Ppli3A96b terrorism and Counter-terrorism

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Terrorism and Counter-terrorism

Module Guide: 2014/2015

Level: Undergraduate, Third Year

Credit Value: 30

Convener: Dr. Lee Jarvis

School: Politics, Philosophy, Language and Communication Studies, UEA

Module Description

Although the term terrorism goes back to the French revolution, it was rarely employed until the 1970s. Contrast this with today when terrorism, it seems, is everywhere we look: in foreign policy decisions, military interventions, homeland security measures, legal frameworks, newspaper headlines, speeches and sermons, films and video games, and, of course, university modules such as this. In this module, we engage in a critical exploration of terrorism, counter-terrorism, and the academic field of terrorism research. We will begin by exploring the history of terrorism, and engage in debates around the definition and character of terrorist violence. Is it possible, necessary, or even desirable to separate terrorism from other forms of violence, for instance? The module will then introduce different perspectives on the causes, types and threat of non-state terrorism. This leads into an examination of a range of strategies for countering terrorism, and their political and normative implications. The module finishes by exploring the emergence and contribution of critical terrorism studies, examining issues including state terrorism, gender and terrorism and cultural representations or discourses of terrorism.

Module Aims

Knowledge and Understanding

Through this module, students will gain knowledge and understanding of:

• Key ontological, epistemological, normative and empirical debates around terrorism and counter-terrorism.

• Competing attempts to define terrorism within academic and political debate.

• Different attempts to explain terrorist violence by appeal to psychological, social, cultural, religious, political and other dynamics.

• Contemporary and historical case studies of terrorist violence.

• How terrorism is constructed or represented across social sites including the mass media, cultural practices, political debate, and public discourses.

• Factors, influences and actors that drive counter-terrorism policy.

• Different perspectives on the status of ‘terrorism studies’ as an academic discipline.
Intellectual Skills

As a result of participating in the module, students will be able to:

• Evaluate the extent to which terrorism represents a security threat to different actors and communities within the global system.

• Locate contemporary terrorist violence within and against historical trends.

• Engage with normative debates relating to terrorism and counter-terrorism, including issues such as liberal democratic torture, and consequentialist defences of terrorist violence.

• Select and apply appropriate conceptual tools for the analysis of relevant issues

• Analyse a wide range of relevant information and evidence.
Practical Skills

During the module students will further develop and demonstrate a range of practical skills, including the ability to:

• Analyse relevant primary and secondary sources

• Present findings in a variety of means.

• Discuss potentially controversial issues within a group environment.

• Produce appropriate academic work in a variety of media.

Feedback and Assessment

The module is assessed in two parts:

  • A 3000 word essay due in no later than 15:00 on Thursday of week 9. This is worth 50% of the total module mark. The essay must be selected from one of the questions at the bottom of this module guide and submitted via the Hub.

  • A written examination to be held during the examination period at the end of the module. This is worth 50% of the module.

Your essay will:

  • Be appropriately structured and each section in your essay should logically follow from the section before and lead to the next section.

  • Contain the title, in the form of your chosen question, selected from the list below.

  • Demonstrate evidence that you have understood the relevant academic literature, and show how your arguments have developed from the appropriate scholarly sources (as opposed to assertion)

  • Critically reflect on how this essay addresses concerns we have investigated throughout the module. Remember that an essay contains an argument; it does not simply describe (though that is often an essential component too).

  • Contain appropriate academic referencing and a bibliography.

  • Take into consideration all the feedback that you have received on the formative assignment.

  • Be word processed in font size 12, with double line spacing and page numbers. It is essential that your essay is well written and carefully proof-read. If your first language is not English and you struggle with writing, please seek advice for the Dean of Students Office.

  • Include an accurate word count.

  • Draw on material from more than one week, for it to be a very strong piece of work

Good references on how to write an essay are manifold, but include:

  • http://www.monash.edu.au/lls/llonline/writing/general/essay/index.xml

  • http://cms.unimelb.edu.au/studentservices/asu/writing/essay

  • http://www.fas.harvard.edu/~wricntr/documents/Begin.html

  • http://openlearn.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=398972

  • http://www.reading.ac.uk/internal/studyadvice/StudyResources/Essays/sta-planningessay.aspx

The Dean of Students Office also provides excellent support for students in their essay writing and preparation. I encourage you to make use of their expertise.

