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DEPARTMENT OF ARCHAEOLOGY

UNIVERSITY OF KERALA

Syllabus of M.A. Archaeology Course

(Revised and to be effected from 2009 batch)

CORE COURSES
Course No. Course Title L T P C
ARC 511 Principles and Methods in Archaeology 4 - - 4
ARC 512 World Prehistory 4 - - 4
ARC 513 Indian Prehistory 4 - - 4
ARC 514 Ancient Indian History 4 - - 4

ARC 521 Proto-history 4 - - 4


ARC 522 Early Iron Age of India 4 - - 4
ARC 523 Early Indian Art 4 - - 4
ARC 524 Indian Architecture 4 - - 4
ARC 531 Research Methodology 4 - - 4
ARC 532 Ancient Indian Iconography 4 - - 4
ARC 541 Paleography and Epigraphy 4 - - 4
ARC 542 Ancient Indian Numismatics 4 - - 4
Arc-543 Dissertation and Comprehensive viva - - - 6
ELECTIVE COURSES
ARC 501 Heritage and Museum Managements 4 - - 4

ARC 502 Archaeology of Kerala 4 - - 4


ARC 503 Ancient Religions of India 4 - - 4
ARC 504 Islamic Architectural monuments at Delhi 4 - - 4

and Agra
ARC 505 Science in Archaeology 3 - 1 4


ARC 506 Field Archaeology - (Explorations/ - - 1 1

Excavations)


ARC 507 Field Archaeology – (Study tour

of Monuments) - - 1 1


DEPARTMENT OF ARCHAEOLOGY

UNIVERSITY OF KERALA
Syllabus of M.A. Archaeology Course

(Revised and to be effected from 2009 batch)
CORE COURSES

COURSE CODE: ARC. 511

COURSE TITLE: Principles and Methods in Archaeology

CREDITS: 4

SEMESTER: 1
AIM OF THE COURSE: To give an introduction to the development of Archaeology as a discipline, its current practices, basic techniques and methods in Archaeology.
COURSE DESCRIPTION: Archaeology - it’s definition, aim, scope and evolution. History of Indian archaeology. Relationship of archaeology with Social and Natural sciences. Retrieval of Archaeological data: techniques of exploration and excavations. Recording. Aims and methods of conservation and preservation of archaeological remains. Post excavation analysis and interpretation of data - scientific, theoretical, analogical, experimental and ethno-archaeological. Preparation of reports. Chronology of dating: Relative: Stratigraphy, typology, seriation, cross-dating, Archaeozoological and Archeobotanical approaches. Chronometric dating: Carbon-14, Potassium- Argon, Fission track, Thermo-luminescence, Dendro-chronology.
COURSE CONTENT:

Module-1

Archaeology- Definition, aim, scope and evolution.

History of Indian archaeology.

Relationship of Archaeology with Social and Natural Sciences.

Retrieval of Archaeological data: techniques of exploration and excavations.

Recording.

Aims and methods of conservation and preservation of archaeological remains.

Post excavation analysis and interpretation of data - Scientific, Theoretical, Analogical, Experimental and Ethno-archaeological approaches

Preparation of reports

Module-2

Chronology of dating: Relative: Stratigraphy, Typology, Seriation, Cross-dating, Pleistocene Geochronology, Archaeozoological and Archeobotanical approaches. Chronometric dating: Carbon-14, Potassium-Argon, Fission track, Thermo-luminescence, Dendro-chronology.


ASSESSMENT:

Continuous Assessment (40%)

(a) Attendance: 5%

(b) Mid Semester Examination: 15%

(c) Assignment: 10%

(d) Seminar/Test/Quiz/Viva/Records: 10%

End Semester Assessment (60%): This will be through a three hour written Examination consisting of essay and short answer type questions.
Suggested Readings

Agrawal,D.P and M.D.Yadava. 1995. Dating the Human Past. Pune: ISPQS

Chakrabarti,D. K.1988, History of Indian Archaeology. Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal

Drewett.L. Peter. 1999. Field Archaeology. London: UCL Press.

Fagan, Brian.1994. In the Beginning: An Introduction to Archaeology. London.

Rajan, K. 2003. Principles and Methods of Archaeology. Thanjavur:Manoo Pathipakkam

Raman, K.V.1998. Principles and Methods of Archaeology. Chenni: Parthajan

COURSE CODE: ARC. 512

COURSE TITLE: World Prehistory

CREDITS: 4

SEMESTER: 1
AIM OF THE COURSE: To give an overview of the scenario of prehistoric habitation worldwide.

COURSE DESCRIPTION: Geological, biological and cultural dimensions of man. Quaternary period: Pleistocene and Holocene- environmental and climatic changes. Pleistocene flora and fauna, main stages of human evolution and important fossil records. Evolution of Stone - age tools. Typo-technology of Stone - age tools. Prehistory of Europe - Paleolithic to Neolithic cultures and Prehistoric-Art. Prehistory of Africa - Paleolithic-Neolithic of Northern zone-Mediterranean Coast to South of Sahara Plateu: West Central Zone-West of Rift Valley, Eastern Zone-Rift Valley- Southern zone-Angola to southern tip. Neolithic of Near East, and Pakistan.
COURSE CONTENT:

Module-1

Geological, biological and cultural dimension of man.

Quaternary period: Pleistocene and Holocene- environmental and climatic changes.

