Preliminary and Incomplete Abstract



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Robust standard errors in parentheses, clustered by country – pair. *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1

Table A.8. Results for international emigration intensities

 VARIABLES

(1)

(2)

(3)

Intl. Emigrants Intensities

Intl. Emigrants Intensities

Intl. Emigrants Intensities

C

Common official language 

0.768***

0.386***

0.514***

(0.0523)

(0.0557)

(0.0611)

Religion similarity  index

0.727***

0.479***

0.361***

(0.0630)

(0.0747)

(0.0830)

Emigration 1960 (logged) 




0.342***

0.338***




(0.0109)

(0.0119)

A

Colonial linkage 

1.642***

0.950***

0.897***

(0.157)

(0.140)

(0.147)

G

Distance (logged) 

-1.271***

-0.682***

-0.662***

(0.0282)

(0.0315)

(0.0338)

Share a common border 

1.347***

0.685***

0.693***

(0.153)

(0.120)

(0.129)

E

Product of populations (logged) 

0.417***

0.298***

0.357***

(0.0391)

(0.0491)

(0.0518)

Ratio pc income (origin/destination)- logged 

-0.398***

-0.411***

-0.422***

(0.0365)

(0.0448)

(0.0467)

Difference of Economic Structure Index







-0.691***







(0.158)




Constant

0.538

2.919**

1.529




 

(1.154)

(1.445)

(1.527)




Observations

8,316

5,504

4,837




Adjusted R-squared

0.789

0.805

0.810

Robust standard errors in parentheses, clustered by country – pair. *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1

Table A.9. Results for international students’ arrivals

VARIABLES

(1)

(2)

International students’ arrivals

International students’ arrivals

C

Common official language

1.030***

1.046***

(0.118)

(0.120)

Religion similarity index

1.077***

1.195***

(0.147)

(0.149)

A

Colonial linkage 

1.424***

1.380***

(0.195)

(0.198)

G

Distance (logged) 

-1.157***

-1.187***

(0.0453)

(0.0443)

E

Product of populations (logged) 

0.461

0.407

(0.430)

(0.431)

Ratio pc income (max/min)-logged 

-0.116***




(0.0334)




Ratio pc income (destination/origin)-logged




-0.105**




(0.0526)

Ratio public expend per student (destination/origin)-logged 

0.131**

0.117*

(0.0602)

(0.0603)




Constant

-4.244

-2.547




 

(15.44)

(15.51)




Observations

12,612

12,612




Adjusted R-squared

0.738

0.737

Robust standard errors in parentheses, clustered by country – pair. *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1

Table A.10. Results for international tourists’ arrivals

 VARIABLES

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

Intl tourists’ arrivals

Intl tourists’ arrivals

Intl tourists’ arrivals

Intl tourists’ arrivals

C

Common official language 

0.888***

0.497***

0.497***

0.493***

(0.0990)

(0.105)

(0.104)

(0.105)

A

Colonial linkage 

0.471**

0.451**

0.451**

0.429**

(0.199)

(0.194)

(0.196)

(0.189)

Regional bloc 

0.377**

0.102

0.107




(0.184)

(0.193)

(0.193)




Visa requirement 

-0.685***

-0.693***

-0.644***

-0.648***

(0.112)

(0.161)

(0.142)

(0.142)

WHS (destination/origin) - logged 




1.175***

0.755*

0.764*




(0.382)

(0.439)

(0.438)

G

Distance (logged) 

-1.544***

-1.534***

-1.520***

-1.533***

(0.0610)

(0.0827)

(0.0781)

(0.0705)

Share a common border 

0.589***

0.693***

0.697***

0.704***

(0.220)

(0.241)

(0.239)

(0.238)

E

Product of populations (logged) 

1.435***

0.0971

0.0804

0.0706

(0.362)

(0.457)

(0.452)

(0.452)

Ratio of pc income (max/min)-logged 

-0.0313

0.0312







(0.0335)

(0.0456)







Ratio of pc income (destination/origin)-logged







-0.0930**

-0.0939**







(0.0449)

(0.0449)




Constant

-29.18**

19.15

20.58

21.15




 

(12.03)

(16.87)

(16.21)

(16.21)




Observations

8,881

6,130

6,130

6,130




Adjusted R-squared

0.894

0.862

0.861

0.861

Robust standard errors in parentheses, clustered by country – pair. *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1

Table A.11. Specific regressions for printed publication exports.