Feedback is available through the following means:

  • I will provide written feedback (via email) on all essay plans - not drafts - emailed to me by the deadline of 15:00 on Thursday of week 7. Essay plans must not exceed one side of A4 and do not go via the Hub.

  • A dedicated ‘speedback’ session in Week 8 which will involve rapid review of any final issues/problems prior to submission. This is scheduled in the module timetable.

  • An essay feedback workshop exploring common issues or outstanding problems following return of your coursework. This is again scheduled in the timetable.

  • Oral feedback and discussion in person organised during my office hours.

Timetable and seminar organisation

This module is taught through a combination of lectures and seminars. Lectures will focus on core themes and debates surrounding terrorism and counter-terrorism. Powerpoint slides will be made available via blackboard.

  • Lecture 1: Tuesday 9.00-9.50 (weeks 1-12) - all to attend

  • Lecture 2: Tuesday 10.00-10.50 (weeks 1-12) - all to attend

  • Seminar Group A Tuesday 14.10-15.00

  • Seminar Group B Tuesday 17.10-18.00

Seminars will be organised around the discussion of study guides. These will focus on one terrorist group - chosen by the presenter from the list below - as a way of illustrating and expanding on themes covered in the lecture. All students must produce a study guide for one seminar of the module, and bring copies of this for other members of the seminar group. The study guide should be a 1-2 page document (maximum) that provides a concise, but informative, introduction to one or more of the ‘terrorist’ groups listed in the module overview table below. The study guide should contain three sections:

  • Section 1: Four to five bullet points containing brief descriptive information about the group (e.g. when active, where active, key figures, main ideas, attacks).

  • Section 2: Two or three citations referring to the group taken from academic sources (1 paragraph maximum per citation) that are interesting or important for understanding the group.

  • Section 3: Three bullet points in which the group is used to explore or highlight themes from that week’s lectures.

When it is your turn, you will spend 10 minutes at the start of the seminar discussing your guide, outlining - rather than reading out from:

  • Why you have chosen this group(s), and why it might be interesting or important.

  • What the relevant academic literature says about the group, and why you have chosen the citations for your study guide.

  • How this group might illustrate the themes from either of that week’s lecture.

Your discussion of your study guide is not a formal presentation. Nor should you be reading out from the document verbatim. Rather, you should try to ‘speak to’ your guide: explaining why the document they have in front of them is important. If you would like to choose a group not listed below, you must confirm this with me beforehand.

Module overview


Lecture 1

Lecture 2



Course overview

What is terrorism?

Course introduction and organisation


Terrorism studies

Critical Terrorism Studies



Causes of terrorism


Aryan Brothers/New Order/UNITA/Russian National Unity/Earth Liberation Front/Symbionese Liberation Army


Types of terrorism

Religious terrorism

Boko Haram/ Hezbollah/Hamas/Assassins/Army of God


Terrorism threat

WMD terrorism

Aum Shinrikyo


State terrorism


Lord’s Resistance Army/UDF/UVA/Western Foreign Policy/Operation Condor/Stuxnet


No lecture

No lecture

No seminar



‘Lone wolf’ terrorism

Anders Breivik/ Ted Kaczynski/Timothy McVeigh


Counter-terrorism strategies

Impacts of counterterrorism



Cultural Constructions of Terrorism

Gender and Terrorism

Red Army Faction/Red Brigades/LTTE/PFLP/Wafa Idris


War on Terror: Bush

Essay feedback

Al Qaeda


War on Terror: Obama

Exam Revision

Islamic State/Al-shabaab


No single textbook covers all of the material covered in this module, but the following is the most comprehensive for our purposes, containing core readings for most weeks (detailed below):

  • Jackson, R. et al. (2011) Terrorism: A Critical Introduction (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan).

The book shares the module’s emphasis on critical perspectives toward terrorist violence. As a textbook, it should be used as a platform from which to begin your reading each week, highlighting key issues, debates and ideas to be explored in each session. As an introductory guide, it is not a substitute for engaging with the original scholarship you will find detailed in this module guide, in the library, and in the journals noted below.

The Library has excellent holdings in the area of terrorism and IR and your Faculty Librarian Sarah Elsegood is available for booked 1:1 appointments for further help with using the Library’s resources and databases. A subject guide to politics is also available at:  https://portal.uea.ac.uk/library/subject-guides/politics. Again, I strongly recommend that you make use of her expertise.
Useful introductions to, or overviews of, terrorism include the following (there are many others besides these):

  • Ankersen, C. (eds.) (2007) Understanding Global Terror. (Cambridge: Polity) [A collection of contemporary essays including regional case studies].