Pleistocene flora and fauna, main stages of human evolution and important fossil records

Evolution of Stone Age tools. Typo-technology of Stone Age

Module -2

Prehistory of Europe - Paleolithic to Neolithic culture and Prehistoric Art.


Module-3

Prehistory of Prehistory of Africa - Paleolithic to Neolithic. Northern zone - Mediterranean Coast to south of Saharan Plateau. West /Central zone – west of Rift valley, Eastern zone - Rift valley, Southern zone - Angola to southern tip.



Module-4

Neolithic of Near East evidences from – Jericho, Jerome and Catalhuyuk.


Module-5

Neolithic of Pakistan evidences from Mehrgarh and Kili Gul Muhammad.


ASSESSMENT:

Continuous Assessment (40%)

(a) Attendance: 5%

(b) Mid Semester Examination: 15%

(c) Assignment: 10%

(d) Seminar/Test/Quiz/Viva/Records: 10%

End Semester Assessment (60%): This will be through a three hour written Examination consisting of essay and short answer type questions.
Suggested readings

Bahn, G. Paul. 1998. Prehistoric Art. Cambridge: University Press

Clark, Grahame.1961. World Prehistory in New Perspective.Cambridge: University Press
Day, H. Michael. 1986. Guide to Fossil Man. London: Cassell

Gamble, Clive. 1986. The Paleolithic settlement of Europe. Cambridge: University Press

Delson, Eric. 2000. Encyclopedia of Human Evolution and Prehistory. London: Garland

COURSE CODE: ARC. 513

COURSE TITLE: Indian Prehistory

CREDITS: 4

SEMESTER: 1
AIM OF THE COURSE: To give an overview of the scenario of prehistoric habitation up to Neolithic phases in Indian subcontinent.
COURSE DESCRIPTION: Paleo-environment during Stone Age in India evidences from- Sohan, Narmada, Godavari and Kotlayar valleys. Lower, Middle and Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic cultures of India - distribution, environment, typo-technology of tools, subsistence, art, chronology, evidences from important sites. Prehistoric art. Neolithic culture of India - evidences from various regions, important excavated sites and ashmound issues.
COURSE CONTENT:

Module-1

Paleo-environment during Stone Age in India evidences from - Sohan, Narmada, Godavari and Kotlayar valleys.



Module-2

Typo-technology of prehistoric tools.



Module-3

A brief introduction to Lower Paleolithic, Middle Paleolithic, Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic cultures of India (distribution, environment, typo-technology of tools, subsistence, art, chronology, evidences from important sites).



Module-4

Prehistoric Art in India.



Module-5

An introduction to Neolithic culture in India - Evidences from North, North-East, North-West and South. Excavated sites - Burzhahom, Gufkaral Sangankallu, Tekkalakota, Hallur, Kodekal, Utnur. Ashmounds - issues and evidences.


ASSESSMENT:

Continuous Assessment (40%)

(a) Attendance: 5%

(b) Mid Semester Examination: 15%

(c) Assignment: 10%

(d) Seminar/Test/Quiz/Viva/Records: 10%

End Semester Assessment (60%): This will be through a three hour written Examination consisting of essay and short answer type questions.
Suggested readings

Agrawal, D.P .1972. Man and Environment through the Ages. New Delhi: Books and Books.

Allchin,B and Allchin, F.R.1982. Rise of Civilization in India and Pakistan. Cambridge:

University Press

Setter, S and Ravi Korisettar. 2002. Indian Archaeology in Retrospect- Prehistory

Archaeology of South Asia. Delhi: ICHR and Manohar

Singh, P. 1974. Neolithic Cultures of Western Asia. Vol.1.London: Seminar Press

Ghosh, A. 1989. An Encyclopedia of Indian Archaeology Vol. I &2.Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal.

COURSE CODE: ARC. 514

COURSE TITLE: Ancient India History

CREDITS: 4

SEMESTER: 1
AIM OF THE COURSE: To introduce the students with the political history of India and its influences in making the Indian Culture. This is essential as students come from both BSc and BA streams.
COURSE DESCRIPTION: Geography, Sources - Archaeology and Literary. Janapadas- Political conditions before and after their formations, Jainism and Buddhism their origin and impact, Persian and Greek invasions, rise of Magadhan Imperialism. Mauryan period- Chandragupta, Ashoka, Mauryan administration, causes of downfall. Post Mauryan rulers-Sunga, Kanva, Indo-Greek, Sakas, Pahalvas, Western Kshatrapas. Kushan Origin and Early History - Vikram and Saka Eras. Rulers of the Deccan- Satavahanas, Ikshvakus, Vakatakas. Gupta dynasty: Origin, growth, contributions, Huna invasions and downfall. Harshavardan - his conquest, administration, religious policy. Political dynasties in Deccan Chalukyas of Badami, Rashtrakutas, Pallavas, Pandyas, Cholas and Hoysalas.
COURSE CONTENT:

Module -1

Geography of India.



Module -2

Sources of history - Archaeology and Literary.



Module - 3

Janapadas - Political conditions before and after their formations.



Module - 4

Origin and impact of Buddhism and Jainism



Module - 5

Persian and Greek invasions, rise of Magadhan Imperialism.



Module -6

Political history of Mauryan period - Chandragupta, Ashoka, Mauryan administration, cause of downfall



Module - 7

Political history of Post Mauryan period - Sunga, Kanva, Indo-Greek, Sakas, Pahalvas, Western Kshatrapas



Module -8

Political history of Kushan dynasty.



