Andre. "Deciding Who Gets Dibs on Health-Care Dollars." Wall Street Journal

(March 27, 1984), 30, 34.


Book review in a journal
N 15Dwight Frankfather, review of The Disabled State, by Deborah A. Stone, in

Social Service Review, 59 (September 1985), 524.
B Frankfather, Dwight. Review of The Disabled State, by Deborah A. Stone. In Social

Service Review, 59 (September 1985), 523-525.
Interview--unpublished
N 16Benjamin Spock, interview by Milton J. E. Senn, November 20, 1974, interview

67A, transcript, Senn Oral History Collection, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.


B Spock, Benjamin. Interview by Milton J. E. Senn, November 20, 1974. Interview 67A,

transcript. Senn Oral History Collection, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.


Interview by author of research paper
N 17Mayor Harold Washington of Chicago, interview by author, September 23, 1985,

Chicago, tape recording, Chicago Historical Society, Chicago.


B Washington, Harold, mayor of Chicago. Interview by author, September 23, 1985,

Chicago. Tape recording. Chicago Historical Society, Chicago.


Letter
N 18Percy Bysshe Shelley, Padua, to Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, Este, September

22, 1818, transcript in the hand of Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, Special Collections,

Joseph Regenstein Library, University of Chicago, Chicago.
B Shelley, Percy Bysshe, Padua, to Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, Este, September 22,

1818. Transcript in the hand of Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley. Special Collections,

Joseph Regenstein Library, University of Chicago, Chicago.
Thesis or dissertation
N 19Gilberto Artioli, "Structural Studies of the Water Molecules and Hydrogen Bonding

in Zeolites" (Ph.D. diss., University of Chicago, 1985), 10.


B Artioli, Gilberto. "Structural Studies of the Water Molecules and Hydrogen Bonding in

Zeolites." Ph.D. diss., University of Chicago, 1985).


Multiple references in a single note
Separate references with semicolons. List them in the order in which you used them in the body of your text.
N 20Samuel P. Langley, James Smithson (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution,

1904), 18-19; Paul Oehser, Sons of Science (New York: Henry Schuman, 1949), 1,

9-11; Webster True, The First Hundred Years of the Smithsonian Institution, 1846-

1946 (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1946), 2-106.
Second and subsequent notes to a source
You do not need to repeat the full citation to a source when you cite it a second or subsequent time. But please do not make it hard for your reader to figure out what item you are citing. The easiest way to handle this is to use a shortened form for the second and subsequent notes:
N 21Arthur Waley, The Analects of Confucius (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1938), 33.
22Waley, Analects, 37.
A more formal way to handle the same problem is to use "ibid." (which is an abbreviation of the Latin, ibidem, "in the same place"). If one reference to Waley's book on the writings of Confucius follows on another without an intervening note, then you can write notes like these:

N 23Arthur Waley, The Analects of Confucius (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1938), 33.
24Ibid., 37.
One may also use "op. cit." (Latin opere citato, "in the work cited") to refer to a previously cited book by a given author, and "loc. cit." (Latin loco citato, "in the place cited") to refer to a previously cited article:
N 25Arthur Waley, The Analects of Confucius (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1938), 33.
26Richard Jackson, "Running Down the Up-Escalator: Regional Inequality in Papua

New Guinea," Australian Geographer, 14 (May 1979), 180.


27Waley, op. cit., 37.
28Jackson, loc. cit., 178.
Films, videos, and DVDs
NB 29Itzak Perlman: In My Case Music, prod. and dir. Tony DeNonno, 10 min., DeNonno Pix, 1985,

videocassette.


Electronic Sources
Consensus on how to handle electronic sources has not fully emerged. After consulting Andrew Harnack and Eugene Kleppinger, Online! A Reference Guide to Using internet Sources (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2000), it seems to me that the important information to include in a citation of an e-mail message, a listserv posting, or a web site would be:

Author’s name

Subject line (for an email or listserv posting), in quotation marks

Title of document, in quotation marks

Title of complete work (if relevant), underlined

Date of publication or last revision (for website), sending (for e-mail), or posting (listserv)

URL, e-mail address of sender, or listserv address, in angle brackets

Date of access, in parentheses

In citing electronic sources, as in other citations, consistency and complete information are the twin goals.
World Wide Web—Personal page
N 30Joseph Pelligrino, “Homepage,” May 12, 1999, (October 1, 1999).
B Pelligrino, Joseph. “Homepage.” May 12, 1999.

/default.htm> (October 1, 1999).


World Wide Web—Professional site
N 31Gail Mortimer, The William Faulkner Society Home Page, September 16, 1999,

(October 1, 1999).
B Mortimer, Gail. The William Faulkner Society Home Page. September 16, 1999.

(October 1, 1999).
Email message
N 32Danny Robinette, “Epiphany Project,” April 30, 1999, office communication (May

29, 1999).


B Robinette, Danny. “Epiphany Project.” April 30, 1999, office communication. (May 29,

1999).
Listserv message


N 33Victor Parente, “On Expectations of Class Participation,” May 27, 1996,

(May 29, 1996).
B Parente, Victor. “On Expectations of Class Participation.” May 27, 1996.

(May 29, 1996).


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