  • Barker, J. (2003) The No-Nonsense Guide to Terrorism. (Oxford: New Internationalist/Verso Books).

  • Booth, K. & Dunne, T. (eds.) (2002) Worlds in Collision: Terror and the Future of Global Order. (Basingstoke: Palgrave). [Not an introduction, but a collection of essays by high-profile IR scholars and others].

  • Harmon, C. (2008) Terrorism Today (London: Routledge).

  • Horgan, J. & Braddock, K. (eds.) (2011) Terrorism Studies: A Reader. London: Routledge. [A useful collection of prominent articles on terrorism].

  • Hoffman, B. (2006) Inside Terrorism. Columbia University Press.

  • Jackson, R. & Sinclair, J. (eds.) (2012) Contemporary Debates on Terrorism. London: Routledge [A very useful collection of short essays structured around yes/no debates relating to key issues covered on the module].

  • Jarvis, L. & Lister, M. (eds.) (2015) Critical Perspectives on Counter-terrorism. Abingdon: Routledge. [A recent collection of empirical and theoretical chapters on different aspects of counter-terrorism].

  • Kennedy-Pipe, C., G. Clubb & S. Mabon (eds.) (2015) Terrorism and Political Violence: The Evolution of Contemporary Insecurity. London: Sage.

  • Lutz, B. & Lutz, J. (2008) Global Terrorism. London: Routledge. [Multiple editions of this have now been published].

  • Martin, G. (2003) Understanding Terrorism: Challenges, Perspectives, and Issues (London: Sage). [Multiple editions of this book have also now been published].

  • Schmid, A. P., & Jongman, A. J. (1988). Political terrorism: A new guide to actors, authors, concepts, databases, theories and literature. New Brunswick: Transaction Books. [Not really an introduction but a particularly detailed resource on terrorist violence - multiple editions are available].

  • Schmid, A. P. (ed.) (2011) The Routledge Handbook of Terrorism Research. Abingdon: Routledge [includes up to date surveys, lists of definitions and bibliographies - a very useful resource].

  • Whittaker, D. (ed.) (2003) The Terrorism Reader. London: Routledge (second edition). [A Reader of essays on terrorism, including case studies].

A useful recent journal article referencing web resources including datasets on terrorism is:

Jongman, B. (2011) 'Internet Websites and Links for (Counter-)Terrorism Research', Perspectives on Terrorism 5(1). Available online at:


Also worth exploring is a recent review article listing the top 150 books on terrorism and counter-terrorism:

Sinai, J. (2012) ‘Terrorism Bookshelf: Top 150 Books on Terrorism and Counter-terrorism’, Perspectives on Terrorism 6(2). Available online at:

In addition, the following academic journals contain many examples of terrorism research and will be an invaluable resource throughout this module:

Terrorism Studies:

Terrorism and Political Violence; Studies in Conflict and Terrorism; Critical Studies on Terrorism; Perspectives on Terrorism [an online journal].

Security Studies:

International Security, Security Dialogue, Security Studies, Survival, Journal of Strategic Studies, Contemporary Security Policy.

International Relations:

Review of International Studies, Millennium: Journal of International Studies, International Studies Quarterly, International Affairs, British Journal of Politics and International Relations, International Feminist Journal of Politics, European Journal of International Relations, International Studies Review, International Political Sociology, Foreign Affairs, Foreign Policy, Third World Quarterly, Journal of Peace Research.

Module Reading List

Please note that this reading list is not exhaustive. You are expected to undertake your own research to complement the sources listed below, using the above journals and your research skills to assist you.

What is Terrorism?

Core reading:

Jackson et al (2011): Chapter 5

Additional reading:

Abrahms, M. (2008) 'What Terrorists Really Want: Terrorist Motives and Counter-Terrorist Strategy', International Security 32(4).

Abrahms, M. 'Why Terrorism Does Not Work', International Security 31(2).

Armborst, A. (2010) 'Modelling Terrorism and Political Violence', International Relations 24(4).

Booth, K. & Dunne, T. (2011) Terror in our time: 9/11 Plus Ten. London: Routledge.