Module -9

Political history of Deccan - Satavahanas, Ikshvakus.



Module -10

Political history of the Gupta dynasty, Vakatakas, and Hunas.



Module -11

Harshavardan - his conquest, administration, religious policy



Module -12

Political history of major dynasties in Deccan and South India –Chalukyas of Badami, Rashtrakutas, Pallavas, Cholas, Pandyas, and Hoysalas.


ASSESSMENT:

Continuous Assessment (40%)

(a) Attendance: 5%

(b) Mid Semester Examination: 15%

(c) Assignment: 10%

(d) Seminar/Test/Quiz/Viva/Records: 10%

End Semester Assessment (60%): This will be through a three hour written Examination consisting of essay and short answer type questions.
Suggested Readings

Devahuti,D.1970. Harsha-A Political History. Oxford: Clarendor Press

Goyal,S.R. 1986. Harsha and Buddhism. Meerut: Kusumanjali Prakashan

Majumdar,R.C. 1966. The Age of Imperial Moduley. Bombay: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan

----------------- .1971. The Age of Imperial Moduley. ,, ,,

----------------- .1972. The Struggle for Empire. ,, ,,

Mahajan,V.D. 2002. Ancient India. Delhi: Chand and Company.

COURSE CODE: ARC. 521

COURSE TITLE: Proto-history

CREDITS: 4

SEMESTER: 2
AIM OF THE COURSE: To give a comprehensive idea of Proto-historic cultures in India.
COURSE DESCRIPTION: Pre and Early Harappan village cultures of North-Western India. Harappan Culture -Origin, extent, chronology, factors of urbanization, trade, script, religion, arts and craft, factors of decline. Post Harappan cultures in Punjab, Haryana, Rajastan, Uttar Pradesh and Gujarat. Chalcolithic Cultures - Ahar, Kayatha, Malwa, Sawalda, Jorwe. Copper Hoard and OCP
COURSE CONTENT:

Module-1

Pre and Early Harappan village cultures of North - Western India.



Module-2

Harappan Culture - Origin, extent, chronology, factors of urbanization, trade, script, religion, arts and craft, factors of decline.



Module-3

Post Harappan cultures in Punjab, Haryana, Rajastan, Uttar Pradesh and Gujarat.



Module-4

Chalcolithic Cultures - Ahar, Kayatha, Malwa, Savalda, Jorwe.



Module-5

Copper Hoard and OCP.


ASSESSMENT:

Continuous Assessment (40%)

(a) Attendance: 5%

(b) Mid Semester Examination: 15%

(c) Assignment: 10%

(d) Seminar/Test/Quiz/Viva/Records: 10%

End Semester Assessment (60%): This will be through a three hour written Examination consisting of essay and short answer type questions.
Suggested Readings

Asthana, Shasi.1985. Pre-Harappan Cultures and Borderlands. New Delhi: Books and Books.

Dhavalikar,M.K. 1999. Indian Protohistory Delhi: Books and Books.

Posshel.L.Gregory.1993. Harappan Civilization. Delhi: Oxford & IBH.

Sankalia,H.D. 1974. The Prehistory and Protohistory of India and Pakistan. Pune: DCPRI

Setter,S and Ravi Korisettar. 2002. Indian Archaeology in retrospect Protohistory Archaeology of South Asia, Vol.II. Delhi: ICHR and Manohar



COURSE CODE: ARC. 522

COURSE TITLE: Early Iron Age of India

CREDITS: 4

SEMESTER: 2
AIM OF THE COURSE: To give a broad idea of Iron Age cultures and early historic settlements in India.
COURSE DESCRIPTION: Iron Age: Origin, Chronology-cultural features. Salient features of Painted Grey Ware culture. Megalithic Cultures of India: Distribution, typology and Material requirement. Salient features of NBPW culture. Excavated early historic sites - Rajghat, Ujjain, Taxila, Mathura, Sravasti, Kausambi, Sishupalgarh, Sringaverpura, Satanikotta, Chandraketugarh, Nasik, Ariakmedu, and Nagarjunakonda and Sannathi.
COURSE CONTENT:

Module-1

Early occurrence of Iron: Chrono-cultural features



Module-2

Salient features of Painted Grey ware culture



Module-3

Megalithic Cultures of India: Distribution, Typology, Excavated sites – Mahurjari, Takalghat-Khapa, Naikund, Brahmagiri, Adichanallur, Megaliths of Dharward region, Megaliths of Kerala .



Module-4

Salient features of NBPW culture



Module-5

Excavated early historic sites – Rajghat, Ujjain, Taxila, Mathura, Sravasti, Kausambi, Sishupalgarh, Sringaverpura, Satanikotta, Chandraketugarh, Nasik, Arekamedu, Nagarjunakonda and Sannathi.


