Review for Test on German and Italian Unification



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Aim: Review for Test on German and Italian Unification

  • Make sure to bring a pencil and a pen.
  • Essay Topic: Explain how Italy and Germany became nations (name people, wars etc.)
  • Castlelearning- 80 or better receives plus 5

1. Nationalism

  • Nationalism- pride in one’s country.
  • Need common language, customs and traditions.
  • Can serve to unite a nation, however if too many ethnic groups- can divide.
  • Makes them want independence ( a country of their own).

2A. Italy

  • Cavour- architect of Italian Unification. Three part plan.
  • Garibaldi- military leader- leader of the Red Shirts.
  • Mazzini- founder of Young Italy

2B. Germany

  • Bismarck- “Blood and iron”- use military force- fight wars.
  • Realpolitik- whatever the nation needs.
  • Fought Three wars:
  • Danish War
  • Austro-Prussian War
  • Franco- Prussian War

2C. Austria

  • Nationalism divided Austria
  • Too many ethnic groups living in a small area.
  • Did not want to live under Austria’s control or pay taxes to Austria.
  • 50 million people in the empire. Less than 1/4th German speaking Austrians.
  • Created dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary.

3. Who united Germany? How?

  • Otto von Bismarck through “blood and iron.”
  • Fought three wars.
  • Increased the size and strength of Prussia’s military.
  • Europe was afraid of a united Italy and Germany.
  • Upset the balance of power in Europe.

4. Treaty of Frankfort

  • Major victory for Germany over France.
  • Created bitter enemies.
  • Long term cause of WWI.
  • France has to pay for damages.
  • Alsace and Lorraine (natural resources) given to Germany.
  • France occupied by troops.

5. Kulturkampf

  • “Struggle for Civilization.”
  • Anti-Catholic campaign begun by Bismarck because he felt that Catholics favored the Pope and their church over their country.

6. Industrialization after unification

  • Germany had large coal and iron reserves.
  • Rapid growing population.
  • Zollverein- tax union.
  • Passed laws to ban socialism.

7. William II foreign policy

  • Bismarck had to resign.
  • Continues to build a huge army and navy.
  • Begins overseas expansion.
  • Acquire territories abroad.
  • Long term cause of WWI.

8. Italy difficult to unite

  • Pope was against unification.
  • Regional differences north and south.
  • North- industrialized and rich.
  • South- agricultural and poor.
  • Geographical boundaries.

9. Who were the leaders of Italian unification?

  • Cavour
  • Garibaldi
  • Mazzini

10. How did they unite Italy?

  • Three part plan:
  • 1. 1860- Parma, Modena and Tuscany voluntarily joined Sardinia-Piedmont. Garibaldi conquered the Kingdom of the 2 Sicilies.
  • 2.Italy fought Austria and gained Venetia.
  • 3. Attacked the Papal states.

11. What led to conflict in the Balkans?

  • The end of the Ottoman Empire.
  • It was falling apart and European nations raced to claim a part.
  • Long term cause of WWI.


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