Roots and Rules



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Roots and Rules

  • am, amat: love amateur, amatory, amiable
  • ann, enn: year anniversary, superannuated, annuity
  • aqu: water aqueduct, aquiculture, subaqueous
  • ie Rule—“I” before “e”, except after c, or when it sounds like “a,” as in “neighbor” or “weigh”
  • Examples: fiend, receive, conceit, reign
  • Exceptions: leisure, weird, foreign, either, neither, seize, counterfeit, caffeine

Roots and Rules

  • aud, audit: hear audible, audiophile, audit
  • capit: head decapitate, capitol, per capita
  • cent: hundred cent, centenarian, centiliter
  • “y” to “i” Rule—If the “y” at the end of a word is preceded by a consonant, change the “y” to “I” before adding an ending (unless the ending begins with an “I”).
  • Examples: replied, merriment, delayed
  • Exceptions: paid, said, laid, daily

Quiz 1

  • Study for Quiz 1, make sure you know all words in the definitions.

Roots and Rules

  • cred, credit: believe; trust credible, accredit, credulity
  • dic, dict: say benediction, contradict, diction
  • duc, duct: lead conducive, ductility, induce
  • Adding Prefixes—the spelling of a word does not change when a prefix is added.
  • Examples: unnecessary, misspell, dissatisfied

Roots and Rules

  • fid: faith; trust confide, fidelity, perfidy
  • frater: brother fraternity, fraternize, fratricide
  • greg: flock congregate, gregarious, egregious
  • Adding Suffixes to Words Ending in Silent “e”—
    • If the suffix begins with a vowel, drop the silent “e,”
  • Come + ing=coming use+ able=usable
    • When the suffix begins with a consonant, keep the “e,”
  • Care+ful=careful lone+ly=lonely
    • Words ending in “ce” or “ge” keep the “e” when followed by an “a” or “o”
  • Courageous, peaceable, noticeable, advantageous
  • Exceptions: argument, ninth, truly, judgment

Roots and Rules

  • litera: letter alliteration, literal, literate
  • loc: place allocate, locale, dislocate
  • loqu, locut: talk circumlocution, colloquial, eloquent
  • Doubling the Final consonant: If a suffix begins with a vowel, double the consonant at the end of the word IF a) the word ends in 1 vowel + 1 consonant AND b) the word is accented on the last syllable.
  • Examples: runner, tapped, stopped, beginner, occurrence, opened, referred

Roots and Rules

  • mal: bad maladjusted, maladroit, malediction
  • man: hand manacle, mandate, manufacture
  • mater, matr, metr: mother maternal, matriarch, metronymic
  • Affect/Effect
  • Affect is a verb, meaning “to influence” Think AV (affect verb)
  • Effect is usually a noun meaning “the result”; occasionally it is a verb meaning “to bring about” or “to put into effect”
  • Examples: The decision affects me.
  • The effect of the decision is unknown.
  • The changes will be effected next year.

Quiz 2

  • Study for Quiz 2, make sure you know all words in the definitions (some have two).

Roots and Rules

  • mit, miss: send emissary, intermittent, missive
  • mor, mort: death mortality, mortify, post-mortem
  • mov, mot, mob: move demote, remote, motivation
  • Comma with Compound Sentence (also called coordinated sentence)
  • Use a comma before a conjunction like “and” or “but” ONLY IF there is a complete sentence on BOTH SIDES of the conjunction.
  • Examples: They went to the party, but they left early.
  • They went to the party but left early.

Roots and Rules

  • nov: new innovation, novel, novice
  • omni: all omniscient, omnivorous, omnipresent
  • ped: foot pedestrian, impediment, pedometer
  • Lay/Lie
  • Lay—“put” lie—“rest
  • Must have a direct object cannot have a direct object
  • Present tense: lay lie
  • Past tense: laid lay
  • Participle: laid lain
  • Laying lying
  • Examples: Lay the book down. The cat lies on the rug.
  • I laid the book down. The cat lay on the rug yesterday.
  • I have laid the book down. The cat has lain on the rug all day.
  • I am laying the book down. The cat is lying in the sun.