 VARIABLES

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

Printed publicactions exports

Printed publicactions exports

Printed publicactions exports

Printed publicactions exports

C

Religion similarity index

0.643***

0.611***

0.393***

0.397***

(0.119)

(0.123)

(0.137)

(0.137)

Common official language 

1.793***

 

 

 

(0.0878)

 

 

 

Common language (>9%) 

 

1.669***

1.709***

1.710***

 

(0.0898)

(0.0927)

(0.0927)

A

Colonial linkage 

1.412***

1.574***

1.496***

1.504***

(0.163)

(0.166)

(0.168)

(0.168)

G

Distance (logged) 

-1.915***

-1.901***

-1.924***

-1.941***

(0.0451)

(0.0462)

(0.0470)

(0.0430)

Share a common border 

0.162

0.179

0.134

 

(0.166)

(0.170)

(0.173)

 

E

Population (logged) 

1.493***

1.432***

1.121**

1.122**

(0.513)

(0.513)

(0.529)

(0.529)

Ratio pc income (max/min)-logged 

-0.241***

-0.261***

-0.235***

-0.235***

(0.0228)

(0.0227)

(0.0234)

(0.0234)

Product of ICT use (logged)







-0.720***

-0.721***







(0.269)

(0.269)




Constant

-25.09

-23.57

-18.24

-18.07




 

(15.90)

(15.90)

(19.81)

(19.81)




Observations

30,109

30,109

27,765

27,765




Adjusted R-squared

0.705

0.702

0.716

0.716

Robust standard errors in parentheses, clustered by country – pair. *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1

Table A.12.Specific regression for outgoing phone calls.

VARIABLES

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

International phone calls

International phone calls

International phone calls

International phone calls

C

Religion similarity index

0.256**

0.198

0.144




(0.130)

(0.130)

(0.164)




Common official language 

0.996***

 

 




(0.0866)

 

 




Common language (>9%) 

 

1.000***

0.948***

0.950***

 

(0.0874)

(0.0926)

(0.0922)

A

Colonial linkage 

0.634***

0.678***

0.604***

0.609***

(0.119)

(0.122)

(0.126)

(0.126)

G

Distance (logged) 

-1.112***

-1.068***

-1.051***

-1.059***

(0.0456)

(0.0448)

(0.0466)

(0.0450)

Share a common border 

0.407***

0.415***

0.470***

0.472***

(0.104)

(0.102)

(0.103)

(0.103)

E

Product of populations (logged) 

1.139***

1.147***

1.314***

1.317***

(0.256)

(0.256)

(0.293)

(0.293)

Ratio pc income (max/min) - logged 

0.208***

0.190***

0.189***

0.183***

(0.0268)

(0.0264)

(0.0274)

(0.0262)

Product of ICT use (logged)







0.132*

0.132*







(0.0730)

(0.0729)




Constant

-31.55***

-32.10***

-39.90***

-39.93***




 

(8.547)

(8.534)

(10.70)

(10.69)




Observations

11,284

11,284

10,451

10,451




R-squared

0.898

0.898

0.895

0.895

Robust standard errors in parentheses, clustered by country – pair. *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1

Table A.13. Specific regression for international patenting activity.

VARIABLES

(1)

(2)

(3)

International patents

International patents

International patents

C

Common oficial language

0.517***

0.511***

0.530***

(0.0721)

(0.0726)

(0.0728)

Religion similarity index




0.231*

0.229*




(0.129)

(0.130)

A

Ratio of the innovation pillar (max/min) – logged

-1.270***

-1.263***

-1.279***

(0.130)

(0.131)

(0.131)

Colonial linkage

0.644***

0.643***

0.621***

(0.108)

(0.109)

(0.109)

Regional bloc

-0.343***

-0.345***




(0.101)

(0.101)




Regional bloc (except EU)







0.358**







(0.157)

EU







-0.492***







(0.109)

G

Distance (logged)

