|1 ROBERT JAMES COTTROL
Born: January 18, 1949
Address: George Washington University School of Law, 2000 H. St., N.W., Washington, D. C. 20052
Phone: (202) 994-5023(w)/(703) 329-2973(h)
Current Position: Harold Paul Green Research Professor of Law, and Professor of History and Sociology; George Washington University.
Major Field: American Legal History
Law: Constitutional Law, Criminal Law, Criminal Procedure, Law and Society in Latin America, Torts
History: Afro-American, Comparative Race Relations, Historical Sociology
A. B., Yale University (American Studies) 1971
A. M., Yale University (History) 1973
Ph.D., Yale University (American Studies) 1978
J.D., Georgetown University Law Center 1984
Languages: Spanish (Advanced)
Portugese (Intermediate) and French (Intermediate)
Admitted to Practice/Bar Membership:
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (1984);
District of Columbia (1985)
Honors: Appointed by the Honorable George W. Bush, 43rd President of the United States, to serve on the Holmes Devise. Devise charged with supervising writing of the History of the United States Supreme Court. 20002 —
Invited Speaker UNESCO Seminar “Exits From Slavery and Public Policies” Sponsored by UNESCO, Brazil. Paper Delivered “The United States: the Incomplete Emancipation” February 28th, 2005. Brasilia, Brazil
Magisterial Lecturer: Facultad de Derecho y Ciencia Political, La Universidad de San Martin de Porres, (Peru) Delivered Lecture: “Seperados Pero Iquales,” February 21st 2006. Granted Title “Profesor Honorario de Derecho”
Harold and Margaret H. Rorschach Lecture in Legal History, History Department Rice University. Delivered Lecture: “Race and Comparative Law in the Americas,” March 9, 2006
Magesterial Lecturer, Facultad de Derecho, Pontifica Universidad Catolica de Puerto Rico. Delivered Lecture: “Brown Contra la Junta de Educación: Pensamientos Sobre su Desarrollo y Significancia, March 13, 2006
Additional Honors: Elected to membership in American Law Institute, May 17th, 2004. Listed in Who's Who in America; Who's Who Among African Americans; Who's Who in the South and Southwest; Who's Who in American Law; James A. Thomas Lecturer(endowed lectureship honoring outstanding minority scholars) at Yale Law School, March 1, 1994; John C. Donovan Memorial Lecturer, Bowdin College, April 28, 1995. Named “Presidente Extranjero del Congreso Internacional de Responsibilidad Civil del Instittuto de Altos Estudios de Derecho Civil Argentino y Comparado de la Universidad del Museo Social Argentino,” August 2003.
Courses Taught at George Washington: American Legal History (cross listed with History Department); Criminal Law; Law of Race and Slavery (cross listed with History and Sociology Departments), Social and Economic History of Labor Law (cross listed with History and Sociology Departments)
Thesis and Dissertation Committees:
1. Jeffrey B. Tecihert: “Divine Right Theology and the Common Law in Early Stuart England (LLM Thesis, George Washington University Law School, 2008, Advisor)
1. Christopher Hickman, “The Most Dangerous Branch: Conservatism and the High Court in the Nixon Years,” (Ph.D. Dissertation, History Department, George Washington University, in progress, Committee Member)
2. John B. Parks, “Freedom v. Slavery: Lawsuits, Petitions and the Legitimacy of Slavery in the British Colonies and the United States,” (Ph.D. Dissertation, History Department, Howard University, in progress, Outside Reader)
Previous Courses (Rutgers Law School and Boston College School of Law): American Legal History; Constitutional Law; Criminal Law; Torts; Seminars: Fourteenth Amendment; Judicial Review; Race Relations and the Law; Second Amendment.