Roots and Rules

  • pos, posit: place composition, repository, juxtapose
  • port, portat: carry deport, portfolio, rapport
  • scrip, script: write circumscribe, nondescript, inscribe
  • Semicolon (part one)
  • A semicolon may be used to balance two independent clauses (sentences) of equal importance, especially if the second begins with a word like “however” or “therefore.”
  • Examples: She was intelligent; he was handsome.
  • They worked for three days on the project; therefore, the other work remained undone.

Roots and Rules

  • sign: sign assign, insignia, designate
  • spec, spect: look aspect, introspection, perspective
  • spir, spirat: breathe conspire, expire, inspire
  • Semicolon (part two)
  • A semicolon may be used to separate items in a list that already has commas.
  • Examples: We visited Chicago, Illinois; Miami, Florida; and Lima, Ohio.
  • They elected Selma, president; Fred, vice president; Zelda, treasurer; and Zeb, secretary.

Quiz 3

  • Study for Quiz 3, make sure you know all words in the definitions (some have two).

Roots and Rules

  • tempor: time extemporaneous, temporal, contemporary
  • terra: earth disinter, terrestrial, terrace
  • urb: city urban, suburban, interurban
  • Amount of/number of
  • Use “number” with things that are countable, if only in theory. Use “amount” with things that could never be counted.
  • Examples: Amount of knowledge, rain, money
  • Number of people, calories, dollars

Roots and Rules

  • vid, vis: see vista, revise, providence
  • voc, vocat: call advocate, evoke, vociferous
  • ante: before antebellum, antedated, anterior
  • Go, went, gone
  • Be sure to use “gone” after the helpers “has” or “have.”
  • Examples: They have gone to the movies.
  • He has gone to his grandmother’s house.

Roots and Rules

  • bi: two bicameral, bifocals, bipartisan
  • circum: around circumference, circumvent, circumlocution
  • contra, contro, counter: against contraband, contradiction, controvert
  • So. . .that
  • If the word “that” fits in a sentence logically somewhere after “so,” you must write in the “that.”
  • Examples: I was so tired after working all day that I couldn’t stand up.
  • The reason she is so unhappy about the change in date is that she can no longer participate.
  • There was a thunderstorm, so the meet was canceled.

Roots and Rules

  • inter: between interlinear, interregnum, intercultural
  • intra, intro: within intramuscular, intramurals, intrastate
  • multi: many multiplied, multivalent, multiparous
  • Commas and Periods with Quotation Marks
  • Commas and periods ALWAYS go BEFORE quotation marks.
  • Examples: We read “The Raven.”
  • “Go home,” he said.
  • Elmo said that the idea was “true genius.”

Quiz 4

  • Study for Quiz 4, make sure you know all words in the definitions (some have two).

Roots and Rules

  • post: after posthumously, posterity, post-mortem
  • pre: before precedence, prejudice, preamble
  • retro: back retrogressing, retro rocket, retroactive
  • Its/It’s
  • Use “it’s” to mean “it is.” Use “its” as a possessive word before a noun.
  • Examples: It’s my car.
  • The dog lost its bone.

Roots and Rules

  • semi: half semilunar, semicentennials, semidiameter
  • sub: under subconscious, subcutaneous, subterranean
  • super: above; beyond supersensory, superstructure, supersonic
  • Raise/rise
  • Raise (to lift or grow) rise (to move up)
  • Present: raise rise
  • Past: raised rose
  • Participle: raised risen
  • Raising rising
  • Examples: Raise the shades. I rise to speak.
  • I raised potatoes. The sun rose.
  • I have raised money. The star has risen.
  • We are raising our sights. Our hopes are rising.

Roots and Rules

  • trans: across transpolar, transversal, transgress
  • uni: one unicameral, unicorn, unique
  • ac, acr: sharp acrimony, acid
  • Commas with Introductory Dependent (Subordinate) Clauses
  • Use a comma after a dependent clause that starts a sentence. The clause begins with a subordinate conjunction (“danger word” in the sophomore text) like “because,” “since,” “although,” “if,” before,” or “unless.”
  • Examples: When we have finished here, we will leave.
  • Because you are great, you win the prize.
  • Since you did your reading, you earned a high grade.

