All Rights including the Name, Subject Matter and Translation Reserved by the Publishers
Revised & Enlarged Edition •;$
Price Rs. 25.00 (5 Publishers
• ’’^ „ ••> ,>v * ..
PREFACE TO THE REVISED EDITION We are extremely happy to present this volume of Expected Essays to the keen, enlightened and selective readers who are
aware that ”knowledge is power” and who wish to lead and
’ succeed in life. Those who. are acquainted with our ”Full View
At a Glance” publications are already familiar with our scientific,
analytical, systematic, sure to succeed approach. Time is
precious, time is money and time should be usefully spent to
secure success. We do not want you and particulary those of
i you who are appearing for competitive, career and degree
ij examinations, to waste your time on non-essentials. You
\ must know what to read and be fully aware why you are
j reading them.
’ In order to select the right topics we have analysed all the | essay papers of all UPSC and State Public Service Commission
examinations, over the past several years. The important [ subjects, trends, frequencies, favourite fields and recurring
determined. Model subjects are then selected from the top
and burning events of the year, based on our analytical study
and observed trends.
Our choice topics thus cater the need of all those who are either appearing for the UPSC Examinations, State Public Service Commission Examinations, University or College Examinations, Railway/Bank Recruitment Examinations or interviews. You will find these essays to be of great value. What is more these essays add to your general knowledge, enhance your confidence and immensely improve the chances of your success. In other words, this volume of Expected Essays has been brought out in your interest to brighten your prospects and to make you LEAD and SUCCEED.
l*nniedYashika Oti’set, Mayapuri, New Delhi
CONTENTS Chapter 2. 3.
Introduction-The Art of Writing an Essay
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
Hundred Years of Congress
Nuclear Research and Development
Atom for Peace
First Indian in Space
India at the Olympics
.Growing Powers of The Courts
Having the Bomb that we cannot use
The Lessons of Chernobyl
Governor’s Role and Responsibility in
Exercising his Discretionary Powers
Voyage of Discovery to Super Power Lands
India, its Immediate Neighbours and the
Seventh Non-Aligned Summit
Disarm for Survival
The Indian Tourism industry
Independence of the judiciary
Energy Alternatives for India
Meeting the Challenge of Environmental Pollution
Practical Uses of Solar Energy
Pages 7 • 11 . 21 . 26
Chapter 22. State Autonomy 23. University Education 24. Men Made to Order 25. Science and Future of Mankind 26. Educational Reforms 27. The Essence of Scientific Temper 28. The Principal-Business of Life iS to Enjoy it 29. Science and Social Change 30. The Sanctity and Supremacy of the Constitution 3-1. Public Sector vs. Private Sector 32. Freedom from Hunger 33. Diwali 34. National Education Policy 35. Long Term Fiscal Policy CONTENTS Pages ... 161 ... 169 ... 174 .. 178 ... 182 ... 186 ... 191 ... 195 ... 199
THE ART OF WRITING AN ESSAY The art of writing an essay is by far the most difficult of arts to practice, specially for the students who arc still not mature enough to perceive instinctively the full implications of the subject matter of the compositions which they are called upon to attempt. Students, moreover, do not have generally adequate command over language to express themselves efficiently through a foreign medium like English. They keep on groping in darkness. Conceptual difficulties as well as difficulties of expressing thoughts, through a foreign medium, impinge adversely on the style of their writing. The essay has to bring thoughts to converge into a sharp focus so that after going through a well written essay the reader feels unforgettably the dent of the author’s thoughts on his own mind. The effectiveness of an essay, therefore, depends on the author’s ability to present himself with the greatest possible clarity of thought and lucidity of expression. The style has to be straight and simple. There must be direct hit on the points which the author desires to emphasize.
’Essay’ literally meant an attempt or ’effort’ or ’experiment’ and the attempt or effort relevant for the present purpose would be the attempt to compose one’s thoughts so as to present them in a logically coherent structure and sequence. The essay is mainly a sort of experimentation on the intellectual plane and in spite of the fact that it is an experiment, the essay must be able to show that it is an effortless ’effort’. The ability of the author of an essay to present himself with effortless ease depends on his innate genius as well as his cultivation of a style of his own with repeated efforts on right lines. The best way to know what a good essay is, is to ’go through some of the best of ’efforts’ and acquaint oneself with the technique of
composing one’s thoughts. The entire personality of the essayist manifests itself in the thoughts and the style of an essay and as such, it would not be too much to say that a good essay can be written only by a well-developed personality. Students who are rather keen to cultivate the art of essaywriting have to keep their minds open to let in as much of knowledge as possible and sharpen their powers of reasoning by making a critical analysis of what they receive.
