Review the Internet and the World Wide Web

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Overview 1-23-06

  • Review the Internet and the World Wide Web
  • Learn about Web server administration
  • Explore the common tasks and services performed by administrators
  • Web Programs and Databases

Review the Internet and the World Wide Web

  • The Internet is a worldwide network of networks
    • Shares WAN used by the international telecommunications network
    • Uses TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP)
  • TCP/IP
    • Using TCP/IP, applications on networked hosts can create connections to one another, over which they can exchange data. The protocol guarantees reliable and in-order delivery of sender to receiver data.

Review the Internet and the World Wide Web

  • Where the Internet uses the HTTP (Hyper Text Transport Protocol) protocol, it is called the Web
    • Web servers use HTTP to communicate
  • The Internet is not centrally controlled

Review the Internet and the World Wide Web

  • HTML - Short for HyperText Markup Language, the authoring language used to create documents on the World Wide Web. HTML is similar to SGML, although it is not a strict subset.
  • HTML defines the structure and layout of a Web document by using a variety of tags and attributes.
  • There are hundreds of other tags used to format and layout the information in a Web page. Tags are also used to specify hypertext links. These allow Web developers to direct users to other Web pages with only a click of the mouse on either an image or word(s)

Review the Internet and the World Wide Web

  • Internet had its origins in the 1960s
  • In 1995 a high-speed backbone was created
    • Included 4 network access points (NAPs)
    • There have been many more NAPs created since then although much traffic is now routed between large ISPs (Internet Service Providers). ISPs agree on sharing traffic through peering agreements.

History of the Internet: 1965

  • Hypertext, a method of preparing text that allows readers to choose their own pathways through the material, is invented by Ted Nelson.
  • The underlined word represents a hyperlink that lets the reader click and jump to a new page.
  • It takes almost 30 years to catch on.

History of the Internet: 1969

  • The ARPANET is established by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), connecting universities, the military and defense contractors.
  • In 1973, ARPA launches the Internetting Project to explore the possibilities of linking networks

History of the Internet: the 1970s

  • 1976: UUCP (UNIX-to-UNIX CoPy) is developed at AT&T Bell Labs and distributed with UNIX one year later. The term generally refers to a suite of computer programs and protocols allowing remote execution of commands and transfer of files, email and netnews between computers.
  • 1979: USENET (the decentralized news group network), based on UUCP, is created by Steve Bellouin, Tom Truscott and Jim Ellis.

History of the Internet: the 1980s

  • 1986: The NSFNET, created by the National Science Foundation, is born, providing a national network. To many people, this becomes the true birth of the Internet
  • 1989: Quantum, formerly Q-Link online service for Atari and Commodore users, becomes AOL.

History of the Internet: 1991

  • Hypertext browsing software is proposed by Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the World Wide Web.
  • Information interconnected by hyperlinks is called a web. The Web is a hypertext system on a global scale.
  • ANS, Advanced Network Systems, spins off to the NSFNET and becomes the first commercial ISP. Its mission is to foster commercial and research networking opportunities.

History of the Internet: 1992

  • The Internet Society (ISOC) is founded, incorporating the Internet Architecture Board.
  • The ISOC's primary function is to foster international participation and cooperation in Internet technologies. Membership is open to all.

History of the Internet: 1993

  • The U.S. envisions an Information Superhighway, formerly known as the National Information Infrastructure (NII), to provide a system of interconnected networks linking every citizen to multiple sources of information and means of communication.

History of the Internet: 1993

  • Mosaic, the first navigation browser to make use of graphics and a point-and-click interface, is developed by Marc Andreessen.
  • Internet traffic proliferates at a 341% annual growth rate.