Additional Law Teaching Experience: Adjunct Faculty, International Law Institute, Georgetown University Law Center -- Orientation to the United States Legal System (1991 -- 1997). Introduction to American Law: Lectures on American Legal Education, Constitutional Law and Civil Procedure to Foreign Lawyers and Legal Scholars, Seminars on US Law, Federal Universities of Santa Cantarina and Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil
1. The Afro-Yankees: Providence's Black Community in the Antebellum Era(Greenwood Press, December 1982) -- Selected by Choice as An Outstanding Academic Book for 1983. (author)
2. Gun Control and the Constitution: Sources and Explorations on the Second Amendment (editor) (edited book in Garland Press series “Constitutional Controversies,” 1993)
a. Volume I, The Courts and Congress
b. Volume II, Partisans and Scholars: The Modern Debate
c. Volume III, Special Topics
d. Single Volume Condensed version: Gun Control: The Courts, Congress and the Second Amendment (July, 1994) (editor) -- Book of the Month Selection, History Book Club
3. From African to Yankee: Narratives of Slavery and Freedom in Antebellum New England -- M. E. Sharpe, Inc., (April, 1998) (editor)
4. Brown v. Board of Education: Caste, Culture and the Constitution, (lead author), with Raymond T. Diamond and Leland B. Ware September, 2003) University Press of Kansas, (Landmark Law Cases in and American Society series) Book of the Month Selection, History Book Club. Winner of 2003 Prize of the Langum Project for Historical Literature, “Best Book in Legal History Accessible to the General Educated Public”
5. The Long Lingering Shadow: Law, Liberalism, and Cultures of Racial Hierarchy and Identity in the Americas – – work in progress under contract University of North Carolina Press (co-author Tanya K. Hernandez)
1. "Public Safety and the Right to Bear Arms" in David J. Bodenhamer and James W. Ely, Jr., eds., The Bill of Rights in Modern America: After 200 Years (Indiana University Press) co-author Raymond T. Diamond (January, 1993)
2. “The Second Amendment: Invitation to a Multi-Dimensional Debate,” (Introduction to Gun Control and the Constitution, 1993 and 1994)
a. cited in State v. Hirsch, 2001 Ore. App. Lexis 1625
3. “Death and Deterrence: Notes on a Still Inchoate Judicial Inquiry,” in Joseph Gastwirth, ed. Statistical Science in the Courtroom, with Illustrations Springer Publishers (New York, 2000)
4. Revised Edition of “Public Safety and the Right to Bear Arms” in revised edition of Bodenhamer and Ely, The Bill of Rights in Modern America (forthcoming)
ARTICLES AND ESSAYS:
LAW AND LEGAL HISTORY:
1. Article length review essay examining A. Leon Higginbotham's In the Matter of Color 56 Tulane Law Review 1107 (April, 1982) (with Raymond T. Diamond)
2. "Codifying Caste: Louisiana's Racial Classification Statute and the Fourteenth Amendment," 29 Loyola Law Review 255 (Spring, 1983) (with Raymond T. Diamond)
1. Race, Law and American History, 1700-1990: The African American Experience. Vol. 4, The Age of Jim Crow, edited by Paul Finkelman (Garland Press, 1992)
2. An Uncommon Experience: Law and Judicial Institutions in Louisiana, 1803-2003, Judith Kelleher Schafer and Warren M. Billings eds., (Center for Louisiana Studies, 1997)
3. "Static History and Brittle Jurisprudence: Raoul Berger and the Problem of Constitutional Methodology," 26 Boston College Law Review 353 (March, 1985)
4. "Law, Politics and Race in Urban America: Towards a New Synthesis," 17 Rutgers Law Journal 483 (Spring and Summer 1986) (Symposium on Historical Race Relations)
a. (reprinted in Race, Law and American History: The African-American Experience. Vol. 4, The Age of Jim Crow edited by Paul Finkelman -- Garland Press, 1992)
5. "Liberalism and Paternalism: Ideology, Economic Interest and the Business Law of Slavery," 31 American Journal of Legal History 359 (October, 1987)
6. Review essay contrasting Joel Williamson's A Rage For Order: Black-White Relations in the American South Since Emancipation, and Virginia R. Dominquez, White By Definition: Social Classification in Creole Louisiana 21 Law and Society Review 865 (Spring, 1988)
7. "A Tale of Two Cultures: Or Making the Proper Connections Between Law, Social History and the Political Economy of Despair," 25 San Diego Law Review, 989 (1988)
8. "The Thirteenth Amendment and the North's Overlooked Egalitarian Heritage," 11 National Black Law Journal 198 (1989)
9. Review essay contrasting Postmortem: New Evidence in the Case of Sacco and Vanzetti, by William Young and David E. Kaiser, and: The Sacco and Vanzetti Case Resolved by Francis Russell in 9 Law and History Review, Spring, 1991
10. "In the Search for Justice: Passion and the Historiography of Law and Race in the Writings of Judge A. Leon Higginbotham, Jr." IX Law and Inequality: A Journal of Theory and Practice 441 (Symposium Honoring Judge A. Leon Higginbotham, Jr.) ( August, 1991)
11. "The Second Amendment: Toward an Afro-Americanist Reconsideration," 80 Georgetown Law Journal 309 (December, 1991) (co-author Raymond T. Diamond)
a. cited by Associate Justice Clarence Thomas in concurring opinion Printz et. al. v. United States, 1997 U. S. Lexis 4044 p. 26 note 2
b. cited in United States v. Emerson 46 F. Supp. 2d 598 (Northern District of Texas, 1999)
c. cited by Circuit Judges Kozinski, and Kleinfeld (9th Circuit) in dissents from denial of rehearing en Banc in Silveira et. al. v. Lockyer et. al. 2003 W. L. 21004622, *2 (9th Cir., May 06, 2003) (No. 01-15098) (in dissent)
d. (reprinted in Gun Control and the Constitution) vol. III, Special Topics, edited by Robert J. Cottrol, (Garland Press, 1993, 1994)
e. excerpted in Gun Control and Gun Rights, edited by Andrew J. McClurg, David B. Kopel and Brannon P. Denning, (New York University Press, 2002)
f. cited in Posey v. Kentucky 2006 WL 435407 (Ky.)