The impoitance of essay-writing could hardly be exaggerated. Jn all public examinations a considerable weightage is given to the ’essay’. Jt-is also a compulsory paper for many of the provincial compefytive examinations and some of the university degree as wen as post-graduate examinations. One • may naturally ask the question why so much of importance is being given to this particular form of literary composition when there are several other forms as well and the obvious answer would be that this form is the surest test of the personality of the author. The contents of the personality of the author would somehow get into the form of his essay and the mould that manifests itself would carry certain convincing basis to form an opinion about the intellectual height of the author and his ability to reason out his feelings.
The essay reflects the abilily of the essayist. What sort of ability is this ? Why not test the ability of any person with the help of ’objective’ tests, which it is the fashion in the U.S.A. and other advanced countries to adopt. What is the idea at the back of the so called objective tests? The questions set therein are extremely simple. Those that appear for the tests are called upon to ’pair’ or ’match’ certain facts and statements out of a disorderly jumble.’ Correct matching of things which are related is possible only if the person is very precise in his knowledge and knows definitely what is what ? For instance, if certain names of scientists and certain inventions are given in two coiumi; ;• a disorderly fashion and if the candidates taking the extirpation are asked to pin-point by matching which invention was made by whom, unless there is a precise knowledge, the matching would go wrong. If wrong pairings cancel an equal number of right ones, the credit obtained would not be particularly significant, unless one shows a
INTRODUCTION ’ 9 remarkable precision. Objective tests are certainly of great value for certain purposes the aim of which is to find out whether or not the candidates are exact in their information. Objective tests are, therefore, a sort of information-test. They are not well suited to test the personality of the candidates. A well informed person is not always in a position to write a good essay for the simple reason that he does not possess the ability to weave a thread of unity out of the diversity of the bits of information. The multiplicity of pieces of information may congest a crowded skull but it would not come to well integrated pattern of thoughts. The ability to arrange one’s thoughts in a beautiful design is the principal requisite for successful essay-writing. What is the main core of this ability ? The core of this ability consists of mainly two things. The first thing is the nature of information which the essayist possesses. It is absolutely essential for the essayist to know enough about the subject on which he is going to write. It is necessary, therefore, for the essayist to find out what particular subject is best suited to him out of the few that are given in any examination. He should choose that about which he is best informed. The next step would be to organise that information in a certain sequence, It would be highly useful for the essayist to jot down his points on a piece of paper, arrange them in certain order and see if the sequence of the points has any logical basis. The essential thing to keep in mind is ”Does the next step follow inevitably from the one that has gone before ? Would any other step be appropriate ?” Thus what precedes and what follows must show a thread of unity and continuity or else it would be more of patch-work and an essay is anything but patch-work. The essay must show the characteristics of a good piece of art. A good piece of art shows some inherent sense of unity. It mirrors the complete vision of the artist. What matters is the completeness of that vision. The artist does not visualise the piece of his art part by part. He visualises the entire piece as one single unit. The various parts come into existence only in process of executing the entire piece as one unit. That is merely a matter of convenience. The mental unity of the artist impresses itself on the materials that constitute the medium for his self-expression. The essayist also has to have the vision of the artist. There
must be a mental unity. The whole essay is to be seen as it were, beforehancj, to perceive within the mind where exactly it begins, how it flows and where exactly the train of thoughts and feelings are expected to reach an end. It means quite a bit of hard thinking and those who find vigorous thinking rather distasteful are well advised to keep off from at least this form of corr^position. It is only those who are endowed with a vigorous mind to analyse the threads that get entangled into a complete skein of mingled mass of material who can hope to write a good essay. It is however, not beyond the reach of average ability to cultivate the art of essay-writing if they are prepared to make a sincere effort. The essay, is a matter of sincerity. Resplendent sincerity is the basic step towards writing a good essay.