Chomsky, N. (1991) ‘International Terrorism: Image and Reality’, in George, A. (ed.) Western State Terrorism. Cambridge: Polity.

Cronin, A. (2006) 'How Terrorism Ends: The Decline and Demise of Terrorist Groups', International Security 31(1).

Freedman, L. (2007) 'Terrorism as a Strategy', Government and Opposition 42(3).

Gibbs, J. (1989) 'Conceptualization of Terrorism', American Sociological Review 54(3).

Goodin, R. (2006) What’s Wrong With Terrorism? Cambridge: Polity.

Goodwin, J. 'A Theory of Categorical Terrorism' Social Forces 84(4).

Jackson, R. & Sinclair, J. (eds.) (2012) Contemporary Debates on Terrorism. London: Routledge. Chapter 1: Paul Wilkinson and Dominic Bryan.

Lutz, B. & Lutz, J. (2008) Global Terrorism (second edition). (London: Routledge). Chapter Two.

Martin, G. (2003) Understanding Terrorism: Challenges, Perspectives, and Issues (London: Sage).

Merari, A. (1993) ‘Terrorism as a Strategy of Insurgency’, Terrorism & Political Violence 5(4): 213-251.

Miesels, T. (2005) ‘The Trouble with Terror: The Apologetics of Terrorism – A Refutation’, Terrorism & Political Violence 18(3): 465-483.

Nacos, B. (2002) Mass-Mediated Terrorism: The Central Role of the Media in Terrorism and Counterterrorism. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.

Paletz, D. & Schmid, A. (eds) (1992) Terrorism and the Media. London: Sage.

Primoratz, L. (ed.) (2004) Terrorism: The Philosophical Issues. Basingstoke: Palgrave.

Rapin, A. (2009) 'Does Terrorism Cause Terror', Critical Studies on Terrorism 2(2)

Schmid, A. et al (1982) Violence as Communication: Insurgent Terrorism and the Western News Media. London: Sage.

Schmid, A. P., & Jongman, A. J. (1988). Political terrorism: A new guide to actors, authors, concepts, databases, theories and literature. New Brunswick: Transaction Books.

Schmid, A. (2004) ‘Frameworks for Conceptualising Terrorism’, Terrorism & Political Violence 16(2).

Smith, S. (2004) ‘Singing Our World into Existence: International Relations Theory and September 11’, International Studies Quarterly 48: 499-515.

Tilly, C. (2004) ‘Terror, Terrorism, Terrorists’, Sociological Theory 22(1): 5-13.

Weinberg, L. et al (2004) ‘The Challenges of Conceptualising Terrorism’, Terrorism and Political Violence 16(4).

Williams, P. (2008) ‘Security Studies, 9/11 and the Long War’, in Bellamy, A. et al (eds.) Security and the War on Terror. London: Routledge.

Terrorism Studies

Core reading:

Jackson et al (2011): Introduction and Chapter 1

Additional reading

Burnett, J. & Whyte, D. (2005) ‘Embedded Expertise and the New Terrorism’, Journal for Crime, Conflict and the Media 1(4): 1-18.

Crenshaw, M. (2000) 'The Psychology of Terrorism: An Agenda for the 21st Century', Political Psychology 21(2) [available via Google Scholar].

George, A. (ed.) (1991) ‘The Discipline of Terrorology’, in George, A. (ed.) Western State Terrorism. Cambridge: Polity.

Gordon, A. (2010) 'Can Terrorism Become a Scientific Discipline? A Diagnostic Study', Critical Studies on Terrorism 3(3) [available free via journal website].

Herman, E. & O’Sullivan, G. (1989) The ‘Terrorism’ Industry: The Experts and Institutions that Shape Our View of Terror. New York: Pantheon.

Jackson, R. (2009) ‘The Study of Political Terrorism after 11 September 2001: Problems, Challenges and Future Developments', Political Studies Review 7(2).

Ranstorp, M. (2009) ‘Mapping Terrorism Studies After 9/11: An Academic Field of Old Problems and New Prospects’, in Richard Jackson et al. (eds.) Critical Terrorism Studies: A New Research Agenda. London: Routledge.

Ranstorp, M. (ed.) (2006) Mapping Terrorism Research: State of the Art, Gaps and Future Direction. London: Routledge.

Raphael, S. (2009) ‘In the Service of Power: Terrorism Studies and US Intervention in the Global South’, in Richard Jackson et al. (eds.) Critical Terrorism Studies: A New Research Agenda. London: Routledge.

