Religion of islam julia Canty & d cicchiello Introduction



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RELIGION OF ISLAM

  • Julia Canty & D Cicchiello

Introduction

  • The name of the religion is Islam.
  • The founder is the prophet Muhammad,who was born in Mecca in 5770 CE .
  • Islam is the true religion of "Allah“ and the Arabic word means the submission to the will of Allah "God". Anyone who surrenders to Allah is termed a "Muslim”.
  • The deity is Allah.
  • The Islamic religion originated in Mecca, Saudi Arabia in 610 AD.
  • There are an estimated 1.3 billion Muslims worldwide.
  • Major locations today are the Middle East, and Southeast Asia.
  • Source 2 & 4

Historical Context of Founding

  • The night Muhammad was called to become a prophet of Allah, he claimed to have been visited by the angel Gabriel and received visions. He then began preaching the visions he received to the people of Mecca, focusing on the oneness of Allah and urging people to show goodwill towards another. Muhammad gathered a variety of followers from the Meccan society to abolish paganism and together they criticized competition and the high value placed on material goods. They called for everyone to surrender to the will of God. Because Mecca was an important trade center, the Meccans did not want Muhammad to continue preaching about social justice, yet he did not cooperate and therefore he and his followers were persecuted.
  • Prophet Muhammad
  • Source 2

..Continued

  • Afterwards, they emigrated to Medina and there established the first mosque in the holy city and a treaty where all of the clans agreed to live in harmony and mutual respect. Previously, Muhammad was preaching that God’s revelation was a culmination of the Jewish and Christian revelations, but he later received a revelation from God to form Islam as a separate religion.

How/Why Islamic Religion Spread

  • Islam began to spread rapidly after the death of Prophet Muhammad in the year 632. The Muslim community came into existence during the period of the prophet. This community started to spread from the Arabian Peninsula to countries all over the world after various empires began to establish, such as the Abbasids, Seljuk Turks, Mughals, Almoravids, Safavids and Ottomans.
  • Islam promised to reveal paradise after death, which gave people more encouragement to follow the religion.
  • The religious principle to live as all-embracing and all-comprehensive way was an important aspect to its rapid spread. The Islam followers who preached the idea of transmission of God to others also contributed to the religion’s rapid spread.
  • Source 10

Abraham

  • Abraham (Ibrahim) is known to be one of the first and most important prophets of Islam, called Friend of God and father of his people.
  • In Muslim belief, Abraham accomplished all the commandments and trials God gave him throughout his lifetime. One such trial was to sacrifice of his only son, which he complied with and his son was spared.
  • As a result of his unchanging faith in God, Abraham was promised by God to be a leader to all the nations of the world. Abraham is the epitome of the perfect Muslim and the Qur‘an mentions Abraham as a model for al humanity.
  • Source 14

Symbols

  • The crescent moon and star is an internationally recognized symbol of the faith of Islam.
  • It is featured on the flags of many countries in the Islamic world, such as Turkey and Pakistan.
  • It is an icon that was adopted during the spread of Islam.
  • The color green is universally associated with Islam.
  • According to Muslims the color green symbolizes nature and life.
  • Some believe that the color green was the color of the prophet Muhammad's tribe.
  • Source 2

Sacred Texts

  • The two main sacred texts are the Qur’an and Hadith.
      • The Qur’an is most sacred text which is said to be the literal word of God. It is the primary source of belief and practice for Muslims as well as the source for understanding God's will. It establishes the basis of Islam. In addition, it is read from right to left opposed to being read from left to right.
      • The Hadith is the book that contains the sayings of Muhammad and his prophets along with sacred history. It also has the stories and actions of Muhammad which became the basis of behavior set for Muslims.
      • The Shariah is the code of Islamic religious law that define the rules for good behavior. It is based on the Qur’an and the Hadith.