-0.227***

-0.206***

-0.211***

(0.0451)

(0.0450)

(0.0451)

Share a common border

0.551***

0.558***

0.470***

(0.116)

(0.116)

(0.121)

E

Product of population (logged)

3.572***

3.558***

3.450***

(0.512)

(0.511)

(0.508)

Ratio pc income (patent office/origin)-logged

-0.268***

-0.271***

-0.264***

(0.0662)

(0.0662)

(0.0660)




Constant

-100.4***

-100.3***

-97.27***







(14.02)

(13.99)

(13.92)




Observations

8,654

8,654

8,654




Adjusted R-squared

0.837

0.837

0.838

Robust standard errors in parentheses, clustered by country – pair. *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1

Table A-14. Canada and China’s main partners and cumulative shares.

 

Merchandise

Services

FDI outward stocks

FDI outflows

Portfolio equity assets

Portfolio long term debt

Education

Emigration

Tourists

Outgoing phone calls

Printed publications

Patents

Canada main partners













1

USA

USA

USA

USA

USA

USA

CHN

USA

USA

USA

USA

USA

2

GBR

GBR

GBR

GBR

GBR

GBR

USA

GBR

GBR

GBR

FRA

DEU

3

CHN

DEU

IRL

JPN

JPN

DEU

FRA

AUS

FRA

IND

GBR

JPN

4

JPN

JPN

FRA

.

FRA

FRA

IND

DEU

DEU

CHN

DEU

FRA

5

MEX

FRA

AUS

.

DEU

AUS

KOR

FRA

JPN

PHL

NZL

CHE

Cumulative shares

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

79%

69%

52%

82%

52%

69%

27%

76%

76%

70%

83%

54%

2

83%

77%

66%

97%

63%

74%

39%

81%

81%

74%

86%

62%

3

85%

79%

71%

100%

70%

79%

47%

84%

83%

77%

88%

69%

4

87%

82%

73%

.

74%

82%

51%

86%

85%

81%

90%

74%

5

89%

84%

76%

.

77%

85%

55%

87%

87%

83%

91%

79%

China main partner 

 

 

 

 

 

1

USA

.

HKG

HKG

.

.

.

HKG

.

HKG

USA

JPN

2

HKG

.

AUS

AUS

.

.

.

USA

.

JPN

HKG

USA

3

JPN

.

SGP

SGP

.

.

.

CAN

.

USA

GBR

DEU

4

KOR

.

USA

USA

.

.

.

MYS

.

KOR

JPN

KOR

5

DEU

.

CAN

CAN

.

.

.

JPN

.

GBR

DEU

NLD

Cumulative shares

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

21%

.

86%

83%

.

.

.

40%

.

45%

32%

36%

2

38%

.

89%

87%

.

.

.

58%

.

58%

61%

61%

3

47%

.

92%

90%

.

.

.

64%

.

70%

71%

71%

4

52%

.

94%

92%

.

.

.

69%

.

77%

75%

79%

5

57%

.

95%

94%

.

.

.

74%

.

81%

78%

83%

France main partners

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

DEU

GBR

USA

BEL

LUX

ITA

MAR

USA

DEU

GBR

BEL

DEU

2

ITA

USA

BEL

NLD

DEU

DEU

CHN

DEU

ITA

DEU

DEU

USA

3

ESP

BEL

GBR

GBR

USA

NLD

DZA

ESP

NLD

MAR

CHE

JPN

4

GBR

DEU

NLD

USA

GBR

ESP

TUN

BEL

ESP

ITA

CAN

CHE

5

BEL

ITA

DEU

LUX

NLD

USA

SEN

CHE

CHE

BEL

GBR

KOR

Cumulative shares 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

17%

14%

16%

17%

19%

16%

15%

13%

26%

10%

24%

29%

2

27%

27%

29%

30%

32%

30%

25%

26%

42%

18%

39%

45%

3

36%

39%

42%

41%

45%

42%

36%

36%

57%

25%

51%

62%

4

45%

51%

54%

50%

56%

54%

41%

46%

68%

32%

58%

70%

5

53%

57%

62%

57%

62%

63%

46%

53%

79%

39%

64%

74%

Source: own calculation



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