Sageman, M. (2011) ‘The Stagnation in Terrorism Research’, Terrorism & Political Violence 26(4). [See also the responses to this article in the same issue].

Silke, A. (2001) 'The Devil You Know: Continuing Problems with Research on Terrorism', Terrorism and Political Violence 13(4).

Silke, A. (2009) ‘Contemporary Terrorism Studies: Issues in Research’, in Richard Jackson et al. (eds.) Critical Terrorism Studies: A New Research Agenda. London: Routledge.

Silke, A. (ed.) (2004) Research on Terrorism: Trends, Achievements and Failures. London: Frank Cass.

Stampnitzky, L. (2010) 'Disciplining an Unruly Field: Terrorism Experts and Theories of Scientific/Intellectual Production', Qualitative Sociology 34(1).

Critical Terrorism Studies

Core reading:

Jackson et al (2011): Chapter 2

Additional reading:

Baker-Beall, C., Heath-Kelly, C. & Jarvis, L. (2014) ‘Editors’ Introduction: Critical Terrorism Studies: Practice, Limits, Experience‘, in Critical Studies on Terrorism 7(1): pp. 1-10.

Breen Smyth, M. (2009) ‘Subjectivities, “Suspect Communities”, Governments and the Ethics of Research on Terrorism’, in Jackson, R. et al. (eds.) Critical Terrorism Studies: A New Research Agenda. London: Routledge.

Chomsky, N. (2003) Power and Terror: Post-9/11 Talks and Interviews. New York, NY: Seven Stories.

Dixit, Priya, and Jacob, S. (2011) ‘A Response to Jones and Smith: It’s Not as Bad as it Seems; Or, Five Ways to Move Critical Terrorism Studies Forward’, Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 34(6): 501-511.

Gunning, J. (2007) ‘A Case for Critical Terrorism Studies?’, Government and Opposition 42(3): 363-393.

Heath-Kelly, C. (2010) ‘Critical Terrorism Studies, Critical theory and the “Naturalistic Fallacy”’, Security Dialogue 41(3): 235-54.

Hulsse, R., & Spencer, A. (2008) ‘The metaphor of terror: terrorism studies and the constructivist turn’, Security Dialogue 39(6): 571-92.

Jackson, R. (2007) 'The Core Commitments of Critical Terrorism Studies', European Political Science 6(3) [available via google scholar].

Jackson, R. (2009) ‘Knowledge, Power and Politics in the Study of Political Terrorism’ in, Jackson, R. et al. (eds) Critical Terrorism Studies: A New Research Agenda. (London: Routledge).

Jackson, R. et al. (2009) ‘Critical Terrorism Studies: Framing a New Research Agenda’, in Richard Jackson et al. (eds.) Critical Terrorism Studies: A New Research Agenda. London: Routledge.

Jarvis, L. (2009) ‘The Spaces and Faces of Critical Terrorism Studies’, Security Dialogue 40(1): 5-27.

Jones, D. & Smith, M. (2009) 'We're all Terrorists Now: Critical or Hypocritical Studies "on" Terrorism', Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 32(4).

Joseph, J. (2009) ‘Critical of What? Terrorism and its Study’, International Relations 23(1): 93-98.

McDonald, M. (2009) ‘Emancipation and Critical Terrorism Studies’, in Richard Jackson et al. (eds.) Critical Terrorism Studies: A New Research Agenda. London: Routledge.

Miller, D. & Mills, T. (2009) 'The Terror Experts and the Mainstream Media: The Expert Nexus and its Dominance in The News Media' Critical Studies on Terrorism 2(3) [available free via journal website].

Sluka, J. (2009) ‘The Contribution of Anthropology to Critical Terrorism Studies’, in Richard Jackson et al. (eds.) Critical Terrorism Studies: A New Research Agenda. London: Routledge.

Stohl, M. (2008) 'Old Myths, New Fantasies and the Enduring Realities of Terrorism', Critical Studies on Terrorism 1(1) [available free via journal website].

Stokes, D. (2009) ‘Ideas and Avocados: Ontologising Critical Terrorism Studies’, International Relations 23(1): 85-92.

Stump, J. & Dixit, P. (2012) Critical Terrorism Studies: An Introduction to Research Methods. Abingdon: Routledge.