Roots and Rules

  • aer: air aerial, aeronautics, aerodynamics
  • agr: field agrarian, agriculture
  • ali: another alias, alliance, alimentary
  • Center around
  • Things center on, never around.
  • Example: The problem centers around on money.

Quiz 5

  • Study for Quiz 5, make sure you know all words in the definitions (some have two).

Roots and Rules

  • alter, altr: change alternate, alternative
  • anim: spirit; life animosity, animation, animate
  • apt, ept: adjust aptitude, inept
  • Feel bad
  • Use “bad” after a form of “feel,” not “badly.” (Badly indicates a weak sense of touch.)
  • Examples: I feel bad about what happened.
  • They felt bad after the game.

Roots and Rules

  • arm: arm; weapon armistice, armament, armada, armadillo
  • art: art; craft artificial, artifact, articulate
  • avi: bird aviary, aviator, aviation
  • Different from—things are different from (or from what) each other, not different than.
  • Examples:
  • This is different than from what I expected.
  • Your room is different than from mine.

Roots and Rules

  • bel, bell: war rebel, belligerent, rebellion
  • ben, bene: well benefit, benevolent
  • brev: short abbreviate, brevity
  • Titles (part one)
  • The titles of shorter works—essays, stories, chapters, songs, poems, articles—are put in quotation marks. These are works not published separately.
  • Examples: “The Raven” is a famous poem.
  • We studied “The Lady and the Tiger.”
  • The song is “The Victors.”

Roots and Rules

  • carn: flesh incarnate, carnal, carnage
  • cid, cis: kill; cut precise, incision, concise
  • civ: citizen civil, civic, civilian
  • Titles (part two)
  • The titles of longer works—books, plays, movies, magazines, newspapers—are underlined (or italicized). These are works published separately.
  • Examples: We studied The Canterbury Tales.
  • Romeo and Juliet is a tragic play.
  • I read it in the Chelsea Standard.

Quiz 6

  • Study for Quiz 6, make sure you know all words in the definitions (some have two).

Roots and Rules

  • ego: I egotist, egoist, egocentric
  • err: wander error, erroneous, erratic
  • fin: end; limit define, finite, final, infinity
  • Colon to introduce a list
  • Use a colon to introduce a list only when the part of the sentence up to the colon sounds complete. You cannot place a colon between subject and object or subject and other kind of complement.
  • Example: Bring the following items: bread, milk, eggs.
  • There are three reasons: time, money, and volunteers.
  • Incorrect: The three things are: time, money, and volunteers.

Roots and Rules

  • fort: strong fortify, fortress, fortitude
  • fus: pour effusive, fusion, fusible
  • gen: birth; race progeny, genocide, generation
  • Agreement with Indefinite Pronouns
  • The following pronouns are singular; therefore, all words that refer to them must be singular: everyone, anyone, someone, everybody, anybody, somebody, everything, anything, something, either, neither, each, every.
  • Examples: Everyone does his or her work.
  • Either of the answers is correct.
  • Neither of them wants her own show.

Roots and Rules

  • grat: please; favor gratify, gratitude, grateful
  • grav: heavy gravity, grave
  • jac, jact, jec: throw eject, deject, reject
  • Apostrophe to show possession
  • To form the possessive of a singular noun, add an apostrophe and an s.
  • Example: a poem’s rhyme
  • To form the possessive of a plural noun ending in s, add only an apostrophe.
  • Example: the swimmers’ times
  • To form the possessive of an irregular plural noun not ending in s, add an apostrophe and an s.
  • Example: the women’s books
  • To form the possessive of any singular proper noun, add an apostrophe and an s.
  • Example: Mr. Jones’s class
  • To form the possessive of a plural proper noun, add only an apostrophe.
  • Example: the Smiths’ house

Quiz 7

  • Study for Quiz 7, make sure you know all words in the definitions (some have two).

Roots and Rules

  • clam: shout exclaim, exclamation
  • claud, claus: close closet, claustrophobia
  • cogn: know incognito, cognition, cognate
  • Try to
  • Use “to” after “try,” not “and.”
  • Examples: Try and to be polite.

