Review of Basic Chemistry (Chapter 2)



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AP Biology Review


  1. THE CHEMISTRY OF LIVING THINGS

  1. Introduction to AP Biology

  2. Review of Basic Chemistry (Chapter 2)

  1. atomic structure

  2. chemicl bonds




  1. Water and the Fitness of the Environment (Chapter 2)

vocabulary terms

Central Question: How does the structure of water give rise to its extraordinary qualities that contribute to the fitness of Earth?



*Theme integrated: Relationship of Structure to Function


  1. Structural Characteristics of water

  1. polarity

  2. Hydrogen bonding




  1. Four emerging properties

  1. Water’s cohesive ability (due to H bonds)

  • transport of water in plants; surface tension

  1. Water stabilizes temperature

  • high specific heat due to H bonds (favorable marine environment)

  • high heat of vaporization ( evaporative cooling)

  1. Water as a Good Solvent (due to polarity)

  • digestion

  • universal transport medium

  1. Expansion upon freezing

  • life exists in frozen ponds etc.




  1. Dissociation of Water molecules

  1. Acids – description and examples

  2. Bases – description and examples

  3. pH scale

  4. Buffers (*maintaining homeostasis)



  1. Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life

HW: Read Ch. 3

Define all vocabulary terms



*Theme: Continuity and Change

  • Aside from water all living things consist mostly of carbon- based compounds

  • Structure of carbon allows for versatility of organic compounds

  1. electron configuration

  2. formation of carbon skeletons

  • vary in length

  • forms branches, rings, chains

  • forms hydrocarbons

  • forms isomers

*Theme: Structure to Function

provide examples such as hydrocarbons in lipids as energy storers (fats, petroleum)



(ex –OH: polarity causes solubility of alcohols


  1. Structure and Function of Macromolecules

“Studying the Organic Molecules Found in Living Things”

Ch. 3


Define all vocabulary terms


Theme: Relationship of Structure to Function


  • Architecture of macromolecules explain how molecule works

  1. Polymers

  1. Dehydration synthesis

ii. hydrolysis



  1. Classes of Macromolecules

  1. Carbohydrates

  • Structure (monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides)

  • Function

  • Examples of each

  1. Lipids

  • Characteristics

  • Types (Structure, function and examples of fats, phospholipids, steroids)

  1. Protein

  • Functions

  • Structure (peptide, dipeptide, polypeptide>

  • 4 levels of protein structure (provide examples of proteins at each level stressing how structure affects function of the example provided i.e. Hemoglobin)

  • Primary

  • Secondary

  • Tertiary

  • Quartenary

Conclusion: Function arises from architecture (conformation) of molecule*
Laboratory Activity: AP Biology Lab 2 “Enzyme Catalysis”




  1. CELL STRUCTURE

Read Chapter 4 and Vocabulary

Theme : *Science as a Process





  1. Tools and Techniques used in cytology

  1. Create time-line of scientists and discoveries leading to Cell Theory




  1. Microscopy

  1. Light microscpes – magnifying and resoliving power

  2. Elelctron microscope – energy source, resolution, types and uses




  1. Cell Fractionation

a. untracentrifugation (technique and uses)

4. Cell structure

  1. comparison on prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells through the theme of Evolution

  1. studying and relating the structure and function of cell organelles

  2. endosymbiotic theory

  3. comparison of plant and animal cells through the themes of Relationship of structure to function, and Evolution




  1. STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF CELL MEMBRANES

Read Chapter 5 and Vocabulary

Themes: Relationship of structure to function


Regulation


  1. Membrane Structure

  1. fluid mosaic model

  2. relationship of the structure to the function of macromolecules associated with plasma membrane

  3. regulatory functions of cell membrane

  4. cell – to – cell recognition

  5. mechanisms for transport of materials across cell membranes

  • passive transport

    • Diffusion, facilitative diffusion, osmosis (tonicity- methods of osmoregulation in animal and plant cells)

  • Active transport

    • Endocytosis (pinocytosis, phagocytosis, receptor-mediated endocytosis)