Holy Cities

  • Mecca: This city is referred to as the holiest city, being that it’s where Muhammad was born and where he converted Arabs to Islam. For all Muslims, going on a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in their life is one of the Five Pillars of Islam, otherwise known as the five duties of Muslims.
  • Medina: This holy city is the second holiest city and became known as the city of the prophet when Muhammad and his followers were exiled here. It was in this city where he established the first mosque. Medina was also the capital of the Muslim empire until 661 when it was moved. In addition, Medina is the burial place of the prophet Muhammad.
  • Jerusalem: This city is regarded as the third holiest city. Muslims believed that Muhammad visited Heaven from a site in Jerusalem and a golden shrine was built in this spot, called the Dome of the Rock. Muslims visit this site for religious purposes, as well as an ancient mosque built in the city where Muslims pray.
  • Source 6

Places of Worship

  • A mosque is very important to the community of Muslims; it is their house of prayer and worship.
  • A mosque is very big for and is built in the direction of Mecca, indicated by mihrab, or niche, on the wall with a roofed area in front of it. Also, there cannot be any doors on the wall of the mihrab.
  • There are two types of mosques:
    • A jamaca, which is where the Friday prayer takes places
    • The other type is the masjid, meaning ‘place of prostration’, where early Muslims went to pray.
  • Important features of a mosque are the minaret, or tower, where a muezzin calls the Muslims to prayer, and a room for ritual washing so that Muslim can be cleansed for prayers.
  • Source 5

Major Islamic Holidays

  • 1. The Islamic New Year (Muharram)
  • The month of Muharram indicates the beginning of the Islamic liturgical year. The Islamic year begins on the first day of Muharram, and is counted from the Hegira, the year when Muhammad emigrated from Mecca to Medina.
  • The Islamic new year is celebrated quietly, filled with prayers and readings.
  • 2. Prophet Muhammad's Birthday (Mawlid al-Nabi (12 Rabi 1))
  • This holiday celebrates the birthday of Muhammad. It is on the 12th day of the month of Rabi I in the Islamic calendar. Mawlid means birthday of a holy figure and al-Nabi means prophet.
  • The day is honored with recollections and the significance of Muhammad's life.
  • Source 9

Holidays Continued

  • 3. Eid al-Fitr (1 Shawwal)
  • Ramadan is the month of fasting and it ends with the festival of Eid al-Fitr. Eid al-Fitr means "Festival of Breaking the Fast.” At Eid al-Fitr people dress in their finest clothes, decorate their homes with lights and decorations, give treats to children, and enjoy visits with friends and family. As the month comes to an end, Muslims are expected to share their blessings by feeding the poor and making contributions to mosques.
  • 4. Eid al-Adha (10 Dhu'l-Hijjah) Eid al-Adha is the Feast of Sacrifice and commemorates the prophet Abraham’s willingness to obey Allah by sacrificing his son Ishmael.
  • Eid al-Adha begins on the 10 day of the last month of the Islamic calendar. It occurs at the end of the annual pilgrimage to Mecca and lasts for three days. Muslims all over the world celebrate it.
  • The festival is celebrated by sacrificing a lamb or other animal and giving the meat to relatives, friends, and the poor. The sacrifice represents obedience to Allah and generosity towards others.

Roles of Men/Women

  • The Qur’an considers women and men alike to be equal in human dignity, however this view is not represented in Muslim laws.
  • Women do not have equal rights to make any decisions regarding marriage, divorce, or custody.
  • Women are expected to be obedient wives and men are expected to protect and care for the family.
  • Male guardianship over women has become a part of Muslims laws and is embedded in Muslim societies.
  • Because men and women pray separately, a mosque is divided into two separate sections to maintain modesty and concentration on prayers.
  • Source 7

Major Beliefs

  • Creation Story:
  • Muslims believe that Allah created the heavens and the earth six days in perfect harmony and balance. They also believe that he that continues to reign over his wonderful creation.
  • The Quran says that the heavens and the earth were joined together as one unit before there was an explosion. After the explosion, Allah turned to the sky and spoke to it and to the earth saying 'Come together, willingly or unwillingly.' They replied by saying 'We come together in willing obedience.' So the elements and what was to become the planets and stars began to cool and came together to form into shape and follow the natural laws that Allah established in the universe.
  • He made all the creatures and the first man and woman; Adam and Eve.
  • Source 11

End Times Story

  • In Islam, the end of the world is also called the Hour and involves Jesus returning to Damascus to defeat an anti-Christ. With the anti-Christ out of the way, there will be a period of perfect harmony. Jesus will later die due to a natural death, which will cause a time of destruction that will lead to the Hour.
  • Source 12