12. "Legal Scholarship and Interdisciplinary Inquiry: A Compelling Combination for Minority Scholars," 38 Loyola Law Review 83 (1992) (Symposium on Minority Legal Scholarship)
13. "Reconstruction Amendment Historiography: The Quest for Racial and Intellectual Maturity," 23 Rutgers Law Journal 249 (Winter, 1992) (Special Symposium: The Reconstruction Amendments: Then and Now)
14. "Law, Labor and Liberal Ideology: Explorations on the History of a Two Edged Sword -- Review Essay, 67 Tulane Law Review 1531 (1993)
15. "Commentary: Perspectives on Fugitive Slaves From Legal and Social History, 24 Rutgers Law Journal 695 (1993)
16. "The Fifth Auxiliary Right" (Article Length Review Essay -- Reviewing Joyce Lee Malcolm's To Keep and Bear Arms: The Origins of an Anglo-American Right), 104 Yale Law Journal, 995 (January, 1995) (with Raymond T. Diamond)
a. cited by United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit in United States v. Emerson 270 F3d 203 (2001)
b. cited by United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit in Parker v. District of Columbia 478 F3d 370 (2007) — — Landmark Case First Time a Circuit Court of Appeals Declared a Statute Unconstitutional on Grounds that it Violated the Second Amendment.
17. "Never Intended to be Applied to the White Population: Firearms Regulation and Racial Disparity -- The Redeemed South's Legacy to a National Jurisprudence?" (with Raymond T. Diamond), Chicago Kent Law Review, Symposium on Law in Post Emancipation Society edited by Paul Finkelman 70 Chicago Kent Law Review, 1307 (1995)
18. "Through A Glass Diversely: The O. J. Simpson Trial as Racial Rorschach Test," Symposium on the O. J. Simpson Trial, 67 University of Colorado Law Review 909 (1996)
19. "Outlawing Outcasts: Comparative Perspectives on the Criminal Law of Slavery in the Americas," 18 Cardozo Law Review 717 (Nov., 1996). Symposium on Bondage, Freedom and the Constitution: The New Slavery Scholarship and its Impact on Law and Legal Historiography, Part II
20. "Hard Choices and Shifted Burdens: American Crime and American Justice at the End of the Century" -- Review Essay (Reviewing Michael Tonry, Malign Neglect: Race, Crime, and Punishment in America (New York, 1995), 65 George Washington University Law Review 506 (March, 1997)
a. cited by Third Circuit Court of Appeals in Storey v. Burns International Security Services 390 F3rd 760 (2004)
21. "Clashing Traditions: Civil Law and Common Law and the American Culture of Slave Governance," (Review Essay examining Thomas D. Morris, Southern Slavery and the Law, 1619-1860 and Judith Kelleher Schafer, Slavery, the Civil Law and the Supreme Court of Louisiana), 19 Slavery and Abolition: A Journal of Slave and Post-Slave Studies 150 (April, 1998)
22."Submission is Not the Answer: Lethal Violence, Micro-cultures of Criminal Violence and the Right to Self-Defense, 69 University of Colorado Law Review 1029 (Fall, 1998 -- Symposium)
a. excerpted in Gun Control and Gun Rights edited by Andrew J. McClurg, David B. Kopel and Brannon P. Denning, (New York University Press, 2002)
23. "The Second Amendment as Teaching Tool in Constitutional Law Classes" Journal of Legal Education 48 Journal of Legal Education 591 (December, 1998) (with, Eugene Volokh, Sanford Levinson, L. A. Powe and Glenn Reynolds)
24. “Structure, Participation, Citizenship and Right: Lessons from Akhil Amar’s Second and Fourteenth Amendments,” (Article Length Review Essay Reviewing Akhil Amar’s The Bill of Rights: Creation and Reconstruction – Symposium) 87 Georgetown Law Journal, 2307 (July, 1999)
a. cited in Mejia v. City of New York 119 F. Supp. 2d 232 (E.D. N.Y., 2000)
25. “The Long Lingering Shadow: Law, Liberalism and Cultures of Racial Hierarchy and Identity in the Americas” 76 Tulane Law Review 11 (2001)
a excerpted in Mixed Race America and the Law: A Reader edited by Kevin R. Johnson (New York, New York University Press, 2003)
26. “Creative Uncertainty” (Article Length Review Essay, Reviewing Lawrence Friedman, American Law in the Twentieth Century 81 Texas Law Review 627 (2002)