    • Exocytosis




  1. ADAPTATIONS FOR TRANSPORT IN LIVING THINGS




  1. Transport in Simple Unicellular Organisms

  1. Mechanisms for transport in Bacteria and Protists

  1. passive transport, active transport, maintenance of water balance in fresh water habitat (ex. Bacteria, ameba, paramecium, euglena)

  2. relating structure to function in various organisms


Lab Activity: AP Biology Lab 1 “Diffusion and Osmosis”


  1. INTRODUCTION TO METABOLISM (Ch. 5)

Themes: Studying the Relationship of Structure to Function and Energy Transfer within the following topics:





  1. Energy and the Cell (Ch. 5)

  1. Describe metabolism

  2. Two metabolic pathways

  1. Catabolic – description

  • Example: Cellular respiration

  • Negative free energy change (-686 kcal/mole)

  • Spontaneous reactions

  • Exergonic reactions




  1. Anabolic - description

  • Example: Photosynthesis

  • Positive free energy change (+686 kcal/mole)

  • Nonspontaneous

  • Endergonic

Studying the themes of energy transfer and interdependence in nature by discussing living things as energy transformers within the following topics:





  1. Relationship between respiration and photosynthesis

  1. Coupling of exergonic (catabolic) and endergonic (anabolic) processes

ii. Organisms as open systems

  1. iii. 1st Law of Thermodynamics

  2. iv. 2nd Law of Thermodynamics



  1. ATP

  1. Kinds of cellular work

Ii Structure and hydrolysis of ATP

iii. How ATP performs work through phosphorylation (*Relationship of structure to function)



iv. How ATP couples exergonic to endergonic reactions (*Energy Transfer)
Studying the relationship of structure to function and Regulation within the following topic:


  1. Enzymes

a. induced fit

  1. b. affect on rate of chemical reactions

  2. c. mechamisms for lowering activation energy

  3. d. Factors affecting enzyme action

  1. Temperature, pH, cofactors, inhibitors

(All affect conformation of enzyme and therefore change function)


  1. Controlling metabolism

  1. allosteric regulation

  2. feedback inhibition

  3. cooperativity

  4. enzyme localization


  1. RESPIRATION – How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy

  1. Relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration

  2. Breathing

    1. Structure and function of human respiratory system

    2. Chemical regulation of breathing rate

      1. Role of bicarbonate ion as buffering system

  3. Aerobic vs Anaerobic

  4. Evolutionary ancestry




  1. Fermentation (anaerobic)

    1. Lactic Acid Fermentation in bacteria

    2. Alcoholic Fermentation in yeast

      1. Facultative anaerobes




  1. Cellular Respiration (aerobic)

    1. Glycolysis

      1. Site

      2. Steps

      3. Products

    2. Citric Acid Cycle

      1. Site

      2. Steps – starting compound; compound regenerated; oxidizing agent

      3. Products

    3. Oxidative Phosphorylation

      1. ETC

      2. Chemiosmosis

  2. Effects of poisons




  1. Metabolic pathways

    1. Using other organic molecules as fuel for cellular respiration




  1. PHOTOSYNTHESIS - Converting Solar Energy to the Chemical Bond Energy of Sugars

Read Ch.7 and Vocabulary
Throughout this section the various topics will be integrated using the themes of Energy transfer and the Relationship of structure to function on the molecular, cellular, and organismal levels.


  1. Modes of nutrition

  1. Energy as a requirement of life

  1. Nature of Light and the fitness of the environment

  2. ATP – coupling exergonic and endergonic reactions (Energy transfer)

  3. Structure and regeneration of ATP (Relating structure to function)

  4. Leaf Structure

  5. Relating structure to function of chloroplasts and chlorophyll

  6. Chemical reactions of photosynthesis

  1. Science as a Process through the study of the work of C.B. Van Niel

  2. Chemistry of Light Reactions and Calvin Cycle

  3. Role of membranes and chemiosmosis

  1. Studying evolution and adaptation to the environment through the following:

  1. Photorespiration

  2. C-4 Photosynthesis

  3. CAM plants

Laboratory Activity: AP Biology Lab 4 “Plant Pigments and Photosynthesis”



Exam: Ch. 10


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