Roots and Rules

  • cord: heart cordial, accord
  • corp: body corpse, corporal, corporation
  • cruc: cross crux, crucify, crucible
  • The reason is because
  • Use “that” in a sentence after “reason,” not “because.”
  • Example:
    • The reason I’m unhappy is because that the dance was canceled.
    • I know the reason they are spending so much time on choosing the candidate is because that they are hoping to improve the council.

Roots and Rules

  • dent: tooth indent, dental, dentist
  • dign: worthy dignity, dignify, indignation
  • doc, doct: teach; prove doctor, document, docile
  • Irregardless
  • Not a word. Use “regardless.”
  • Example: I won’t agree, irregardless of what you say.

Roots and Rules

  • dom: master domineer, dominant, dominion
  • don: bestow donate, donation
  • du: two duet, dual
  • Off of
  • Say “off,” not “off of.”
  • Example: The dog fell off of the couch.

Quiz 8

  • Study for Quiz 8, make sure you know all words in the definitions (some have two).

Roots and Rules

  • junct: join adjunct, junction, conjunction
  • labor: work elaborate, belabor, laborious
  • leg: law legal, legislature, legality, legislation
  • Comma with coordinate adjectives
  • If you have two adjectives before a noun, separate the adjectives with a comma IF a) you can reverse the order of the adjectives OR b) you can say “and” between the adjectives.
  • Examples: We had a long, difficult trip.
  • Elmo is a loud, obnoxious person.
  • We need a few good people.

Roots and Rules

  • lev: light; rise levity, levitate
  • lib: book libel, library
  • luc: light elucidate, lucid
  • Apostrophe to form plurals of non-words
  • Do not use an apostrophe to form the plural of an abbreviation or a number.
  • Examples: The PhDs don’t know how to work the VCRs.
  • The practice was common in the 1990s.

Roots and Rules

  • magn: large magnify, magnitude
  • mar: sea mariner, marine, marinate
  • medi: middle medium, mediate
  • As far as
  • “As far as” must be followed by a verb, such as a form of “go” or “is” or “are” concerned.
  • Examples: As far as money [goes], we have enough.
  • She is qualified as far as academic background [is concerned].

Roots and Rules

  • min: little; less minimum, minor, diminutive
  • mon, monit: warn premonition, admonish
  • mor: custom moral, amoral, immoral
  • Use of “however”
  • “However” is not a conjunction and therefore cannot be used to join sentences with just a comma. Use a semicolon before “However” when it joins two sentences. Do not use a semicolon if “however” is in the middle of a single sentence.
  • Examples: We were there; however, you were not.
  • The game they played, however, was phenomenal.

Quiz 9

  • Study for Quiz 9, make sure you know all words in the definitions (some have two).

Roots and Rules

  • mut: change mutation, mutant
  • nav: ship navigator, navigation, navel
  • nomen, nomin: name nominee, nominal
  • Farther, further
  • Use “farther” to refer to physical distance. Use “further” for everything else.
  • Examples: Detroit is farther than Ann Arbor.
  • We should look into that further.

Roots and Rules

  • ocul: eye monocle, oculist, bifocal
  • par: equal parity, parallel, par
  • pater, patr: father patron, paternity, patriarch
  • Like/As
  • When making a comparison, use “like” when no verb follows. If a verb follows, use “as,” “as if,” or “as though.”
  • Examples: He looks like a walrus.
  • You look like as if you’ve seen a ghost.
  • It is like as though you’ve never been here before.

Roots and Rules

  • prim: first prime, primary, primitive
  • rat, ration: reason rational, ration
  • rect: right direct, rectify, correct
  • Then/Than
  • Use “then” when referring to time. Use “than” when making a comparison.
  • Examples: We went to the game. Then we went for food.
  • This is harder than I thought.

Roots and Rules

  • rupt: break erupt, rupture, corrupt
  • sanct: holy sanction, sanctuary, sanctify, sanctimonious
  • seg, sect: cut bisect, segregate, segment, section
  • Who’s/Whose
  • Use “who” to mean “who is” or ”who has.” Use “whose” as a possessive if front of a noun.
  • Examples: Who’s been there before?
  • Who’s here for food?
  • I don’t know whose book this is.

