Question: Describe the various Causes of poverty

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20 Answers

Question: Describe the various Causes of poverty.

Answers by: Carlos
1. Erosion - Intensive farming leads to a cycle of exhaustion of soil fertility.
2. Desertification – 40% of the world’s agricultural land is degraded.

3. Droughts – lack of water supply.

4. Unemployment – People with no jobs can’t make money to escape poverty.

5. Overpopulation – Too many people without enough resources to support them.

6. Lack of access to birth control – leads to overpopulation.

7. Natural disasters – hurricanes, floods, tsunamis, earthquakes.

8. Education – without access to good education, people can’t get high paying jobs.
9. Inflation – Prices rise and people can’t afford to buy things.
10. Health Care – Poor access to affordable health care makes individuals more

vulnerable to poverty.

11. Malnutrition – Without food during childhood, it undermines the ability of

individuals to develop their full human capabilities.

12. Addictions – People will use money to feed their addiction thus leading to poverty.
13. Gambling – People risk losing all their money for a chance to win money.
14. Governance - High levels of corruption undermine efforts to make a sustainable

impact on poverty.

15. War – leads to economic depression.
16. Diseases – AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria afflict developing nations.
17. Depression – loss of confidence and interest in usual activities.
18. Famine – No food leads to starvation
19. Disabilities – Lack of the ability to work.

20. Lack of technology – inefficient crop production.

20 Answers

Question: Describe Canada’s shift from being under the British Sphere of Influence to being under the American Sphere of Influence from 1914-2000.

Answers by: Oleg

Canada had no choice whether or no join the war, it just had to do what ever Britain tell them to.

  • Canada’s seat in the Paris Peace Conference - Canada leaving British Sphere of Influence

Canada had its own seats in the Paris Peace Conference and wasn’t simply represented by Britain

  • The King-Byng Crisis – (1920s-30s) Canada leaving British Sphere of Influence

1925 election, Liberals were in power of minority government (King leader). Conservatives called a motion of center to vote against King’s government. King asked governor general Viscount Byng to call another election. Byng refused, but than was forced to do it. King was mad and said that it was not cool for someone appointed by Britain to not follow the advice of Prime Minister elected by Canadians. King won. Since, no Governor General acted against wishes of PM.

  • Balfour Report/ Statute of Westminster (1920s-30s) Canada leaving British Sphere of Influence

Signed by Britain and all its colonies that they are autonomic. Canada became equal to America.

  • Canada refused to invade Turkey (1920s-30s) Canada leaving British Sphere of Influence

Canada refused to help Britain to invade Turkey

  • Canadian art (1920s-30s) Canada leaving British Sphere of Influence

Canada has its own art, its own way of seeing thing different from Britain (Emily Carr).

  • Canada’s rules (1920s-30s) Canada leaving British Sphere of Influence

Canada has its own rule/beliefs about liquor.

Most of the radio station listened to in Canada are American.

  • Canada’s liquor industry (1920s-30s) – Canada entering American sphere of influence

Much of Canada’s liquor industry depends on American criminals.

  • KKK comes to Canada (1920s-30s) – Canada entering American sphere of influence

Canada followed American ways of thinking and started its own KKK.

  • US Movies in Canada (1920s-30s) – Canada entering American sphere of influence

A lot of US movies and television are really popular in Canada and put Canadian film industry out of the competition.

  • US Invests In Canada’s Economy (1920s-30s) – Canada entering American sphere of influence

During 1920s US investments in Canada’s economy raised it even became higher than investments of Britain. P.57

  • American car industries in Canada (1920s-30s) – Canada entering American sphere of influence

Since Canada didn’t have any kind of car industry most of the cars and machinery used in Canada were from US. The Big Three: ford, general motors and Chrysler

  • Canada/US stock market (1920s-30s) – Canada entering American sphere of influence

Canada and US had the same stock market and when it collapsed both countries were affected.

  • American Investment A Continuing Issue (POST-WWII) – Canada entering American sphere of influence

US started to invest a lot of money into Canadian businesses. By 1956, 68% of Canada’s industry was owned by America. US firms controlled more than half of all manufacturing in Canada.p.171.