ASSESSMENT:

Continuous Assessment (40%)

(a) Attendance: 5%

(b) Mid Semester Examination: 15%

(c) Assignment: 10%

(d) Seminar/Test/Quiz/Viva/Records: 10%

End Semester Assessment (60%): This will be through a three hour written Examination consisting of essay and short answer type questions.
Suggested Readings

Agrawal, D.P and D.K Chakrabarty. 1979. Essays in Indian Protohistory. Delhi: D.K

Dhavalikar,M.K. 1999. Historical Archaeology of India. Delhi: Books and Books

Narasimhaiah, B. 1980. Neolithic and Megalithic cultures in Tamilnadu. Delhi: Sundeep

Rao, K.P.1988. Deccan Megaliths. Delhi: Sundeep Prakashan

COURSE CODE: ARC. 523

COURSE TITLE: Early Indian Art

CREDITS: 4

SEMESTER: 2
AIM OF THE COURSE: To give an idea about artistic expressions through the study of sculptures, paintings and terracotta objects from historic periods in India
COURSE DESCRIPTION: Mauryan Art-Pillar, Caves, Stupas, Stone sculptures and Terracotta. Important art centers of Post Mauryan Period- Barhut, Sanchi, Bodhgaya, Early Mathura, Udaigiri-Khandagiri, Western Indian Hinayana Buddhist caves, Amaravati. Kushan Art- Mathura-Gandhara Nagarjunakonda. The Classical Gupta Art, Vakataka art. Major Art Schools of Deccan and South India: Chalukaya, Rahstrakuta, Pallava, Chola, Hoysala. North India: Chandelas, Pala-Sena and Eastern Ganga (Orissa).
COURSE CONTENT:

Module-1

Mauryan Art - Pillars, Stone sculptures, Terracotta.



Module-2

Sunga Art – Sculptural art of Barhut , Early Sanchi, Terracotta



Module-3

Satavahana Art - Western Buddhist caves (Bhaja, Pitalkhora, Nasik and Kanheri) and Amaravati.



Module-4

Kushan Art - Mathura – Gandhara



Module-5

Ikshvaku Art - Nagarjunakonda.



Module-6

Gupta Art – Sculptural art in stone and terracotta; paintings from Ajanta and Bagh



Module-7

Art Schools of South India - Pallava, Chola, Hoysala



Module-8

Art under Chandela, Pala-Sena and Eastern Ganga (Orissa)


ASSESSMENT:

Continuous Assessment (40%)

(a) Attendance: 5%

(b) Mid Semester Examination: 15%

(c) Assignment: 10%

(d) Seminar/Test/Quiz/Viva/Records: 10%

End Semester Assessment (60%): This will be through a three hour written Examination consisting of essay and short answer type questions.
Suggested Readings

Agrawal,V.S. 1965. Master pieces of Mathura Sculpture. Varanasi: Prithvi Prakshan

Bachoffer,L.1973. Early Indian Sculpture Vol. I&II. Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal .

Coomaraswamy, A.K. 1972. History of Indian and Indonesian Art. Delhi: Munshiram

Manoharlal.

Saraswati, S. K. 1975. A Survey of Indian Sculpture Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal.

Zimmer, M. 1964. The Art of Indian Asia (2Vols) New York: Bollinger Foundations.
COURSE CODE: ARC. 524

COURSE TITLE: Indian Architecture

CREDITS: 4

SEMESTER: 2
AIM OF THE COURSE: To give an idea about architectural innovations through the study of archaeological monuments from historic periods in India.
COURSE DESCRIPTION: Mauryan Architecture - Pillars, Caves, and Palaces, Stupa. Buddhist Architecture – Stupas and Monasteries – Pre-Mauryan, Mauryan and Post Mauryan evidences – Piprahwa, Lauriya-Nandangarh,Vaishali, Sanchi, Barhut, Mathura, Sarnath Devnimori, Nalanda and Ratnagiri. Stupas in Andhra Pradesh with specific reference to those from Amaravati and Nagarjunakonda

Rock- cut caves of Western India (Maharashtra) and Eastern India (Orissa). Gupta Architecture- caves and structural temples, Vakataka Caves at Ajanta. Chalukayan Architecture - Temples at Aihole, Badami, Pattadakal; Rashtrakuta-Ellora-Aurangabad. Chandela temples and Orissan temples. Evolution of temples under Pallavas, Cholas and Hoysalas.


COURSE CONTENT:

Module-1

Mauryan Architecture - Pillars, Caves, and Palaces.



Module-2

Buddhist Architecture – Stupas and Monasteries – Pre-Mauryan, Mauryan and Post Mauryan evidences – Piprahwa, Lauriya-Nandangarh,Vaishali, Bairat, Sanchi, Barhut, Mathura, Sarnath Devnimori, Nalanda and Ratnagiri. Stupas in Andhra Pradesh with specific reference to those from Amaravati and Nagarjunakonda

Rock- cut caves of Western India (Maharashtra) and Eastern India (Orissa).

Module-3

Gupta Architecture - Caves and Structural temples. Ajanta and Bagh Caves.



Module-4

Chalukayan Architecture - Temples at Aihole, Badami and Pattadakal; Rashtrakuta-Ellora and Aurangabad caves.



Module-5

Chandela temples at Khajuraho and Orissan temples at Bhuvansehwar and Puri.



Module-6

Evolution of temples under – Pallavas, Cholas and Hoysalas.


ASSESSMENT:

Continuous Assessment (40%)

(a) Attendance: 5%

(b) Mid Semester Examination: 15%

(c) Assignment: 10%

(d) Seminar/Test/Quiz/Viva/Records: 10%

End Semester Assessment (60%): This will be through a three hour written Examination consisting of essay and short answer type questions.
Suggested Readings

Brown, Percy. 1960. Indian Architecture (Buddhist and Hindu).Bombay: Taraporewala

Dehejia, Vidya. 1972. Early Buddhist Rock Temples. London: Thames and Hudson.

Deva, Krishna. 1969. Temples of North India. Delhi: NBT.