Difficulties c>f language can be got over in course of time if people who are Serious about the matter make serious efforts. There must be a good choice of words and • the sentences constructed must show a certain sharpness of purpose. Words carry very exact meanings and hence, every word that is chosen must be appropriate in the context concerned. A wrong word or a word out o^context leaves a sense of roughness. As far as possible words w^jch are extremely simple should be used. Simple words emphasise thought and big words emphasize sound which is of secorjaary importance. The construction of sentences should be direct all£i simple and this means that the thought put therein mus^ aiso be straight and simple. It is all, therefore, a matter of th^ mental height and personality of the essayist concerned. Th^ essays that follow endeavour to actualise these ideals. The test^ of the pudding is in its eating.
SOUTH ASIAN ASSOCIATION FOR REGIONAL COOPERATION The process of regional cooperation in South Asia took a concrete shape when the seven nations of the region at their first summit meet held at Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh, signed the charter of the Association and the Dhaka declaration setting out its rationale. The Bangladesh President, Lt.-Gen. H.M. Ershad, the King of Bhutan, Jigme Singye Wangchuk, the Prime Minister of India, Mr. Rajiv Gandhi, the Maldives President, Mr. Maumoon Abdul Gayoom, the King of Nepal* His Excellency King Birendra, the Pakistan President, Gen. Zia-ul-Haq and the Sri Lankan President, Mr J.R. Jayewardene, representing their respective Governments as Heads of State or Heads of Government met on December 7-8, 1985 in Dhaka ’ and held deliberations for the two days.
Some of the significant aspects of the Dhaka declaration include their determination to cooperate regionally, to work together for rinding solutions .towards their common problems in a spirit of friendship, trust and mutual understanding and to the creation of an order based on mutual respect, equity and shared benefits. They stated that periodic meetings at their level were central to the promotion of mutual trust, confidence and cooperation among their countries.
The Heads of State reiterated that their fundamental goal was to accelerate the process of economic and social development in their respective countries through the optimum utilisation of their human and material resources, so as to promote the welfare and prosperity of their peoples and to improve their quality of life. They were conscious that peace and security were essential pre-requisites for the realisation of this objective.
They reaffirmed their commitment to the UN charter and the principles.governing the sovereign equality of states, peaceful settlement of disputes, non-interference in internal affairs and non-use of threat of use of force against the icrritorial integrity and political independence of other states. They reiterated that the UN constituted the most important forum for the solution of all issues affecting international peace and security.
They also reiterated their deep conviction in the continuing validity and relevance of the objectives of non-aligned movement as an important force in international relations. The Heads of State and Government acknowledged that the countries of South Asia, which constituted one-fifth of humanity, were faced with the formidable challenges of poverty, economic backwardness, low levels of production, unemployment and pressure of population compounded by exploitation of the past and other adverse legacies. The leaders felt that, bound as their countries were by many common values rooted in their social, ethnic, cultural and historical traditions, regional cooperation provided a logical response to these problems. They were conscious of their individual and regional strengths, their potential as a huge market, their substantial human and natural resources and the complementarities of their economies. They were confident that with effective regional cooperation, they could make optimum use of these capacities for the benefit of their peoples, accelerate the pace of their economic development and enhance their national and collective selfreliance.
The Heads of State and Government of these seven nations were convinced that their countries which had made important contributions to the enrichment of human civilisation, could together play their due role in international relations and influence decisions which affected them. They emphasised that strengthening regional cooperation in South Asia required greater involvement of their peoples. They agreed to increase interaction and further promote peopie-to-people contacts at various levels among their countries. To this end, they decided to take steps to create awareness and public opinion in the region. They welcomed the progress already made in the implementation of the integrated programme of action in the
nine mutually agreed areas. They expressed .their desire to consolidate and further expand cooperative efforts within an appropriate institutional framework in a spirit of partnership and equality.
The leaders were convinced that they could effectively pursue their individual and collective objectives and improve the quality of life of their peoples only in an atmosphere of peace and security. In this context, they expressed concern at the deteriorating international political situation. They were alarmed at the unprecedented escalation of arms race, particularly in its nuclear aspect. They recognised that mankind today was confronted with the threat of self-extinction arising from a massive accumulation of the most destructive weapons ever produced. The arms race intensified international tension and violated the principles of the UN charter. The leaders called upon the nuclear weapon states for urgent negotiations for a comprehensive test ban treaty leading to the complete cessation of testing, production and deployment of nuclear weapons.