Important Commands/Laws

  • Islam preaches the Oneness of God, the Oneness of Mankind and the Oneness of the Message.
  • A Muslim must believe in all of the prophets to be considered a true believer, including Abraham, otherwise known as Ibrahim.
  • Everyone must follow the Five Pillars of Life, which are Shahada (Testify), Salah (Prayer), Seyam (Fasting) Zakat (Charity) and Hajj (Pilgrimage).
  • The relation of humanity to God is the most important concern in Islamic ritual law.
  • Muslims are called to pray five times a day: before dawn, at midday, in the mid-afternoon, at sunset, and at night.
  • Source 2

Purpose of Life

  • The object of life for Muslims is to live in a way that pleases Allah so that they can gain Paradise.
  • Islam is a religion of security, safety, and peace. These principles embody the lives of Muslims. When Muslims stand to pray, they turn to the Lord in obedience and cut their connection with this world.
  • Feeding others and greeting those you do and don’t know is the most beneficial act of Islam.
  • Source 13

Influences on Architecture/Art

  • There are several examples of American buildings that possess Islamic motifs, such churches, temples, movie theaters and even the Twin Towers. The pointed arches at the base of each of the former towers was very symbolic of Islamic design.
  • Islamic decorative arts were highly regarded to Europe throughout the Middle Ages. Islamic pottery of everyday quality was preferred to the Europeans.
  • There were many musical instruments used in European music that were influenced by Arabic musical instruments.
  • Source 15 & 16

Influences on Technology/Science

  • There were some technologies in the Islamic world that were adopted in European medieval technology, such as various crops and astronomical instruments.
  • The Islamic world made important advances in sciences such as in algebra, chemistry, geology and spherical trigonometry, among others, that were later transmitted to the West.
  • Islam introduced the concept of zero and decimal counting to the West.
  • Islamic coinage had some influence on Medieval European manufacturing. Gold coins of Islamic origin were manufactured in great number in various parts of Europe.
  • The Quran and Shariah were main sources that helped develop moral guidelines
  • Source 15
  • 1.  "The True Religion." The True Religion. Web. 10 Oct. 2012. .
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  • 3. "Background of Islam." Background of Islam. Web. 15 Oct. 2012. .
  • 4. http://www.hugheshistory.com/ReligionsComparison.pdf
  • 5. "Islam; The Mosque." Places of Worship. Web. 17 Oct. 2012. .
  • "The Book of Threes." The Book of Threes. Web. 16 Oct. 2012. http://www.threes.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&i d=2077:three-holy-sites-of-islam&catid=81:religion&Itemid=61
  • 7. http://www.safraproject.org/sgi-genderroles.htm
  • 8. "Islam Beliefs and Practices." Islam Beliefs and Practices. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Oct. 2012. .
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  • 9. Infoplease. Infoplease, n.d. Web. 17 Oct. 2012. .

10. "Why Does Islam Spread so Quickly? | Why." Why Does Islam Spread so Quickly? | Why. Web. 17 Oct. 2012. .

  • 10. "Why Does Islam Spread so Quickly? | Why." Why Does Islam Spread so Quickly? | Why. Web. 17 Oct. 2012. .
  • 11. "Creation of the Universe." About.com Islam. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Oct. 2012. .
  • 12. "Major Religions on the End of the World." History.com. A&E Television Networks, Web. 17 Oct. 2012. .
  • 13. "Mlife.org- The Meaning of Life - Islam-A Religion of Tolerance." Mlife.org- The Meaning of Life - Islam-A Religion of Tolerance. Web. 17 Oct. 2012. .
  • 14. "Islamic Views on Abraham." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 10 Nov. 2012. Web. 17 Oct. 2012. .
  • 15. "Islamic Contributions to Medieval Europe." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 14 Oct. 2012. Web. 17 Oct. 2012. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islamic_contributions_to_Medieval_Europe>.
  • 16. "Islamic Traditions Influence American Architecture, Culture, Says Speaker." Daily Campus. Web. 17 Oct. 2012.


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