  • Cold War (POST-WWII) – Canada entering American sphere of influence

During the cold war US build many stations in Canada to spy on Soviet attack.

  • North America Free Trade Agreement (POST-WWII) – Canada entering American sphere of influence

1992- Canada signed free trade agreement with US and Mexico. Meaning there would not be any tariffs or taxes put on the goods imported/exported between these countries.

  • Canadian electricity (POST-WWII) – Canada entering American sphere of influence

Canada exports a lot of electricity to America.

  • Lots of major food companies are from US (POST-WWII) – Canada entering American sphere of influence

People in Canada depend on food companies to make cheaper food.

  • Charter of Right and Freedoms (POST-WWII) – Canada ceases to be controlled by Britain

Canada has its own charter of rights and freedoms independent from Britain.

20 Answers

Question: To what extent have aboriginal people achieved their goals during the last half of the century?

Answers by: Frank
Pg25~26 during WWI aboriginals were initially not accepted as volunteered soldiers in the Canadian army, but few groups of other ethnic soldiers rose to higher ranks and decreased slight bit of discrimination (aboriginals were then accepted as soldiers). This shows two evidence, 1) the aboriginals volunteered for the army and not conscripted into the army having to show their interest of defending their own country. 2) Aboriginals weren’t accepted at first as soldiers for WWI, allowing Aboriginals to be a soldier gave the Aboriginals a little more rights then they had (being restricted of not allowed to participate the army when WWI started.)
During the Trench warfare, people fought along side together slowly accepting each other’s ethnic background fighting aside each other as fellow soldiers showing the barrier of not only Aboriginals becoming invisible. (Slowly forming early stages of equality)
Pg70 In the 1920’s, Aboriginals land reserves were taken by the government of British Columbia, even though most of the land weren’t signed away by the government and belonged to the Aboriginals. Joe Capilano Chief of the Squamish people went to London England to present land claim to the kind trying to protect the little rights they had. The Indian act was later changed allowing the Aboriginals the transfer land as they wished, as well as stopping people from taking Aboriginal reserved lands (a lot of discrimination and restrictions were also in the Indian Act for ex. No Potlatch…. etc)

Pg70 1927 some Hoc and senate members suggested negotiating with Aboriginals and making a treaty. This proves some people were regarding Aboriginals rights and wished to give Aboriginals more respect and rights to talk over their own businesses. (Even thought the government didn’t try, but its showed the people are starting to try to protect minority groups interests)

Pg69 When the government found oil on reserved lands for Aboriginals, the government paid the villagers to use the land instead of just taking it away. Again, showing more respect to the natives then before.
Pg104 In WWII the high % of Aboriginals that volunteered were taken in by the Canadian army, but this time there weren’t as much regulations as of stopping the Aboriginals from enlisting into the military compared to WWI.
Pg174 Diefenbaker was the first Pm to appoint Aboriginals as senator 2) gave status Indians living on reserves the right to vote on federal elections 3) also introduced bill of rights trying to break the barrier of different ethnic backgrounds, but also providing rights for every Canadian. (Wished to un-hyphenate canadianism)
Pg180 young people joined Aboriginals movements. These point showings Aboriginals have the right to protest and have supporters from younger generations. (Were as before the Aboriginals probably would get beaten and not allowed to protest.)
Pg202 During the passing of constitution, Elijah Harper ( NDP of Manitoba legislative) opposed the Meech Lake accord. Elijah Harper pointed out the constitution has failed to show the Aboriginals interests and to recognize Aboriginal Nations being distinct society. The point also shows Aboriginals have the right to influence politics now.
Pg208 Natives began to take over their own to take over their own affairs slowly such as abolishing residential schools and setting up their own “band schools” teaching the kids their language and culture. (Though lacked secondary schools) 1) having language rights 2) having education rights
Pg 209

Federal government issued an apology to Aboriginals who were abused while attended residential schools and announced a 350$ million healing fund. (Government realizes their mistakes and wishing to improve and respect the Aboriginals.)