The Heads of State and Government expressed deep concern at the continuing crisis in the global economy. They underscored that deteriorating economic and social conditions had seriously retarded development prospects in South Asia and other developing countries. Sharply falling commodity prices, deterioration in the terms of trade, intensification of protectionist measures, spiralling debt burden and a decline in the flow of external resources, especially concessional assistance, had caused a serious setback to the economic development of the developing countries. These had been compounded by natural disasters and precarious world food scarcity situation affecting developing countries.
The leaders also expressed concern over the diminishing capacity of international financial and technical institutions to respond effectively to the needs of the disadvantaged and poorer countries and regretted that the spirit of multilateral cooperation had begun to falter and weaken. This was particularly disturbing in the face of increased interdependence of developed and developing countries and the fact that economic revival of the North was closely linked to economic progress in the South.
14 EXPECTED ESSAYS
They believed that developments in the past decades had clearly demonstrated the structural imbalances and inequities inherent jn the existing international economic system and its inadequacy to deal with problems of development. They strongly urged that determined efforts should be made by the international community towards realisation of the goals and targets of the international development strategy as well as the substantial new programme of action for the least developed countries. They called for urgent resumption of the North-South dialogue and early convening of an international conference on money and finance for development with universal participation.
The signatories to the charter jn the Dhaka declaration pertaining to the SAARC expressed hope that the association would place regional cooperation on a firm foundation, play an important role in accelerating the pace of economic and social development of the concerned countries, promoting at the same time the objectives of individual and collective selfreliance and thus furthering the cause of peace, progress and stability not only in the region but also in the world as a whole. The salient features of the charter are the Preamble and the Articles laying down the objectives, principles and those governing its various organs.
PREAMBLE The Heads of State or Government of Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, the Maldives, Napal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka :
1. Desirous of promoting peace, stability, amity and progress in the region through strict adherence to the principles of the United Nations Charter and non-alignment, particularly respect for the principles of sovereign equality, territorial integrity, national independence, non-use of force and noninterference in the internal affairs of other States and peaceful settlement of all disputes ;
2. Conscious that in an increasingly interdependent world, the objectives of peace, freedom, social justice and economic prosperity are best achieved by fostering mutual understanding, good neighbourly relations and meaningful cooperation among
SAARC . 15
the countries of South Asia which are bound by ties of history and culture ;
3. Aware of the common problems, interests and aspirations of the peoples of South Asia and the need for joint action and enhanced cooperation within their respective political and economic systems and cultural traditions ;
4. Convinced that regional cooperation among the countries of South Asia is mutually beneficial, desirable and necessary for promoting the welfare and improving the quality of life of the peoples of the region ;
5. Convinced further that economic, social and technical •cooperation among the countries of South Asia would contribute significantly to their national and collective self-reliance.
6. Recognising that increased cooperation, contacts and exchanges among the countries of the region will contribute to the promotion of friendship and understanding among their peoples ;
7. Recalling the declaration signed by their Foreign Ministers in New Delhi on August 2, 1983 and noting the progress achieved in regional cooperation ;
8. Reaffirming their determination to promote such cooperation within an institutional framework ;
Do hereby agree to establish an organisation to be known as South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, hereinafter referred to as the Association, with the following objectives, principles, institutional and financial arrangements.
1. The objectives of the Association shall be :
(a) To promote the welfare of the peoples of South Asia and to improve their quality of life.
(b) To accelerate economic growth, social progress and cultural development in the region and to provide all individuals the opportunity to live in dignity and to realise their full potentials.
(c) To promote and strengthen collective self-reliance among the countries of South Asia.
(d) To contribute to mutual trust, understanding an(e) To promote active collaboration and mutual assistance in the economic, social, cultural, technical and scientific fields.
(f) To strengthen cooperation with other developing countries.
(g) To strengthen cooperation among themselves in international forums on matters of common interest.
(h) To cooperate with international and regional organisations with similar aims and purposes.