27. “Justice Advanced: Comments on William Nelson’s Brown v. Board of Education and the Jurisprudence of Legal Realism,”48 St. Louis University Law Review 839 (2004)
28. “Finality with Ambivalence: The American Death Penalty’s Uneasy History” (Article Length Review Essay, Reviewing (Stuart Banner, The Death Penalty: An American History) 56 Stanford Law Review 1641 (2004)
29. “Brown and the Contemporary Brazilian Struggle Against Racial Inequality: Some Preliminary Comparative Thoughts” – – 66 University of Pittsburgh Law Review 113 (Special Symposium on Fiftieth Anniversary of Brown v. Board of Education) (2004)
30. “Lawrence Friedman: The Legal Historian and the Social Organization of Criminal Justice” 20 Tulsa Law Review 101 (Special Symposium on the Scholarship of Lawrence Friedman 40 Tulsa Law Review 627 (2005)
31. “Civil Rights E Açâo Afirmativa Nos Estados Unidos: Uma Visâo Geral in 1 Revista do Direito do Estado 377 (Julho/Setembro (2006)
32. “Normative Nominalism: The Paradox of Egalitarian Law in Inegalitarian Cultures: Some Lessons from Recent Latin American Historiography, ” 81 Tulane Law Review 1 (2007)
33. Review Essay examining Linda Lewin, Surprise Heirs I: Illegitimacy, Patrimonial Rights and Legal Nationalism in Luso-Brazilian Inheritance, 1750-1821 and Surprise Heirs II: Illegitimacy, Inheritance Ruights and Public Power in the Formation of Imperial Brazil, 1822-1889 forthcoming in American Journal of Legal History
1. "Comparative Slave Studies: Urban Slavery as a Model, Traveler's Accounts as a Source," Journal of Black Studies, September, 1977
2. "Heroism and the Origins of Afro-American History," New England Quarterly, June, 1978
3. "Providence's Black Voters and the Dilemma of the 1848 Election," Southern Studies, special issue on Antebellum Free Blacks, Fall, 1982.
4. "In Search of Afro-Yankee History," The New England Journal of Black Studies, Fall 1983.
5. “From Emancipation to Equality: The Afro-Latin’s Unfinished Struggle” (Review Essay, reviewing George Reid Andrews, Afro-Latin America, 1800-2000) 57 American Quarterly vol. 57 (June, 2005)
6.. Review essay reviewing Slavery in the Development of the Americas David Eltis et. al., eds., and The Chattel Principle: Internal Slave Trades in the Americas, Walter Johnson, ed., in Itinerario: International Journal on the History of European Expansion and Global Interaction vol. XXIX, No. 3 (December, 2005)
7. “Beyond Invisibility: Afro-Argentines in their Nation’s Culture and Memory” (Review Essay) Latin American Research Review vol 42 No 1 (February, 2007)
8. “Coming Into their Own? The Afro-Latin Struggle for Equality and Recognition, “ Grassroots Development: Journal of the Inter-American Foundation vol 28 No 1 (2007)
a. simultaneously published in Spanish translation: “La Luchaz afrolatina pr la equidad y el reconomcimiento Desarrollo de Base: Revista de la Fundación Interamericana
ESSAY LENGTH ENCYCLOPEDIA ARTICLES
The Encyclopedia of Legal History, Oxford University Press, Laura Kalman, et. al. eds., (forthcoming)
1. “The Right to Bear Arms”
2. “Slavery in South and Central America
SHORT ENCYCLOPEDIA ARTICLES:
1. The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States, Oxford University Press, Kermit Hall, et. al., eds. (Fall, 1992):
a. "The Second Amendment"
b. "The Third Amendment"
c. "The Civil Rights Cases"
d. "Hall v. DeCuir"
e. "Samuel Freeman Miller"
f. "Henry Stanbery"
g. "George H. Williams"
h. "William Burnham Woods"
i. "Presser v. Illinois"
2. Encyclopedia of the American Presidency, Simon and Schuster, Leonard W. Levy and Louis Fisher, editors (Fall, 1993)
a. "The Civil Rights Act of 1957"
b. "The Civil Rights Act of 1960"
c. "The Civil Rights Act of 1964"
3. American National Biography, twenty volume reference work published under the auspices of the American Council of Learned Societies by Oxford University Press (in progress), John A. Garraty, general editor (in press)
a. "Robert Morris Sr."