1970 Yukon Territory (Mackenzie Valley) pipelines constructions were being suspended due to the request of Aboriginal organizations, government also issued commissions to investigate the pipelines and problems before constructing on the request of the organizations. (Original plan was to suspend 10 years but was held even longer.) 1) The government is showing their care about the Aboriginal peoples voices and concerns.
Pg 210 Aboriginal groups have formed the assembly of first nations to represent them in their dealings with the federal government; Aboriginals rights were also listen in the Charter of rights and freedom. In 1985 Parliament passed BillC-31 giving the Aboriginal band councils the power it decide who had the right to live on Aboriginal reserves. (More autonomy and given the right to self-govern)
Pg 211 Oka confirmation showed the federal government’s decision was justice, having the provincial governments to pay for the Mohawk sacred land instead of just taking it as they please. (More respect and displaying the rights Aboriginals have now)
Pg 215 After the Nisga’s winning the court case for Aboriginal title the right to land encouraged other neighboring aboriginal nations to take their land claim to court. (Again showing Aboriginals have more rights for Land claim, as well as given more respect.)

20 Answers

Question: Evaluate Canada’s contributions to the success of the United Nations.

Answers by: Gitti
1. The Making of the United Nations. ( pg.137)

- World leaders began making plans for an international agency that would prevent another global conflict.

- April 1945 delegates(deputy or an agent) from 51 countries, also including Canada, drew up a charter for the United Nations.

--Canada played a key role in the drafting of the Charter

- the U.N was based on the idea of collective security( like the League of Nations) except this time nations of the world were ready to support this idea

- In 1945, during the war, Canada became one of the first countries to join the United Nations.

-Individual Canadians have played important roles within the United Nations, and many of the Organization's great accomplishments
 have had a Canadian dimension.

2. Funding/ donations
- The United Nations is funded through member states’ dues and voluntary contributions, & through donations from the private sector, and other national agencies, and individuals.

- Canada continues to rank as the 7th largest contributor to the UN regular budget

- Under current UN scale of Assessments, Canada pays 2.813% of the Un regular budget and the UN peacekeeping budget

- For 2006, Canada's estimate contribution to the UN regular budget is US$48 million (approx. CDN$53.3 million).

- July 2006 to June 2007, Canada's estimated financial contribution to UN peacekeeping operations totalled US$133.6 million (about CDN$148.4 million)

- Canada is among the top ten donors with programs such as: UN System of funds, programs and agencies, UN Development Program, UNICEF

and the World Health Organization, providing over US$600 million dollars a year.

- Canada has always stood out in calling for all Member States to honour their financial obligations in full and on time, as Canada has consistently done

3. The Suez Crisis (pg.139)

  • 1956, a crisis over the Suez canal gave Canada a chance to take a leading role as part of the UN

  • 1956, Egypt took over the canal. Israel frightened by Egyptian aggression

  • Britain, France supported Israeli invasion, and UN supported Israel

  • Canadians were confused as to which side to take, ,many had British pride, but Canada was also part of the United Nations

  • PM Laurent refused to support British and French

  • Lester Pearson went to the United Nations to work towards a solution

  • Pearson proposed that a UN Emergency force be sent to the Suez Canal to separate and medicate between rival armies

  • UN agreed, the force, under the command of a Canadian general was chosen from countries not directly involved in the Conflict.

  • For His efforts in defusing the Crisis, Lester Pearson was awarded the Nobel peace prize, and was the only Canadian to ever receive one.

4. Lester B Pearson(pg.139) ( Canadian )

  • Pearson in generally consider one of the most influential Canadians of the 20th Century

  • 1948, PM Laurent appointed Pearson Minister of External affairs in the liberal gov’t

  • 1957, he was the only Canadian to win the Nobel peace prize, for defusing the Suez Canal through the UN

  • The United Nations Emergency Force was Pearson’s creation

5. The Korean Conflict (pg.138)

  • 1950 war broke out as North Korea tried to invade South Korea

  • UN force (mostly Americans) tried to force invaders to retreat

  • Encouraged by the USA Canada sent thousands of troops and 3 naval destroyers to Korea

  • At the UN, Leaster Pearson urged all sides to agree to ceasefire

  • 1953 ceasefire reached, but was increased tensions between the west and the communist nations.

