Problems: If nine molecules of a monosaccharide with the formula C



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Practice Problems and Essays AP Biology

Problems:

1. If nine molecules of a monosaccharide with the formula C6H12O6 are assembled to produce a complex carbohydrate, how many atoms of hydrogen will be in the final polymer?

2. The following chart shows the energy products produced in various stages of the breakdown of glucose.



Process

ATP produced

NADH/FADH2 Produced

Glycolysis

2

2 NADH

Pyruvate Oxidation

1

1 NADH

Krebs Cycle

1

3 NADH 1 FADH2

Each molecule of NADH results in approximately 2.5 molecules of ATP whereas each molecule of FADH2 results in approximately 1.5 molecules of ATP when these molecules are fed into the ETC.

What is the difference in the total number of ATP molecules produced between three molecules of glucose that undergo fermentation compared to three molecules of glucose that undergo aerobic respiration?

3. You cross a purple flower with another purple flower and the results are as follows:

30 purple flowers and 14 white flowers. If purple is dominant over white, calculate the Chi square value of this cross.

Equation: ∑ (o-e)2

E
4.

1. Fossils of lobe-finned fishes, which are the ancestors of amphibians, are found in rocks that are at least 380 million years old. Fossils of the oldest amphibian-like vertebrate animals with true legs and lungs are found in rocks that are approximately 363 million years old. Three samples of rocks are available that might contain fossils of a transitional species between love-finned fishes and amphibians: one rock sample that is 350 million years old, one that 370 million years old, and one that is 390 million years old.

a. Select the most appropriate sample of rocks in which to search for a transitional species between lobe- finned fishes and amphibians. Justify your selection.

b. Describe TWO pieces of evidence provided by the fossils of a transitional species that would support a hypothesis that amphibians evolved from lobe-finned fishes.

2. The following data were collected by observing subcellular structures of three different types of eukaryotic cells.

RELATIVE AMOUNTS OF ORGANELLES IN THREE CELL TYPES

Cell type

Smooth ER

Rough ER

Mitochondria

Cilia

Golgi Bodies

X

Small amt

Small amt

Large number

Present

Small amount

Y

Large amount

Large amount

Moderate amt

Absent

Large amount

Z

Absent

Absent

Absent

Absent

Absent

Based on the analysis of the data, identify a likely primary function of each cell type and explain how the data support the identification.

3. In an experiment, rats averaging 300 g of body mass were tested several times over a three month period. For each individual rat, urine was collected over a three hour period after ingestion of 10 mL of liquid ( water, 1% ethyl alcohol solution or 5% ethyl alcohol solution.) The volume of urine was then measured, and the results were averaged for all individuals within each experimental groups. The data are shown in the table below.

THREE HOUR URINE OUTPUT FOLLOWING FLUID INGESTION

Fluid ingested (10 mL)

Water

1% ethyl alcohol

5% ethyl alcohol

Average urine output (mL)

3.5

3.8

4.7

a. Pose ONE question that the researchers were most likely investigating with the experiment.

b. State a hypothesis that could be tested to address the question you posed in part a.

c. Using the data in the table, describe the effect of ethyl alcohol on urine production.

4. Communication occurs among the cells of a multicellular organism. Choose THREE of the following examples of cell-to-cell communication and for each example, describe the communication that occurs and they types of responses that result from this communication.

a. Communication between two plant cells.

b. communication between two immune – system cells



c. communication EITHER between a neuron and another neuron OR between a neuron and a muscle cell

d. communication between a specific endocrine gland cell and its target cell


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