4. The Constitution and its Amendments, Macmillan Publishing, Roger K. Newman, editor.
a. "The Second Amendment"
b. "The Armed Forces"
c. "The Militia"
5. Encyclopedia of the United States in the Nineteenth Century, Paul Finkelman, Editor in Chief (New York, 2001)
a. “African Americans: Free Blacks Before the Civil War”
6. The Oxford Companion to American History Paul S. Boyer, ed. (2001)
a. “Civil Rights Cases”
Papers and Lectures Presented:
1. "From African to Yankee: Culture Change Among Black New Englanders as Revealed by Their Autobiographies and Other Writings," delivered April 13, 1978 at the Southern Anthropological Society Annual Meeting.
2. "Race and Democracy in Antebellum Providence," delivered December, 1978 at the Annual Meeting of the American Historical Association.
3. "Providence's Black Voters and the Dilemma of the 1848 Election," delivered April, 1979 at the Annual Meeting of the Organization of American Historians.
4. "The Significance of Rhode Island's Early Black History," delivered October, 1979 before the Rhode Island Black Heritage Society.
5. "Occupation, Status and Population Growth Among Blacks in Antebellum Providence, Rhode Island," delivered before the Washington Area Economic History Seminar, May 27, 1981.
6. "The Free Black Responses to Colonization, Exploring a Social Nexus" -- Comment delivered before the Annual Meeting of the American Historical Association on December 28, 1984
7. "Law and Race in Urban America: Directions for Future Exploration," delivered January 21, 1985, before the Boston University Legal History Workshop.
8. "Law, Politics and Race in Urban America: Towards a New Synthesis," delivered October 18, 1985, before the Fifteenth Annual Meeting of the American Society for Legal History.
9. "Codifying Caste: Racial Classification Laws in America," delivered October 18, 1985, before the Fifteenth Annual Meeting of the American Society for Legal History (co-author Raymond T. Diamond)
10. Chaired session on "Race, Law and History" at annual meeting of Law and Society Association, May 1986.
11. Discussant at session "Paternalism Revisited for Its Own Good," on October 24, 1986 at Sixteenth Annual Meeting of the American Society for Legal History.
12. Chaired and acted as commentator at session on "The Business Law of Slavery," on October 25, 1986 at Sixteenth Annual Meeting of the American Society for Legal History.
13. Commentator at session on "Slavery, Freedom and the Constitution" 80th Annual Meeting of Organization of American Historians, April 3, 1987.
14. Commentator at session on "Gender and Race: The Weight of State Pasts at Conference "In Search of a Visible Past" -- Albany Law School, Albany, NY 1988.
15. Commentator at session on "Protecting Human Rights in a Federal System," during Conference "1992 and Beyond, 1789 and Beyond: Comparative Perspectives on Constitutional Federalism" held at Georgetown University Law Center, December, 1988.
16. "Reconstruction Amendments Historiography: The Quest For Racial and Intellectual Maturity" delivered during conference The Reconstruction Amendments Then and Now at Rutgers School of Law, Camden, Sept 14, 1990
17. "The Second Amendment: Towards an Afro-Americanist Reconsideration," October 20, 1990 at Annual Meeting of the American Society for Legal History
a. also delivered before faculty workshop at Northwestern University School of Law February 17, 1991
b. also delivered before Harvard Legal History Forum, Harvard Law School, March 18, 1991
c. also delivered before joint meeting of Law and Society Association and International Law and Society Association, June 29, 1991, at School of Law, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
d. also delivered before annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, August 30, 1991
e. also delivered before the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Nov. 21, 1991
f. also delivered before the annual meeting of the American Association of Law Schools, minority section, January, 1992
18. Chaired Session on Minority Legal Scholarship at 1991 annual meeting Minority Law Teachers Conference, New Orleans, September 28, 1991. Also delivered paper: "Legal Scholarship and Interdisciplinary Inquiry: A Compelling Combination for Minority Scholars,"
19. Chaired Session and acted as commentator on session titled "Media Bias and the Gun Control Debate," annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Nov. 22, 1991
20. Commentator at Session "Fugitive Slaves and the State Courts," annual meeting of the Organization of American Historians, April 1992
21. Commentator at Session "The Fugitive Slave Law and Runaway Slaves" at conference: Race Relations and the United States Constitution: From Fugitive Slaves to Affirmative Action held at Rutgers University (Camden), April 10, 1992