6. Somalia (pg.153)

  • 1992, United Nations launched “ Operation Restore Hope” in Somalia, an east African nation that had been damaged by years of civil war, & starvation.

  • Mission directed by USA, but Canadian forces joined other countries in distributing food and essential supplies for survival to desperate locations

7. Rwanda (pg.156)

  • Small Nation was torn apart by ethnic rivalries.

  • UN peacekeepers sent under the control of Canadian Major General Romeo Dallaire.

  • When Dallaire realized extent of the planned killings he sent a series of urgent appeals to the UN headquarters in NY

  • He outlined a military plan to stop the killings, the UN needed to send a huge force to disarm the warring factions, 2 things were required for the plan to work: speed, and support of the USA> the only country that could provide enough troops at short notice

  • In April 1994, in a matter of weeks, close to 1 million people were killed

  • This was important because it shows that without the help of Canadian Romeo Dallaire, the killings would have kept going on endlessly

8. Universal Declaration of Human Rights

  • The universal Declaration of human rights was proclaimed at the United Nations General Assembly I n 1984

  • Declaration is based on the idea that “all humans beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights

  • 1948 John Peters Humphrey (Canadian) was the principal author of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights

  • Madame Justice Louise Arbour became UN High Commissioner for Human Rights.

  • The Canadian federal government and all the provinces have signed and ratified the declaration, and it is now binding upon Canada in international law

  • This means that individuals in Canada can complain to the Human Rights Committee of the UN if they believe the Canadian government isn’t meeting UN standards

9. John Peters Humphrey

  • In 1946, he was appointed as the first Director of the Human Rights Division in the United Nations Secretariat,

  • He was a principal drafter of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. After talking with the executive group of the Commission,
    chaired by Eleanor Roosevelt, Humphrey prepared the first preliminary draft of what was to become the Universal Declaration of Human Rights

  • remained with the UN for 20 years.

  • worked in areas including freedom of the press, status of women,
    and racism. In 1988, on the 40th anniversary of the Declaration, the UN Human Rights award was given to Professor Humphrey.

  • He took part in a number of international commissions of inquiry, including a mission
    to the Philippines investigating human rights violations under Ferdinand Marcos. In Japan he represented Korean women
    forced to act as sex slaves.

10. Draft Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples

  • On June 29, 2006, Canada voted against adoption of the Draft Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples at session of the United Nations Human Rights Council.

  • Canada has a strong record of supporting and advancing Aboriginal treaty rights domestically and is committed to continuing
    to work internationally on such issues

  • Since 1980s, successful Canadian gov’ts have worked for a Declaration promoting and protecting the human rights and freedoms of every indigenous* person without discrimination and
    recognize the collective rights of indigenous peoples around the world

  • Sadly, parts of the current Declaration don’t help in providing practical guidance to States, indigenous peoples and multilateral (having many sides) organizations as parts of the declaration are vague and have several meanings, leaving it open to different, & many possible interpretations

  • Canada wanted further negotiations, mostly on new text proposed by the Chairman-Rapporteur to achieve a more effective document

  • Canada hoped to help make a declaration that clearly sets out the rights of indigenous peoples and the commitments of the States in relation to such rights.

11. Omar Khadr

  • Omar Khadr is a Candian Citizen who was born in Toronto, and at the age of 15 was taken in by American forces to Guantanamo Bay for 6 years after being charged with war crimes after throwing a grenade at an American soldier

  • Youngest prisoner held in Guantanamo Bay detention camp by the USA

  • Frequently referred to as a child soldier

  • February 2006 video revealed Omar was present during the firefight, but no proof of him throwing the grenade

  • 2007, the Federal Court of Appeal ordered the Canadian gov’t to hand over records related to Khadr's time in captivity, as judge Richard Mosley stated it was now apparent that Canada had violated international law

  • Gov’t appealed to Supreme in 2008, argued Khadr was "fishing" for information and that disclosing their records

  • which include an initial account of the firefight differs from all previously reports, could jeopardise national security

  • Supreme Court of Canada ruled that gov’t had acted illegally, violating Charter of Rights and Freedoms, ordered videotapes of interrogation