History of the Internet: 1994

  • Netscape, cofounded by Marc Andreessen and James Clark, dramatically increases the popularity of the Web by incorporating video, sound and animation into their browser.
  • Microsoft is sweating the lose of the desktop to the Browser

History of the Internet: 1995

  • Sun Microsystems introduces Java, a programming language that makes animation and other interactive features commonplace.
  • Traditional online services (Compuserve, AOL and Prodigy) begin to provide commercial Internet access.

History of the Internet: 1997

  • The Internet comprises an estimated 134,000 individual networks, and the number keeps growing.
  • Competing browsers, including Microsoft's Internet Explorer, appear.

History of the Internet: 1998

  • The Web grows from 130 sites in 1993 to over 2 million sites, and the number keeps growing.
  • Not only are more people using the Web, but more people, as well as companies and organizations, are launching their own sites.

History of the Internet: 2000

  • The dot-com bubble burst, numerically, on March 10, 2000
  • One by one, dot-coms ran out of capital and were acquired or liquidated; the domain names were picked up by old-economy competitors or domain name investors. Several companies were accused or convicted of fraud for misusing shareholders' money.

History of the Internet: 2000

  • Failures:
  • - intention was to sell branded fashion wear over the Internet; however, after spending vast sums of its venture capital, it eventually had to liquidate and was placed into receivership on May 18, 2000
  • eToys - a business, owned and operated as It collapsed and went bankrupt, along with many other so-called Dot-com companies, after the end of the Internet Bubble on March 10, 2000.

History of the Internet: 2000

  • - Despite their incredible web traffic and well known brand name, sales of pet products through the site were nowhere near profitable - their strategy had been based around conquering the market on pet supplies without adequate research on how many pet owners would genuinely use the service. Money ran out, the profits never came, and was unsuccessful in raising further capital for their floundering enterprise. They announced they were closing their doors on the afternoon of November 6, 2000. Today, the domain name redirects to PETsMART's website.

History of the Internet: 2000

  • - Kozmo promoted an incredible business model; it promised to deliver small goods free of charge. The company raised about $280 million, including $60 million from The business model was heavily criticized by business analysts, who pointed out that one-hour point-to-point delivery of small objects is extremely expensive and there was no way Kozmo could make a profit as long as it refused to charge delivery fees. Not surprisingly, the company failed soon after the collapse of the dot-com bubble, laying off its staff of 1,100 employees and shutting down in April 2001.

The History of the Internet: 2000

  • Webvan - Was an online "credit and delivery" grocery business that went bankrupt in 2001. It is often considered one of the clearest examples of misapplying Internet technology to an existing form of business. While Webvan was popular with consumers, the enormous amount of money spent on infrastructure far exceeded sales growth, and the company eventually ran out of money.

The History of the Internet

  • Successful
  • eBay
  • Google
  • MSN
  • PayPal (now a subsidiary of eBay)
  • Yahoo!
  • Netflix

Understanding Web server Administration

  • Web server administrators focus on the Internet
  • Typically, a Web server provides information to anyone who requests it over the Internet
  • Web servers can contain other applications such as FTP and e-mail

Understanding Web server Administration

  • Depending on the size of the organization, some tasks may be delegated
    • Web page development
    • Database design
    • Programming
    • E-mail administration
    • Security

Selecting Programs and Databases

  • Web server administrators need to install programming languages
  • Web developers use a variety of languages
    • Active Server Pages (ASP)
      • Original language from Microsoft
    • ASP.Net
      • A newer environment that includes many languages
    • Java Server Pages (JSP)

Selecting Programs and Databases

  • Non-Microsoft languages are popular, even on Microsoft Web servers
    • Perl – one of the first and still popular
    • PHP – easy to use
    • Java Server Pages (JSP)
    • Macromedia ColdFusion

Web Databases

  • A database management system (DBMS) is used to store data used with Web pages
    • Microsoft Access is appropriate for small sites
    • Microsoft SQL Server, Oracle 9i, and MySQL are sophisticated DBMSs for larger sites
  • Standard Query Language (SQL) is the language used to communicate with the DBMS

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