Quiz 10

  • Study for Quiz 10, make sure you know all words in the definitions (some have two).

Roots and Rules

  • vac: empty vacant, vacate, vacuum
  • vert, vers: turn revert, convert, overt
  • vinc, vict: conquer victory, invincible, victim
  • Disinterested/uninterested
  • “Disinterested” means impartial or unbiased. “Uninterested means you’re not interested at all or have no financial interest.
  • Examples: We should ask a disinterested person to be the judge.
  • People don’t attend if they are uninterested.

Roots and Rules

  • vit: life vital, vitality, vivid
  • vulg: common divulge, vulgar, vulgate
  • anthrop: man anthropocentric, anthropomorphism, misanthrope
  • Use of “only”
  • The word “only’ must be placed as close as possible to the word it modifies.
  • Examples: It only costs ten dollarsIt cost only ten dollars.
  • She only brings her umbrella when it rainsShe brings her umbrella only when it rains.

Roots and Rules

  • astr: star asterisk, asteroid, astrodome
  • auto: self autobiography, autocrat, automation
  • bibli: book bible, bibliography, bibliophile
  • Imply/infer
  • “Imply” means to hint at without saying directly. “Infer” means to figure out from what someone else says or writes.
  • Examples: Her smile implied the outcome would be positive.
  • I inferred from her smile that the outcome would be positive.

Roots and Rules

  • bio: life biodynamics, biopsy, biogenesis
  • chrom: color chromatic, chromosome, pan chromatic
  • chron: time chronic, chronicle, synchronize
  • Use of although
  • “Although” cannot be used by itself. It must be used to introduce an entire clause. If you need a comma after “although,” use “however” or another transition instead.
  • Examples: Although they won, they did not break any records.
  • Although, However, they were happy with the results.

Quiz 11

  • Study for Quiz 11, make sure you know all words in the definitions (some have two).

Roots and Rules

  • sequ, secut: follow sequel, sequence, nonsequiter
  • simil: like simile, similar, assimilate
  • sol: alone soliloquy, solo, solitary, solitude
  • Principal/principle
  • Use “principle” to refer to a rule or doctrine. Use “principal” for everything else, including most important, leader of a school, original amount of a loan.
  • Examples: I believe in the principle of honesty.
  • She is the principal dancer in the show.
  • We still owe thousands on the principal.

Roots and Rules

  • son: sound assonance, sonic, sonar
  • struct: build construct, destruct, reconstruct
  • ten: hold tenacious, tenacity
  • Commas with interrupting clauses (nonessential clauses)
  • If an interrupting expression (such as those beginning with ”who” or “which) is just additional information and not needed to identify the preceding word, add commas around the interrupter.
  • Examples: Matilda, who is a great bungee jumper, lives in Dexter.
  • The woman who is a great bungee jumper lives in Dexter.

Roots and Rules

  • tract: draw; pull extract, detract, retract, contract
  • turb: agitate turbine, turbulent, turbocharger
  • umbr: shade umbrage, umber, umbrella
  • Aggravate/Irritate
  • In formal usage, “aggravate” means to make something worse. If you mean “to annoy,” use “irritate.”
  • Examples: Saying something rude will only aggravate your problem.
  • It really aggravates irritates me when you do that.

Quiz 12

  • Study for Quiz 12, make sure you know all words in the definitions (some have two).

Roots and Rules

  • crypt: secret crypt, cryptogram, cryptographer
  • cycle: circle; wheel cycle, cyclone, encyclical
  • dec: ten decade, deciliter, decimal
  • Flaunt/flout
  • To “flaunt” means to show off. To “flout” means to treat with disrespect.
  • Examples: He flaunts his wealth by parking his expensive car in a prominent location.
  • If you flout the judge’s ruling, you will be cited for contempt.

Roots and Rules

  • dem: people demagogue, democracy, epidemic
  • derm: skin dermatitis, dermatologist, epidermis
  • dyn: power dynamic, dynasty, hydrodynamics
  • Allude/refer
  • “Allude’ means to call attention to indirectly. “Refer” means to call attention to directly.
  • Examples: Zeb alluded to the possibility of a fireworks display.
  • Refer to the bibliography for more information.