12. Global Compact

  • The United Nations Global compact(UNGC) made to encourage businesses worldwide to adopt sustainable and socially responsible policies, and to report on their implementation

  • companies are brought together with UN agencies & labour groups &civil society

  • worlds largest corporate citizenship

  • 2 objectives: Mainstream 10 principles in business activities around world

  • And Catalyse actions in support of Broader UN goals

  • These Canadian companies are with the global compact:

Global Tox International Consultants Inc.
Golder Associates Inc
Hudson’s Bay Company
International Centre for Aviation and the Environment
Line Entertainment Holding Inc.
Nexen Inc.
Placer Dome Inc.
Schneider Power Corporation
Source Security
Talisman Inc.
U.S.E. Hickson Products Ltd.

13. Polio Relief

  • Canada recently gave $42 million to fill a critical funding gap faced by the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, putting it back on track towards eliminating polio by the end of 2005

  • Canada’s contributions to remove disease are one of the highest of all donor countries.

  • recognized by United Nations Foundation

  • presented Canada with the "UN Foundation Award for Outstanding Leadership in Global Polio Eradication" last week.

14. Cheaper Medicine

  • Canada is the first country to implement the World Trade Organization’s decision in 2003 to make cheaper versions of patented medicines available to developing countries facing public health crises. This initiative will make it easier for developing countries to access generic drugs, including anti-retrovirals.

15. Canada’s Contributions to Africa

  • Canada is working towards ambitious outcome for World Trade Organization’s Doha Development round.

  • 2003 Canada announced duty-free and quota-free access to virtually all imports from the 48 countries that the UN has termed "least developed countries," 34 in Africa. Canada invested $74 million since 2001 for trade in Africa.

  • Private sector development being supported through Canada Fund for Africa. Investments to $35 million being made to promote development of information and communication

  • . The Canada Investment Fund for Africa, with $100 million in public funds to be matched by the private sector,

  • Aims> stimulate African and foreign investment in the continent.

16. Cyprus

  • Canada’s longest peacekeeping mission

  • 1959 Cyprus gained independence from Britain

  • Greek and Turkish communities could not co-exist together

  • 1963 war broke out between the 2

  • Greece & Turkey threaten to intervene ( became international crisis)

  • UN troops including Canada, stationed in Cyprus to keep peace

  • Canada was neutral

  • On 15 July 1974, Greek army officers serving in the Greek Cypriot National Guard staged a coup d'état against the president of Cyprus, Archbishop Makarios.

  • Aim was to unite Cyprus with Greece (the goal that was original cause of war)

  • Canadian Airborne Regiment, Canada's UNFICYP (United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus) were deployed to the airport, defined as a UN protected zone

  • when word of impending second assault reached Canadian contingent, reminded both sides they had agreed to ceasefire

  • Canadian Soldiers won that day. Loss of Canadian peacekeeper, 2 dead, 30 wounded

17.Better Health in Africa

  • The health challenges facing Africa are huge.

  • Yet African countries and donors are responding to this challenge with much-needed health reforms.

  • 1999 ,country-owned Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers introduced

  • helps individual countries devise their own integrated plan, and provides a focus for donor countries organizing and prioritizing their aid programs.

  • a number of global health initiatives that provided greater focus to address main diseases.

  • The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria is one of the most important in Africa, an innovative public-private partnership that considers the recipients’ own needs and processes.

  • Canada played major role in establishment of this, and is represented on its Executive Board.

18. Yugoslavia

  • Canadians faced the most difficulty in Yugoslavia> horrible conditions.

  • The main reason for conflict in Bosnia/Yugoslavia was from religious and ethnic divisions.

  • The people of Bosnia consist of Croats, Muslims, and Serbs, who have divided themselves into three camps. these three groups not united because many Croats don't share same religion, neither do Serbs.

  • During war Serbians who opposed Bosnia's independence from Yugoslavia in 1991 began killing Croats and Muslims.

  • The Serbs especially targeted Muslims and "ethnically cleansed" 1000's of non-Christians.

  • Croats and Muslims formed an alliance and gained support of NATO.

  • 1991, Bosnia declared itself independent from Yugoslavia.

  • Serbs living in Bosnia rejected declaration>began killing Croats and Muslims.