Nagaraju, S. 1981. Buddhist Architecture of Western India. Delhi: Agam Kala

Srinivasan, K.R 1972. Temples of South India. Delhi: NBT


COURSE CODE: ARC. 531

COURSE TITLE: Research Methodology

CREDITS: 4

SEMESTER: 3
AIM OF THE COURSE: To introduce the students to research methods in Archaeology and to accord them formal training in thesis writing
COURSE DESCRIPTION: Role of research, Characteristics of Research. Research Methodology: Research methods and techniques, Traditional, Scientific, Historical, and Philological methods. Experimental research, survey, case study, field investigation, and evaluation. Hypothesis-its different form of testing. Research Design: Descriptive, diagnostic, exploratory and experimental. Collection of Data. It’s processing and Analysis. Research Report -The research proposal, the introduction, review of literature, the methodology, analysis and interpretation of data summery, conclusion and bibliography. Research Report - A Case Study
COURSE CONTENT:

Module-1

Role of Research, Characteristics of Research.



Module-2

Research Methodology: Research Methods and Techniques – Traditional, Scientific, Historical, and Philological methods. Survey, Case Study, Field Investigation, and Evaluation



Module-3

Hypothesis - its different forms of testing



Module-4

Research Design: Descriptive, diagnostic, exploratory and experimental



Module-5

Collection of Data. It’s Processing and Analysis



Module-6

Research Report - The research proposal, the introduction, review of literature, the methodology, analysis and interpretation of data, summery, conclusion and bibliography



Module-7

Research Report - A Case Study.


ASSESSMENT:

Continuous Assessment (40%)

(a) Attendance: 5%

(b) Mid Semester Examination: 15%

(c) Assignment: 10%

(d) Seminar/Test/Quiz/Viva/Records: 10%

End Semester Assessment (60%): This will be through a three hour written Examination consisting of essay and short answer type questions.
Suggested Readings

Denscombe, Martyn .1999.The Good Research Guide. London:Viva Books

Gibaldi, Joseph. 2000. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. Delhi: Affiliated.

Johnson, L. Amber. 2004. Processual Archaeology. London: Praeger.

Silverman, David. 2005. Doing Qualitative Research. London: Sage.

Turabian. L. Kate. 1996. A Manuel for Writers of Term Papers, Thesis and Dissertation.

London: Chicago Press.

COURSE CODE: ARC. 532

COURSE TITLE: Ancient Indian Iconography

CREDITS: 4

SEMESTER: 3
AIM OF THE COURSE: To give an idea about the development of icons in Hindu, Buddhist and Jain religions and to identify and describe salient iconographic features of specific icons from archaeological contexts.
COURSE DESCRIPTION: Origin and development of Iconography in India. Antiquity of image worship in India. Iconometry. Iconography of the following deities - Siva, Vishnu, Brahma, Surya, Ganesha, Kartikeya, Durga, Lakshmi, Saraswati, Parvati Saptamatrikas, Ashtadikapalas, Navagrahas. Buddhist Iconography-Buddha, Dhyani - Buddha, Bodhisattvas, Female deities. Iconography of Mahavira and Jain Tirthankaras.
COURSE CONTENT:

Module-1

Origin and development of Iconography in India

Antiquity of image worship in India

Module-2

Iconometry



Module-3

Iconography of the following deities - Siva, Vishnu, Brahma, Surya, Ganesha, Kartikeya, Durga, Lakshmi, Parvati Saraswati, Saptamatrikas, Ashtadikpalas, Navagrahas.



Module-4

Buddhist Iconography - Buddha, Dhyani Buddhas, Bodhisattvas, Female deities



Module-5

Iconography of Jain Tirthankaras


Suggested Readings

Banerjee, J.N. 1974. Development of Hindu Iconography. New Delhi: Munshiram

Bhattacharya,B. 1958. Indian Buddhist Iconography. Calcutta: Mukhopadhaya

Gopinath Rao,T.A. 1997. Elements of Hindu Iconography. Delhi: Motilal Banarasidas

Gupta, R.S. 1971. Iconography of Hindu, Buddhist and Jain. Bombay: Taraporewala

Rao, Ramachandra,S.K .2003. Encyclopedia of Indian Iconography. Delhi: India Book


ASSESSMENT:

Continuous Assessment (40%)

(a) Attendance: 5%

(b) Mid Semester Examination: 15%

(c) Assignment: 10%

(d) Seminar/Test/Quiz/Viva/Records: 10%

End Semester Assessment (60%): This will be through a three hour written Examination consisting of essay and short answer type questions.

COURSE CODE: ARC. 541

COURSE TITLE: Paleography and Epigraphy

CREDITS: 4

SEMESTER: 4
AIM OF THE COURSE: To introduce students to various ancient scripts and their development and impart the importance of some epigraphic records in reconstructing the history of Early and Medieval periods in India.
COURSE DESCRIPTION: Value of inscriptions for historical reconstruction; Origin and antiquity of the art of writing in India. Writing materials, prashastis, land grants. Scripts - Kharoshti, Brahmi and its evolution into Nagari script. Study of selected epigraphs- Ashokan Edicts-rock edicts X,XII,XIII, Lumbini Inscriptions of Ashoka, Minor Rock Edicts of Bairat; Besnagar Garuda Pillar inscription; Hathigumpha Inscription of Kharavela, Nasik inscription dated to the19th regnal year of Pulumavi. Junagarh inscription of Rudradaman, Allahabad pillar inscription of Samudragupta, Aihole Pillar inscription of Pulakesin II, Gwalior inscription of Mihir Bhoja, Tiruvalangadu copper plates of Rajendra Chola.
COURSE CONTENT:

Module-1

Value of inscriptions for historical reconstruction; Origin and antiquity of the art of writing in India, writing materials, prashastis, land grants



Module-2

Scripts - Kharoshti, Brahmi and its evolution into Nagari script



Module-3

Study of selected epigraphs -

Ashokan Edicts-rock edicts X,XII,XIII, Lumbini Inscriptions of Ashoka, Minor Rock Edicts of Bairat; Besnagar Garuda Pillar inscription; Hathigumpha Inscription of Kharavela, Nasik inscription of Pulumavi’s 19th regnal year, Junagarh inscription of Rudradaman, Allahabad pillar inscription of Samudragupta, Aihole Pillar inscription of Pulakesin II, Gwalior inscription of Mihir Bhoja, Tiruvalangadu plates of Rajendra Chola.
ASSESSMENT:

Continuous Assessment (40%)

(a) Attendance: 5%

(b) Mid Semester Examination: 15%

(c) Assignment: 10%

(d) Seminar/Test/Quiz/Viva/Records: 10%

End Semester Assessment (60%): This will be through a three hour written Examination consisting of essay and short answer type questions.
Suggested Readings

Dhani ,A.H. 1986. Indian Paleography. Delhi: Munshiram

Hultzch,D. 1969 .Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Vol.I .Varanasi: Indological

Pandey,R. 1957. Indian Paleography. Delhi: Motilal Banarisidas

Sircar,D.C. 1965 Indian Epigraphy. Delhi: Motilal Banarasidas

Journal- Epigraphia Indica. Delhi: ASI


COURSE CODE: ARC. 542

COURSE TITLE: Ancient Indian Numismatics

CREDITS: 4

SEMESTER: 4
AIM OF THE COURSE: To introduce to the students to ancient Indian coinage and highlight their role as a source in reconstructing history
COURSE DESCRIPTION: Origin and antiquity of coinage in Ancient India. Coins as a source of history. Technique of manufacture and metrology. Survey of coin series in India. Punch marked and cast coins. Local and Tribal coins. Satavahana coins. Indo-Greek coins. Kushana coins. Saka_Pahlavas. Coins of Western Kshatrapas.Gupta coins.Coins of Hunas, Maukharis and Pushpabhutis. Chola, Pandya, Chera and Roman coins from South India.
COURSE CONTENT:

Module-1

Origin and antiquity of coinage in Ancient India.

Coins as a source of history.

Technique of manufacture and metrology.



Module-2

Survey of the following coin series in India



  1. Punch marked and cast coins.

  2. Local and Tribal coins

  3. Satavahana coins

  4. Indo-Greek coins

  5. Kushana coins

  6. Saka - Pahlavas

  7. Coins of Western Kshatrapa

  8. Gupta coins

  9. Coins of Hunas, Maukharis and Pushpabhutis

  10. Chola, Pandya, Chera and Roman coins from South India


ASSESSMENT:

Continuous Assessment (40%)

(a) Attendance: 5%

(b) Mid Semester Examination: 15%

(c) Assignment: 10%

(d) Seminar/Test/Quiz/Viva/Records: 10%

End Semester Assessment (60%): This will be through a three hour written Examination consisting of essay and short answer type questions.
Suggested Readings

Allan, J. 1975. Catalogue of coins in Ancient India. Delhi: Munshiram

Altekar,A.S.1954. The Gupta Gold Coins in the Bayana Hoard. Bombay: NSI

Gupta.P,L. 1972.Coins. Delhi: NBT

Goyal, S. R. 1985. The Coinage of Ancient India. Meerut: Kusmanjali.

Thaplyal, K.K, and Prashant, Srivastava. 1998. Coins of Ancient India. Lucknow: Bharat Book Center.

Jain, Rekha.1995. Ancient Indian Coinage. Delhi: D.K. Printworld

COURSE CODE: ARC. 543

COURSE TITLE: Dissertation

CREDITS: 6

SEMESTER: 4
AIM OF THE COURSE: To enable a student to develop research skills through independent field study/material study, application of research methods and compilation of thesis.
COURSE DESCRIPTION: Based on Original work by students in any of the following fields - Prehistory, Art, Architecture, Paleography, Epigraphy, Numismatics, Iconography or any related topic of interest and Comprehensive Viva-Voce.
COURSE CONTENT:

Field work and submission of Dissertation.


ASSESSMENT

End Semester Assessment (100%)

Based on submitted thesis and viva voce
INTERNAL ELECTIVES
COURSE CODE: ARC. 501

COURSE TITLE: Heritage and Museum Managements

CREDITS: 4

SEMESTER: 3
AIM OF THE COURSE: To give an overview of the heritage and museum management, antiquarian laws, fundamentals of archaeological and curatorial conservation.
COURSE DESCRIPTION: History of Conservation. A brief introduction to Conservation as a multidisciplinary science, theories, modern principles and guidelines, conservation - approaches, attitude, professional ethics and scope of entrepreneurship. Material elements in structures, factors effecting monuments, conservation problems and issues and structural conservation measures.