Roots and Rules

  • gram, graph: write autograph, calligraphy, cryptogram
  • hetero: other heterodox, heterogeneous, heterosexual
  • homo: same homochromatic, homogeneous, homogenize
  • Cite/site/sight
  • “Cite” means to mention something as support. “Site” is a place where something is located. “Sight” is vision.
  • Examples: You need to cite your sources to avoid plagiarism.
  • That is the site for the new building.

Roots and Rules

  • hydr: water hydraulics, hydrophobia, hydrotherapy
  • log: word; study apology, eulogy, logic
  • metr, meter: measure barometer, geometry, metronome
  • Plurals of words ending in “sis”
  • To form the plural of a word ending in “sis,” change the “I” to “e.”
  • Examples: analysisanalyses basisbases oasisoases

Quiz 13

  • Study for Quiz 13, make sure you know all words in the definitions (some have two) and you know which rules to underline!

Roots and Rules

  • morph: form amorphous, anthropomorphic, metamorphosis
  • neur: nerve neurologist, neuron, neurotic
  • orth: right; true orthodontics, orthodox, orthopedics
  • Use of while
  • “While” means “at the same time.” If you do not mean time, use “whereas.”
  • Examples: While we were singing, they were dancing.
  • While Whereas Shakespeare was a playwright, Swift was a novelist.

Roots and Rules

  • paleo: ancient Paleolithic, paleontology, paleozoology
  • pan: all panacea, Pan-American, pan chromatic
  • path: disease; feeling antipathy, apathy, empathy, psychopath
  • Plurals of words ending in “um”
  • Form the plural of a word ending in “um” by changing “um” to “a.”
  • Examples: curriculumcurricula mediummedia

Roots and Rules

  • phil: loving bibliophile, philander, philanthropy
  • phon: sound phonetic, phonograph, phonology
  • physi: nature physical, physician, physiology
  • Plurals of words ending in “on”
  • Form the plural of a word ending in “on” by changing the “on” to “a.”
  • Examples: phenomenonphenomena criterioncriteria

Roots and Rules

  • pseudo: false pseudoscience, pseudopod, pseudoclassic
  • psych: mind; spirit psyche, psychedelic, psychology
  • pyr: fire pyre, pyromaniac, pyrexia
  • Capitalizing directions and family names
  • Capitalize north, south, east, west and their variations only when the direction refers to a region of a country. Capitalize words like mom, dad, grandma, etc. when the word replaces the name and is NOT preceded by a possessive word.

Quiz 14

  • Study for Quiz 14, make sure you know all words in the definitions (some have two) and you know which rules to underline!

Roots and Rules

  • arch: chief archangel, archetype, arch fiend
  • dia: through diathermy, diameter, diaphanous
  • epi: upon; beside epidermis, epitaph, epicenter
  • Illusion/allusion/delusion
  • An “illusion” is a false impression or a deceptive appearance. An “allusion” is a reference to an idea or story generally known. A “delusion” is a false belief.
  • Examples: It is an illusion that the sun rises.
  • The work has several allusions to Greek mythology.
  • He has the delusion that he is Napoleon.

Roots and Rules

  • soph: wisdom philosophy, sophomore, sophisticated
  • tele: far telecast, telephone, telegraph
  • the: god atheism, pantheism, theology
  • Capitalizing languages, religions, school courses.
  • Always capitalize the names of languages and religions. Capitalize the names of a school course if it is a language or if it has a number in it.
  • Examples: It is not hard to find an Islamic person who speaks English.
  • I will take physics and Spanish, but not Algebra III.

Roots and Rules

  • eu: good; well euphoria, eulogy, euthanasia
  • hyper: excessive hypercritical, hyperopic, hyperthyroidism
  • hypo: under hypothermia, hypothesis, hypopituitarism
  • Split infinitive
  • Generally, do not put any words between “to” and a verb. Move the word to the most logical place in the sentence.
  • Examples: I want to really knowI really want to know.
  • This is how to quickly fix the problemThis is how to fix the problem quickly.