  • Fierce three way fighting between Croats, Muslims and Serbs

  • Muslims were "ethnically cleansed" and thousands died.

  • 1995 NATO began air strikes on Serbian targets.

  • This lifted the siege of Sarajevo, led to signed of a peace accord (Dayton) divided country in Serb, Croat and Muslim districts. (Croats-Muslims formed a confederacy).

  • UN force in Bosnia, was to escort humanitarian relief convoys, quickly became involved in trying to mitigate the impact of civil war

  • Cost to Canadian peacemakers was a heavy one

  • Injuries from hostile fire and mines

  • Canadian contingent able to protect the Serb in the Krajina region of eastern Croatia

    Serbian: 40%

    Orthodox: 31%

    Muslim: 38%

    Muslim: 40%

    Croatian: 22%

    Catholic: 15%

  • 1995 major Croatian offensive succeeded in expelling the entire Serb population

  • Croatian forces attacked the Canadian soldiers over a period of four days

  • 2 PPCLI launched a full-scale assault, the first by the Canadian army since Korea, to reoccupy the ceasefire zone

  • The Canadian peacekeepers were left with scars

19. Canadian Peace keeping Capacity

  • Canada’s peacekeeping capacity is decreasing

  • Canada now ranks 34st in terms of personnel contribution among UN peacekeeping nations

  • behind Bangladesh, Zambia, Nigeria and Uruguay.

  • Only 206 Canadians are currently serving under the UN.

  • Canada also contributes to NATO and other missions, our rank would be much higher if those troops—(over 1,000 now in Afghanistan) were also counted.

  • according to Defence Department, 8,000 Canadian troops are being deployed to, returning from or serving on missions around the world—and many of these are peacekeepers.

20. CSR

  • CSR means Coperate Social Responsibility

Our work in the area of CSR includes:

  • facilitating dialogue and information sharing - with companies, civil society and across government

  • supporting the development of international voluntary standards and norms

  • working with likeminded countries to create support for the principles; and developing and disseminating CSR best practices and tools.


The following are quoted from

Canada recently contributed $42 million to fill a critical funding gap faced by the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, putting it back on track towards eliminating polio by the end of 2005. Canada’s contributions to eradicating this disease are among the highest of all donor countries. This was recognized by the United Nations Foundation, which presented Canada with the "UN Foundation Award for Outstanding Leadership in Global Polio Eradication" last week.

Canada is the first country to implement the World Trade Organization’s decision in 2003 to make cheaper versions of patented medicines available to developing countries facing public health crises. This initiative will make it easier for developing countries to access generic drugs, including anti-retrovirals.

In May 2004, Prime Minister Paul Martin announced an additional $170 million for the global fight against HIV/AIDS. This includes support for the African AIDS Vaccine Programme and the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative in their efforts to develop a preventive vaccine for HIV/AIDS. Canada is also the largest donor to the World Health Organization’s "3 by 5" initiative, with a $100-million contribution. The total Canadian commitment to HIV/AIDS is $600 million so far.

- Canada has an ambassador to the United Nations. This person is chosen by the Prime Minister.


- Canada’s peacekeeping capacity is increasingly diminished. Canada now ranks 34st in terms of personnel contribution among UN peacekeeping nations, well behind Bangladesh, Zambia, Nigeria and Uruguay. Only 206 Canadians are currently serving under the UN. It’s important to note, though, that Canada also contributes to NATO and other missions and I understand that our rank would be much higher if those troops—particularly the over 1,000 now in Afghanistan-- were also counted. On any given day, according to the Defence Department, 8,000 Canadian troops are being deployed to, returning from or serving on missions around the world—and many of these are peacekeepers.


- Look at Lester B. Pearson

- Canada's role in the U.N. Security Council

- Peacekeeping missions (Rwanda etc... in your textbook)

- ---> A Canadian who helped write the first draft of the UN Human Rights Declaration (sort of an international version of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms)

- Examine how the UN Human Rights Declaration has been used throughout history


- Canada voted against the United Nations Aboriginal Human Rights Declaration (explain WHY)

- Canada Accused of breaking international United Nations' Law:

who is Omar Khadr?

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