P rinciples 1. Cooperation within the framework of the association shall be based on respect for the principles of sovereign equality, territorial integrity, political independence, non-interference in internal affairs of other States and mutual benefit.
2. Such cooperation shall not be a substitute for bilateral and multilateral cooperation but shall complement them.
3. Such cooperation shall not be inconsistent with bilateral and multilateral obligations.
Meetings of the Heads of State or Government
1. The Heads of State or Government shall meet annually.
Council of Ministers
1. A Council of Ministers consisting of the Foreign Ministers of the member States shall be established with the following functions :
(a) Formulation of the policies of the Association.
(b) Review the progress of cooperation under the Association.
(c) Decision on new areas of cooperation.
(d) Establishment of additional mechanism under the Association as deemed necessary.
(e) Decision on other matters of general interest to the Association.
2. The Council of Ministers shall meet in regular sessions as often as possible. Extraordinary sessions of the Council may be held by agreement among member States.
I. The Council of Ministers shall consider, at an appropriate time, the establishment of a secretariat for the Association and its organisation, functions and funding modulates.
1. Decisions at all levels shall ne taken on the basis of unanimity.
2. Bilateral and contentious issues shall bt excluded from the deliberations.
The summit endorsed that SAARC will first tackle the nine subjects alieady agreed upon amom1 the Council of Ministers. In addition, they further agreed to set up a Study Group to examine the problem of terrorism and stability of member Slates. The Study Group will submit its recommendations to the Council of Ministers as to how best the member States can cooperate among themselves to tackle the problem posed by the terrorists. A similar exercise is to be.carried out on the problem of drug trafficking and abuse.
The very composition of SAARC has perhaps prompted our Prime Minister, Mr. Rajiv Gandhi, to strike a tautipus note. He rightly made it clear that ”we have not sought tq melt our bilateral relationship into a common regional identity,, but rather to fit So.uth Asian cooperation into our respective foreign policies as an additional,dimension, We have .evolve,4 modalities which dq not allpw bilateral stresses and -strains, to impinge on regional cooperation.” Mr. Gandni saidaddi»g, ”our cooperation tempers’ enthusiasm with pragmatism... and initiatives with consensus.” .Thijs, was -why Mr. Qa,ndhi, te.tor in his address, frankly recognis^’ Jhe existence of problems and constraints in developing regional group relations. He said that
18 EXPECTED ESSAYS
enduring cooperation should be adopted to the realities of our conditions.
Dwelling on world economy, India’s Prime Minister said the consensus on development had broken down. Moreover, multilateralism had come under severe strain, adversely a.Tecting developing countries where growth had sharply decelerated or ground to a halt. Mr. Gandhi said, ”On the whole, our region has weathered the crisis well.” All seven countries had been confronted with the formidable problems of poverty, illiteracy, malnutrition and disease. ”We have to overcome these problems in a highly adverse external environment. South Asian cooperation points the way to collective selfreliance. Our endeavours strengthen the forces of multilateralism and world-wide cooperation,” he pointed out.
As Mr. Gandhi put it, the region has to overcome the problems of poverty, illiteracy and malnutrition, in a highly adverse external environment. ’’South Asian cooperation,” he said, ”pointed to collective self-reliance. Our endeavours strengthen the forces of multilateralism and worldwide cooperation.” He also called for ”conscious efforts” to remain outside the vortex of prevailing tensions and conflicts.
SAARC represents the world’s-most populous icgional grouping, covering 20 per cent of all humankind. It also contains some of the globe’s most economically depressed areas, where the people will really have to be encouraged to pull themselves up by hard work. Under the circumstances, it is no wonder that Mr. Gandhi suggested turning SAARC into a ”people’s movement”. He stressed the importance of involving the people increasingly in every facet of our activities The Association is designed to promote self-reliance and cun’r;btue to mutual trust, understanding and appreciation of one another’s problems. A welcome aspect of SAARC is that it is , not meant to be static. The Council of Ministers, stipulated , under the charter, will formulate policies of the Association, , review the progress of cooperation, decide on new areas of i cooperation and establish additional mechanisms under the i •Association as and when found necessary. The charter specifically excludes bilateral and troublesome issues from its scope, although the SAARC Chairman and Bangladesh President, a