Roots and Rules

  • therm: heat thermometer, thermal, thermodynamics
  • amphi: around; on both sides amphibians, amphitheater
  • anti: against antipathy, antithesis
  • Abbreviations
  • In formal writing, abbreviate only if the reader would have trouble understanding the full word.
  • Examples: Mr., Mrs., A.M., P.M., A.D., B.C., PhD., FBI, CIA
  • On TV television, the shows end happily.

Quiz 15

  • Study for Quiz 15, make sure you know all words in the definitions (some have two) and you know which rules to underline!

Roots and Rules

  • syn, sym: together synthesis, synchronized, symphony
  • agog: leader pedagogue, demagogue
  • cosm: world; order cosmic, cosmopolitan, cosmos
  • “and me” (me as object)
  • Use “and me” not “and I” when the expression is used as an object, such as a direct object, an indirect object, or an object of a preposition.
  • Examples: Myrtle fired Zeb and I me.
  • Give the forms to Fred or I me.
  • Just between you and I me, I think we’ll win.

Roots and Rules

  • kilo: thousand kilocycle, kilometer, kilowatt
  • meta: change; after metamorphic, metaphors, metabolism
  • mono: one monolith, monodrama, monomania
  • Compliment/complement
  • “Compliment” means to flatter. “Complement” means to complete.
  • Examples: She complimented him on his paper.
  • The salad complements the meal.

Roots and Rules

  • crac, crat: power plutocrat, democrat, aristocrat
  • erg: work energy, synergistic
  • gam: marriage monogamy, polygamy, bigamy
  • Hopefully
  • Technically, this word means “with hope,” not “it is hoped.”
  • Examples: They went hopefully to the doctor.
  • Hopefully, we will win  We hope we will win.

Roots and Rules

  • neo: new neophyte, neologism, neoclassicism
  • peri: around perimeter, periphrasis, peripatetic
  • poly: many polygon, polysyllable, polytechnic
  • Used to, supposed to
  • Don’t forget the “d.”
  • Examples: You used to be intelligent.
  • People are supposed to enjoy learning new things.

Quiz 16

  • Study for Quiz 16, make sure you know all words in the definitions (some have two) and you know which rules to underline!

Roots and Rules

  • gen: race; kind genetics, gene, progeny, regenerate
  • geo: earth geometry, geology, geothermal
  • gon: corner; angle hexagon, polygon
  • gyn: woman gynecology, philogynist
  • hem: blood hemophilia, hemorrhage

Roots and Rules

  • iatr: heal geriatrics, pediatrics, chiropractic
  • iso: same isobar, isochronal, isometrics
  • lith: rock monolith, Paleolithic, lithograph
  • mega: great megaphone, megaton, megalith
  • micro: small microbe, microscope, microphone

Roots and Rules

  • necr: dead necrobiosis, necrology, necrophobia
  • nom: law; order economy, astronomy
  • onym: name antonym, synonym, homonym
  • ped: child pedant, pediatrician, pedagogue
  • phos, phot: light photograph, photon, photo kinetic

Roots and Rules

  • pod: foot podiatrist, podiatry
  • poli: city police, metropolis, megalopolis
  • scop: see; watch Episcopal, bioscope, microscope
  • techn: art; skill technique, technician, technology
  • zo: animal zoo, zoometry, zoophobia

Roots and Rules

  • gen: race; kind genetics, gene, progeny, regenerate
  • geo: earth geometry, geology, geothermal
  • gon: corner; angle hexagon, polygon
  • gyn: woman gynecology, philogynist
  • hem: blood hemophilia, hemorrhage
  • iatr: heal geriatrics, pediatrics, chiropractic
  • iso: same isobar, isochronal, isometrics
  • lith: rock monolith, Paleolithic, lithograph
  • mega: great megaphone, megaton, megalith
  • micro: small microbe, microscope, microphone
  • necr: dead necrobiosis, necrology, necrophobia
  • nom: law; order economy, astronomy
  • onym: name antonym, synonym, homonym
  • ped: child pedant, pediatrician, pedagogue
  • phos, phot: light photograph, photon, photo kinetic
  • pod: foot podiatrist, podiatry
  • poli: city police, metropolis, megalopolis
  • scop: see; watch Episcopal, bioscope, microscope
  • techn: art; skill technique, technician, technology
  • zo: animal zoo, zoometry, zoophobia


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