22. "American Constitutionalism: Some Multi-cultural Considerations," delivered before the Institute on Writing, Reading and Civic Education, Harvard Graduate School of Education, August 7, 1992
23. Chaired Session, "Gun Control: Constitutional and Methodological Issues," annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Nov. 5, 1992
24. Commentator at Session, "Guns and Violence," annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Nov. 5, 1992
25. Chaired Session, "Author Meets Critics: The Samurai, The Mountie and the Cowboy: Should America Adopt the Gun Control of Other Democracies?," annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Nov. 6, 1992
26. "Never Intended to be Applied to the White Population: Firearms Regulation and Racial Disparity, The Redeemed South's Legacy to a National Jurisprudence?" annual meeting of the American Society for Legal History, October, 1993
27. "Never Intended to be Applied to the White Population: Firearms Regulation and Racial Disparity, The Redeemed South's Legacy to a National Jurisprudence?" annual meeting of the American Criminological Society, October 1993
28."In the Civic Republic: Crime, the Inner City and the Democracy of Arms. Being A Disquisition on the Revival of the Militia at Large," delivered at James Thomas Lecture, Yale Law School, March 1, 1994 -- co-author Raymond T. Diamond
29. "Regulating Purgatory: The Criminal Law of Slavery in the British Caribbean on the Eve of Emancipation," Commentary at Session on "Slavery and Criminal Sanctions at conference Bondage, Freedom and the Constitution: The New Slavery Scholarship and its Impact on Law and Legal History, Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law, February 20, 1995 30. Panelist: "The Lives of Faculty of Color: Teacher, Scholar, Activist," Workshop For Law Teachers of Color: Diversity Among Us: Constructing a Coalition of Color, October 5, 1995
31. Chair and Commentator at session: "Topics in the Social History of Latin American Law, annual meeting American Society for Legal History, October 20, 1995
32. Chair of session: "The Law of Race and Slavery in the Americas," also delivered paper "Outlawing Outcasts: Comparative Perspectives on the Criminal Law of Slavery in the Americas," at Joint Meetings of the Law and Society Association and the Research Committee on the Sociology of Law of the International Sociological Association, Glasgow, Scotland, July 11, 1996
33. Commentator at session "Murder, Lynching and Capital Punishment: Justice Within Pluralistic Societies, annual meeting American Society for Legal History, October 18, 1997
34. Panelist at session "Author Meets Critic" (Discussing The Great American Gun Debate by Gary Kleck and Don Kates), thurs Nov. 20th, 1997 at annual meeting of American Society of Criminology
35. Chair and Commentator at session on "Patterns in Violent Crime and the Law: Lessons from the English Experience and Beyond," Saturday Nov. 22nd, 1997 at annual meeting of American Society of Criminology
36. "Submission is Not the Answer: Lethal Violence, Microcultures of Criminal Violence and the Right to Self-Defense, A Critique of Crime is Not the Problem, February 21, 1998 at University of Colorado School of Law Symposium on Lethal Violence in America
a. Also delivered before faculty forum, Fordham University School of Law, April 17, 1998
37. Chaired session: “Race, Criminal Justice and Federal Courts in the Twentieth Century,” annual meeting, American Society for Legal History, Oct. 24, 1998
38. Delivered Paper, “Conflicted Hegemonies: Perspectives on the Criminal Law of Slavery at session on “Crime, Race and History, annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Nov. 11, 1998
39. Discussant at section on “Firearms and Individual Rights, annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Nov. 12, 1998
40. “The Second Amendment: Toward a More Multi-Dimensional Debate,” Presented before Triangle Institute for Security Studies,” University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, December 10, 1998
41. Commentator at session on Legal History of Afro-Latinos, American Society for Legal History, October, 1999
42. Presented Paper at Roundtable: “Guns, Homicide and Democide: Are We Asking the Right Questions?”, November, 1999 American Society of Criminology
43. Chair, Session; “Right to Carry Laws and Homicide: The Effect on Weapon Types and Victim-Offender Relationships,” at American Enterprise Institute Conference on Guns, Crime and Safety, December 10-11, 1999
44. Organizer and Chair of Session, “The Southern Mirror or What We Might Learn About Race Relations by Examining the Afro-Latin Experience,” Annual Meeting Association of American Law Schools, January 8, 2000
a. Presented Paper at id: “The Long Lingering Shadow, Law’s Contribution to Cultures of Racial Hierarchy and Identity in the Americas