Museums - Definition, Development, function and organizations of museums. Types of Museums and Museum buildings. Artifacts –their collection, documentation, conservation and preservation. Exhibition – presentation, exhibition techniques, show cases and furniture Exhibit Lighting. Security. A brief history of Indian antiquarian laws in India. Salient features of the following Acts - a). Indian Treasure Trove Act-1878 b). The Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act 1958 c). antiquities and Art Treasure Act 1972. 1972 UNESCO ‘Convention concerning the protection of the world cultural and Natural Heritage’.


COURSE CONTENT:

Module – 1

History of Conservation, conservation as a multidisciplinary science, theories modern principles and guidelines, conservation – approach, attitude, professional ethics and scope of entrepreneurship.



Module – 2

Material elements in structures, factors effecting monuments, conservation problems and issues, and structural conservation measures.



Module - 3

A brief history of Indian antiquarian laws in India. Salient features of the following Acts -

a) Indian Treasure Trove Act-1878. b) The Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act 1958 and c) Antiquities and Art Treasure Act 1972.

Module – 4

1972 UNESCO ‘Convention concerning the protection of the world cultural and Natural Heritage’.



Module - 5

Museums - Definition, development, function and organizations of museums.



Module-6

Types of Museums and Museum Buildings.



Module-7

Artifacts –Their collection, documentation, conservation and preservation.



Module-8

Exhibition - Presentation exhibition technique, show cases, furniture exhibit lighting



Module-9

Museum Security


ASSESSMENT:

Continuous Assessment (40%)

(a) Attendance: 5%

(b) Mid Semester Examination: 15%

(c) Assignment: 10%

(d) Seminar/Test/Quiz/Viva/Records: 10%

End Semester Assessment (60%): This will be through a three hour written Examination consisting of essay and short answer type questions.
Suggested Readings

Banerjee, N.R. 1990. Museums and Cultural Heritage of India. Delhi: Agam Kala

Bhatnagar, Anupama. 1999. Museum Museology and New Museology. Delhi: Sundeep

Biswas, S.S. 1999. Protecting Cultural Heritage. Delhi: Arya Books

Sarkar.H. 1981. Museum and Protection of Monuments and Antiquities in India. Delhi:

Sundeep Prakashan.

Singh, A.P. 1985. Conservation and Museum Techniques. Delhi: Agam Kala.
COURSE CODE: ARC. 502

COURSE TITLE: Archaeology of Kerala

CREDITS: 4

SEMESTER: 3
AIM OF THE COURSE: To understand the significance of archaeological vestiges of Kerala
COURSE DESCRIPTION: Geomorphology of Kerala. Paleolithic period of Kerala. Megalithic monuments of Kerala – It’s typology, origin cultural artifacts and significance. Development of temple Architecture in Kerala. Sculptural Art of Kerala- stone, wood, metals . Painting tradition in Kerala. Important Epigraphs of Kerala – Tarasapalli Copper Plate, Huzur office Plates of Karunandadakkan, Paliyam copper plates of Vikramaditya Varaguna, Jewish copper plates of Bhaskara RaviVarman. Roman and other important coin finds from Kerala. Brief Introduction to Church and Mosque architecture in Kerala.
COURSE CONTENT:

Module-1

Geomorphology of Kerala.



Module-2

Paleolithic period of Kerala.



Module-3

Megalithic monuments of Kerala – its typology, origin, cultural artifacts and significance.



Module-4

Development of temple Architecture in Kerala.



Module-5

Sculptural Art of Kerala - stone, wood, metals.



Module-6

Painting tradition in Kerala.



Module-7

Important Epigraphs of Kerala – ‘Tarasapalli’ Copper Plate, Huzur office Plates of Karunandadakkan, Paliyam copper plates of Vikramaditya Varaguna, and Jewish copper plates of Bhaskara Ravi Varman.



Module-8

Numismatics – Roman and other important coin finds from Kerala.



Module-9

Brief Introduction to Church and Mosque architecture in Kerala.


ASSESSMENT:

Continuous Assessment (40%)

(a) Attendance: 5%

(b) Mid Semester Examination: 15%

(c) Assignment: 10%

(d) Seminar/Test/Quiz/Viva/Records: 10%

End Semester Assessment (60%): This will be through a three hour written Examination consisting of essay and short answer type questions.
Suggested Readings

Gopinath Rao,T.A. 1908. Travancore Archaeological Series Vol.I-V. Trivandrum: Govt. Publication.

Gurukal, Rajan. 1999. Cultural History of Kerala. Trivandrum.

Jayashankar, S. 1997.Temples of Kerala. Trivandrum: Directorate of Census Operations.

Kramrisch, Stella.1999. The Arts and Craft of Travancore. Trivandrum: Govt of Kerala.

Menon, Madhava, T. 2000. A Handbook of Kerala Vol.1&2. Trivandrum: ISDL.

Sam, N.2006.Keralthile Pracheena Lipimatrukal.Trivandrum Archives,Govt. of Kerala

Sarkar, H. 1978. An Architectural Survey of Temples of Kerala. Delhi: ASI



COURSE CODE: ARC. 503

COURSE TITLE: Ancient Religions of India

CREDITS: 4

SEMESTER: 4
AIM OF THE COURSE: To give an idea about ancient religions through the study of archaeological, literary and other sources in India.
COURSE DESCRIPTION: Vedic Religion. Buddhism and Jainism. Origin and development of Vaisnavisim, Saivism and Saktisim. Religious Literature - Canonical texts of Buddhist, Jain and Brahmanical religions.
COURSE CONTENT:

Module-1

Vedic Religion



Module-2

Buddhism and Jainism



Module-3

Vaisnavism - origin and development



Module-4

Saivism - origin and development



Module-5

Saktism - origin and development



Module-6

Religious Literature - Canonical text of Buddhist, Jain and Brahmanical Religions.


