Presentation on forest ecosystem
Date conversion 30.01.2017 Size 12,41 Kb.
PRESENTED BY :- Kapil Kulshrestha ( Roll No.19) Amit Kumar (Roll No.7) Nikhil Ranjan Kr. Ratanman (Roll No.23) NILGIRI BIOSPHERE RESERVE(NBR) Area = 5520 km2 Included in UNESCO’s Man and the Biosphere Programme in 2000. NBR contains Dry scrub, dry and moist deciduous Semi-evergreen and wet evergreen forests Two endangered species- the niligiri tahr and the lion-tailed Macaque Why do different regions have different biomes? Major reasons:- Temperature Precipitation The mean value of temperature and precipitation determines the kind of biomes in an area. Climate, plants and animal species of region varies with latitude and longitude. The unique thing is that every species has adapted to the climate and has found its niche in the community. WORLD LAND USE PATTERN(FAO IN MILLER,2004)
Types of forests Tropical – hot & humid region rainforests -Annual rainfall- 2000 to 4500 mm. - Found in south and central America, Western & Central Africa, South East Asia, and some islands of Indian & Pacific Oceans. - Tropical forests are considered important because it helps in recycling water. personal.monm.edu/.../tropical-rainforest.jpg Temperate forests Cold in winter and warm & humid in summer. Annual rainfall is 750-2000 mm Soil is rich Found in western and Central Europe, eastern Asia and eastern North America. ewww.davidsuzuki.org/files/Forests/rivermeand Coniferous forests Many coniferous trees are found in this region like spruce, fir, pine etc. Found in northern parts of Northern America, Europe and Asia. The soil in these forests is acidic and humus-rich. www.idiotica.com/.../images/coniferous.jpg New project The Forest Ecosystem Dynamics (FED) Project is concerned with modeling and monitoring ecosystem processes and patterns in response to natural and anthropogenic effects. The project uses coupled ecosystem models and remote sensing models and measurements to predict and observe ecosystem change. The overall objective of the FED project is to link and use models of forest dynamics, soil processes, and canopy energetics to understand how ecosystem response to change affects patterns and processes in northern and boreal forests and to assess the implications for global change. STATE OF FORESTS IN INDIA As per report 2003 of Forest survey of India ,Dehradun the forest cover in the country is 678,333 sq.km & constitutes 20.63% of its geographical area. Dense forest contributes 390,564sq.km(11.88%) & open forest 287,769(8.75%). In India M.P with 76429 sq.km of forest cover has the maximum forest among all States/UT’s followed by AP & Chandigarh. TREND ANALYSIS OF FOREST GROWTH IN INDIA (ALL FIGURES IN Sq. km) AS per ministry of Environment and forest ,the total area covered under forest is 757010 Sq.km which is 23.03% of total geographical area of the country. As per 10th plan Government has targeted to enlarge the forest cover to 25% of geographical area by 2007 and 33% by 2012. TYPES OF FORESTS IN INDIA 80% of Indian forest is of four types.
Clearing and burning of the forests for agriculture,cattle rearing and timber extraction. Clear cutting and conversion of forest land in hilly areas for agriculture,plantation and housing. Forests affected by acid deposition originating from industries. Pesticides spraying to control insects in forest plantation leads to poisoning all the way up the food chain and unintended loss of species. Contd… Dams build in forest areas for hydropower and water drown huge areas ,destroying species and depriving people of their land. In wilderness areas like the Arctic ,oil exploration and military activities disrupt the ecosystem ,contaminating areas and lead to decline of species. The harvesting of old growth forests destroys crucial habitat for endangered species. GRASSLANDS Grasslands are regions where average precipitation is high(250-1500mm) for grass and for trees to grow. Rainfall are erratic and uncertain in these regions. Regions found is central &south America,sub equitorial Africa &south Australia ,South India. Soils rich and deep ideal for grasses. Contd… Used as grasslands for grazing livestock. Savanas are tropical grasslands with widely scattered clumps of low trees. Large scale conversion of grasslands into croplands as they are well suited to agriculture. DESERT A desert is a landscape form or region that receives very little precipitation. <250 mm per annum. It covers 1/5th of earth’s land surface. It covers 1/5th of earth’s land surface. Most of the deserts are composed of sand (ergs) and rocky surface (reg). Other deserts known as cold desert is fully covered by ice and almost no vegetation. Temperature ranges from 50 degree C to nearly zero level within a single day. These have high biodiversity. Plants and animals have different morphological and anatomical modifications to reduce water loss from the body. Water budget =P-PE(+/-)S Water budget =P-PE(+/-)S where P = precipitation PE = potential evaporation S = amount of surface storage of water If PE exceeds enormously from P then a dry condition prevails and if it continues then deserts get formed. Types of deserts Hot desert Formed of ergs or regs Water is very scarce. Temperature is very high during day and very low at night. Vegetations known as ‘xerophytes’ have modifications like pulpy stem to store water and wax covered thorny leaves to reduce transpiration. The roots are very long to reach the water table. Animals such as reptiles, rodents, wolves etc hide themselves in daylight and come out at night. Contd… Cold deserts Commonly known as ‘tundra’ Land is covered by a thick layer of ice. Whatever falls remain frozen. Vegetation is very on the surface. The leaves are covered by wax. Animals have thick layer of fat under the skin and a fur coating above it. The Thar desert Third largest desert in the world. Most populous desert. Spread over four states in India and two in Pakistan. Annual rainfall is 100-500mm The only river in the region is Ghaggar. shrubs and grasses like babul, khejra and trees like ber are found. Many reptiles and snakes are endemic to the region also. Importance for man We think desert as a non arable waste land but it contains lot of minerals which can be harvested by making judicial use of it. The top soil is fertile but very susceptible to erosion. It can be saved by afforestation. Minerals like silica, gypsum, borates are very commonly found. It’s a very big area which should be converted into arable. MOUNTAINS Mountain is a landform that extends above the surrounding terrain in a limited area. Characteristics Mountains cover 20% of the land area. Going up the mountain is similar to moving from equator to north pole. Mountain are the reservoirs of water. A big bank of biodiversity. HIMALAYA It is the highest mountain range. Flora fauna of himalayas varies with the altitudes. Like lowland forests to alpine trees. It is the energy bank in terms of wind energy and hydro energy almost all rivers of north india originates from himalayas. source 250> www.google.com www.wikipedia.org Forest survey of India
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