45. Chair and Commentator at Session: “Law, Identity and Racial Hierarchy: Perspectives on the Afro-Latin Experience,” at 22nd International Congress of the Latin American Studies Association,” March 16, 2000
46. “The Long Lingering Shadow, Law’s Contribution to Cultures of Racial Hierarchy and Identity in the Americas,” Northeastern People of Color Conference, School of Law, University of Puerto Rico, April 14, 2000
47. Moderator and Commentator at session “The American Revolution in World-Historical Perspective,” 2nd Annual Meeting, The Historical Society, June 2, 2000
48. Presenter at Informal Discussion Roundtable: “What We Might Learn About Race, Law and Remedy by Studying the Afro-Latin Experience,” Annual Meeting of the American Sociological Association, August, 2000
49. “The Long Lingering Shadow, Law, Liberalism and Cultures of Racial Hierarchy and Identity in the Americas,” Annual Meeting of the American Society for Legal History, October, 2000
50. Delivered Paper: “Democide, Genocide amd Deterrence: Where Might the Right to Arms Have Made a Difference in Twentieth Century History,” Annual Conference, American Society of Criminology, November, 2000
51. Commentator at Session: “Going the Distance: Law as a Tool for Wielding Influence Over Vast Territories,” Section on Legal History, Association of American Law Schools, January 2001
52. Panelist at author meets critic session discussing William Vizzard’s Shot’s in the Dark: The Policy, Politics and Symbolism of Gun Control, annual meeting Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences, April 4, 2001
53. Panelist at conference, “The Second Amendment: History, Evidence and the Constitution, April 20-21, 2001, Stanford University Joint Sponsorship, History Department, Law School and the Humanities Center
54. Lectures: “Introduction to US Legal System”
a. Universidade Federal de Santa Cantarina, Florianopolis, Santa Cantarina, Brazil – July, 2001
b. Universidade Federal de Rio Grande Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil – July, 2001
c. Universidade Federal de Santa Cantarina, Florianopolis, Santa Cantarina, Brazil, November, 2002
55. Featured Speaker on “U. S. and Brazilian Race Relations Compared”
a. U. S. Consulate, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, July, 2001
b. U. S. Consulate, Sao Paulo, Brazil, July, 2001
56. Featured Speaker on “U. S. and Brazilian Criminal Law Compared” – – Tribunal de Justicia, Rio Grande do Sul – July, 2001 — Conducted in Portugese
57. Organized and Chaired Session on “Racial Classification and Anti-Discrimination Law: Latin American Perspectives.” Annual Meeting, Association of American Law Schools, Friday, January 4, 2002
58. Panelist at session on “The Civil War and American Law: Civil Liberties, Habeas Corpus, and the Roots of Freedom,” in The Civil War and American Memory: The First Library of Congress Civil War Symposium, November 14, 2002
59. “El Papel de Derecho en la Lucha Contra Exclusion Social,” Conference of the Organization of American States, November, 2002, Florianopolis, Santa Cantarina, Brazil – (Presented in Spanish)
60. Chair and Discussant, Session on the Sociology of Deviance, 73rd Annual Meeting, Eastern Sociological Society, Feb. 28th 2003
61. Presented Paper: “Social Science and Anti-Discrimination Litigation: Can Lessons from the U. S. Experience be Applied to the Issue of Racial Exclusion in Latin America,”, 73rd Annual Meeting, Eastern Sociological Society, March 2nd 2003. Co-Author Tanya K. Hernandez
62. Chair and Organizer session on “Law and Racial Discrimination in Latin America,” Annual Meeting, Latin American Studies Association, Friday March 28, 2003
63. Delivered Paper, “Verso e Reverso: Judicial Review in Brazil: The Problem of Unintended Consequences,” Conference, Marbury and its Legacy: A Symposium to Mark the 200th anniversary of Marbury v. Madison, George Washington University Law School, April 11, 2003
64. Delivered Paper, “Centros de Investigación de Historia Legal en los Estados Unidos before the Instituto de Investigaciones de Historia de Derecho, Buenos Aires, Argentina, August 2003 (Presented in Spanish)
65. Delivered Paper, “The Rise, Decline and Return of Negligence in American Torts Jurisprudence,” before the Instituto de Altos Estudios de Derecho Civil Argentino y Comparado de la Universidad del Museo Social Argentino,” Buenos Aires, Argentina, August, 2003
66. Delivered Paper, “ Social Science and Anti-discrimination Litigation: Can Lessons from the U. S. Experience be Applied to the Issue of Racial Exclusion in Latin America?” LatCrit Conference, Buenos Aires, Argentina, August, 2003
67. Organized Roundtable on “Argentina as a Multi-Ethnic and Multi-Racial Society,” LatCrit Conference, Buenos Aires, Argentina, August, 2003
68. Participant 2003 Childress Lecture and Conference Saint Louis University School of Law (Symposium on Brown v. Board of Education) October, 2003