ASSESSMENT:

Continuous Assessment (40%)

(a) Attendance: 5%

(b) Mid Semester Examination: 15%

(c) Assignment: 10%

(d) Seminar/Test/Quiz/Viva/Records: 10%

End Semester Assessment (60%): This will be through a three hour written Examination consisting of essay and short answer type questions.
Suggested Readings

Bhandarkar, R.G 1995 (reprint) Vaisnavism, Saivism and Minor Religious Systems.

New Delhi: Asian Educational Services.

Foucher, A. 2003. The Life of the Buddha According to the Ancient Texts and Monuments of India. Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal

Goyal, S.R. 2002. A History of Indian Buddhism. Jodhpur: Kusumanjali.
COURSE CODE: ARC. 504

COURSE TITLE: Islamic Architectural monuments at Delhi and Agra under the following dynasties.

CREDITS: 4

SEMESTER: 4
AIM OF THE COURSE: To impart an introduction to the basic features of Islamic architecture in North India.
COURSE DESCRIPTION: Slave dynasty. Khilji dynasty. Tughlak dynasty. Saiyyid and Lodhis. Mughul dynasty.
COURSE CONTENT:

Module-1

Slave dynasty



Module-2

Khilji dynasty



Module-3

Tughlak dynasty



Module-4

Sayyid and Lodhis



Module-5

Mughal dynasty


ASSESSMENT:

Continuous Assessment (40%)

(a) Attendance: 5%

(b) Mid Semester Examination: 15%

(c) Assignment: 10%

(d) Seminar/Test/Quiz/Viva/Records: 10%

End Semester Assessment (60%): This will be through a three hour written Examination consisting of essay and short answer type questions.
Suggested Readings

Brown ,Percy. 1956.Indian Architecture (Islamic period). Bombay: Taraporewala

Fergusson, J. 1961. History of Indian and Eastern Architecture 2 Vols. Delhi: Munshiram.

Gavin, Hamley. 1968. Cities of Mughal India. London.

Nath, R .1978. History of Sultanate Architecture.-Delhi.

---------1982. History of Mughal Architecture -2Vols.- Delhi.


COURSE CODE: ARC. 505

COURSE TITLE: Science in Archaeology

CREDITS: 4

SEMESTER: 2
AIM OF THE COURSE: To give an overview of application of various scientific disciplines in Archaeology.

COURSE DESCRIPTION: Archaeology and Geology-Identification of Rocks and minerals. Scope of Paleontology and Archaeozoological studies with special reference to India. Study and Identification of Human Bones. Scope of archaeo-botanical studies. Topo-sheet reading and interpretation. Chemical Conservation of Iron and Copper objects

COURSE CONTENT:

Module-1

Archaeology and Geology-Identification of Rocks and Minerals



Module-2

Scope of Paleontology and Archaeo-zoological studies with special reference to India



Module-3

Study and Identification of Human Bones.



Module-4

Scope of archaeo-botanical studies.



Module-5

Topo-sheet reading and interpretation.



Module-6

Chemical Conservation of Iron and Copper objects.


ASSESSMENT:

Continuous Assessment (40%)

(a) Attendance: 5%

(b) Mid Semester Examination: 15%

(c) Assignment: 10%

(d) Seminar/Test/Quiz/Viva/Records: 10%

End Semester Assessment (60%): This will be through a three hour written Examination consisting of essay and short answer type questions.
Suggested Readings

Bass, W.M .1981. Human Oestology: A Laboratory and Field Manuel of the Human



Skeleton. Columbia: Missouri Archaeological society.

Cornwall, I M. 1974. Bones for Archaeologist. London: Dent and Sons

Brothwell and A.M Pollard. 2001. Handbook of Archaeological Sciences. England: Wiley

Settar.S and Ravi, Korisettar. 2002. Archaeology and Interactive disciplines. Delhi: ICHR

Barker, Graeme. 1999. Companion Encyclopedia of Archaeology 2 Vols. London:

Routledge.


COURSE CODE: ARC. 506

COURSE TITLE: Field Archaeology - (Explorations and Excavations)

CREDITS: 1

SEMESTER: 4
AIM OF THE COURSE: To train students to develop skills in archaeological surveys.

COURSE DESCRIPTION: Attending archaeological field work. Survey of a minimum 10 villages with antiquarian remains and presenting a report on the finds.

COURSE CONTENT:

Attending archaeological field work is the compulsory component. Survey and a report on the explorations need to be submitted.



COURSE CODE: ARC. 507

COURSE TITLE: Field Archaeology - Study Tour of Monuments

CREDITS: 1

SEMESTER: 4
AIM OF THE COURSE: To let students to see and feel the archaeological monuments and sites which are covered under Core courses.
COURSE DESCRIPTION: This course imparts practical knowledge to the students in the fields of recent techniques in Indian Archaeology, early art and architectural tradition of India.
COURSE CONTENT:

Participation in the study tour is compulsory. It is drawn with the intention to impart practical know-how to students relevant to core courses– ARC- 511, 523 and 524. Report on the study tour is mandatory.


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