69. Chair, Session “Guns, Violence and Belonging in Late Twentieth Century America,” Annual Meeting, American Studies Association, October 17, 2003
70. Delivered Paper “Brown v. Board of Education: Where Cultural Theory Meets Legal History, before the District of Columbia Sociological Society, November 5, 2003
71. Brown and the Contemporary Brazilian Struggle Against Racial Inequality: Some Preliminary Comparative Thoughts, before University of Pittsburgh Law School Symposium on Fiftieth Anniversary of Brown v. Board of Education Feb 6, 2004
72. Delivered Paper, “ Brown v. Board of Education as a Revolution in American Law,” Annual Meeting of the Organization of American Historians,” March 27, 2004
73. Delivered Paper, “A 50 Años del Fallo Brown vs. Board of Education,” before Facultad de Derecho, Universidad de Buenos Aires, August 5th, 2004 (Presented in Spanish)
74. Chaired Session on “Law, Race and Discrimination in Latin America” October 7th, 2004, Annual Meeting of Latin American Studies Association
75. Delivered Paper “Brown v. Board of Education and Brazil’s Lei Afonso Arinos: Comparative Perspectives on Civil Rights Law at the Half Century Mark,” before the annual meeting of the American Society for Legal History, October 29th, 2004
76. Delivered Paper “Cultura y Leyes: la segregación racial en la justicia de los Estados Unidos” June 28th, 2005 before Insttituto de Relaciones Internacionales, Facultad de Ciencias Juridicas y Sociales, La Universidad Nacional de la Plata, La Plata, Argentina
77. Participant in panel on “Reviving the Privileges or Immunities Clause” American Constitution Society, July 30th, 2005
78. Chair and Commentator on Session “Representations and Practices of Black Citizenship” Annual Meeting, American Studies Association, November 3rd , 2005
79. “Separados Pero Iquales, February 22nd Instituto Cultural Peruano Norte-Americano, Lima, Peru
80. Participant in roundtable, “Ethnicity, Race, and Indigenous Peoples: An Interdisciplinary Roundtable on Defining Key Concepts. Annual Meeting of the Latin American Studies Association, March 15th 2006
81. “Civil Rights and Affirmative Action in the US: An Overview,” 5th International Seminar on Fundamental Rights, Pontifica Universidade Católica, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, May 23rd, 2006
82. “Countering Employment Discrimination: an Overview of US Law,” International Seminar on Fundamental Rights,” 5th International Seminar on Fundamental Rights, Pontifica Universidade Católica, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, May 23rd, 2006
83. “Racial Discrimination and Labor Relations” Zumbi dos Palmares Afro University (UNIPALMARES) Sao Paulo, Brazil, May 24th, 2006
84. Organized and led informal discussion roundtable on “Comparative Perspectives on Social Exclusion and Legal Remedy” at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association,”August 12th 2006
85. Panelist in session on “Gated Communities: Privileged Places, Ghettos or Ethnic Enclaves?” at annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, August 13th 2006
86. “Legal and Constitutional Accomplishments of the Civil Rights Movement” – – Television hookup to US Embassy, Tunis, Tunisia, January 26th, 2007 Sponsored by US Society, Values and Politics Section, Bureau of International Information Programs, US Department of State
87. “Logros Legales y Constitucionales del Movimiento Norteamericano Contra Discriminación Racial” – — Computer hookup to US Interest Section of the Swiss Embassy, Havana, Cuba, February 26th 2007. Sponsored by US Society, Values and Politics Section, Bureau of International Information Programs, US Department of State
88. Chair and Commentator at session “Slavery and Freedom in the Antebellum Midwest,” annual meeting, Organization of American Historians” Sunday, April 1st 2007
89. Delivered Paper “Tannenbaum and Beyond, New Ways of Thinking About the Comparative Legal History of Slavery in the United States and Latin America,” Washington Area Legal History Roundtable: Slavery, April 20th , 2007
90. Delivered Paper “La Pena de Muertes en Casos Juveniles en Estados Unidos de Norte America in conference Las Penas de los Niños en el Derecho Comparado: Nuevos Horizontes ante los Tratados de Derechose Humanos,” Facultad de Derecho, Universidad de Flores, Buenos Aires, Argentina June, 26, 2007
91. Chair and Discussant, Session: “Comparative and Historical Perspectives on Law Reform,” Annual Meeting, Law and Society Association, Berlin, July, 2007
92. Chair and Discussant, Session: “Method in Our Madness: Methodological Issues in Law and Society,” Annual Meeting, Law and Society Association, Berlin, July, 2007
93. Discussant, session, “Children, Race and Ethnicity in Latin America and Among Latinos in the US, Part 1,” Annual Meeting, Latin American Studies Association, September, 2007