Toros, H. & Gunning, J. (2009) ‘Exploring a Critical Theory Approach to Terrorism Studies’, in Richard Jackson et al. (eds.) Critical Terrorism Studies: A New Research Agenda. Abingdon: Routledge.

Causes of Terrorism

Core reading:

Jackson et al 2011: Chapter 9

Additional Reading:

Barter, S. (2011) ‘Strong State, Smothered Society: Explaining Terrorist Violence in Thailand’s Deep South’, Terrorism & Political Violence 23(2).

Crenshaw, M. (1981) ‘The Causes of Terrorism’, Comparative Politics 13(4): 379-399.

Crenshaw, M. (2010) Explaining Terrorism: Causes, Processes and Consequences. London: Routledge.

Cronin, A. (2003) 'Behind the Curve: Globalization and International Terrorism', International Security 27(3).

Durodie, B. (2007) 'Fear and Terror in a Post-Political Age', Government and Opposition 42(3).

Gerges, F. (2011) The Rise and Fall of al Qaeda. Oxford: OUP.

Gerges, F. (2005) The Far Enemy: Why Jihad Went Global. Oxford: OUP.

Gunning, J. (2009) ‘Social Movement Theory and the Study of Terrorism’, in Richard Jackson et al. (eds.) Critical Terrorism Studies: A New Research Agenda. London: Routledge.

Hoffman, B. (1999) Inside Terrorism. London: Indigo.

Hoffman, B. (2002) 'Rethinking Terrorism and Counter-terrorism Since 9/11', Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 25.

Jackson, R. & Sinclair, J. (eds.) (2012) Contemporary Debates on Terrorism. London: Routledge. Chapters 7 and 8 (Contributions by Dipak Gupta, L. Rowell Huesmann, Graham R. Husesmann, A. Munroe, F. Moghaddam and J. Goodwin).

Johnston, H. (2009) 'Ritual, Strategy and Deep Culture in the Chechen National Movement', Critical Studies on Terrorism 1(3) [available free on journal website].

Laqueur, W. (2004) No End to War: Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century. New York, NY: Continuum.

McBride, M. (2011) ‘The Logic of Terrorism: Existential Anxiety, The Search for Meaning and Terrorist Ideologies’, Terrorism and Political Violence 23(4).

Merari, A. et al (2010) 'Personality Characteristics of 'Self Martyrs'/'Suicide Bombers' and Organizers of Suicide Attacks', Terrorism and Political Violence 22(1).

Newman, E. (2006) 'Exploring the Root Causes of Terrorism', Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 29(8).

Piazza, J. (2006) ‘Rooted in Poverty? Terrorism, Poor Economic Development and Social Cleavages’, Terrorism & Political Violence 18(1).

Post, J. (2008) The Mind of the Terrorist: The Psychology of Terrorism From The IRA to al-Qaeda. Basingstoke: Palgrave.

Post, J. et al (2000) 'From Car Bombs to Logic Bombs: The Growing Threat From Information Terrorism', Terrorism and Political Violence 12(2) [available via Google scholar].

Post, J. et al (2003) 'The Terrorists in their Own Words: Interviews with 35 Incarcerated Middle Eastern Terrorists', Terrorism and Political Violence 15(1) [available via Google scholar].

Richardson, L. (2006) What Terrorists Want: Understanding the Terrorist Threat. London: John Murray.

Robison, K. et al (2006) 'Ideologies of Violence: The Social Origins of Islamist and Leftist Transnational Terrorism, Social Forces 84(4).

Ross, J. (1993) 'Structural Causes of Oppositional Political Terrorism: Towards a Causal Model', Journal of Peace Research 30(3).

Scheuer, M. (2011) Osama Bin Laden. Oxford: OUP.

Schmid, A. (2005) 'Root Causes of Terrorism: Some Conceptual Notes, a Set of Indicators and a Model', Democracy and Security 1.

Wight, C. (2009) ‘Theorising Terrorism: The State, Structure and History', International Relations 23(1).


Core reading:

Kundnani, A. (2012) ‘Radicalisation: the journey of a concept’, Race & Class 54(2): 3-25 or see the reproduced version of this chapter in Baker-Beall et al (eds.) (2015) Counter-radicalisation: Critical Perspectives. Abingdon: Routledge, pp.14-35.

Additional reading:

Abbas, T. (2012) ‘The symbiotic relationship between Islamophobia and radicalisation’, Critical Studies on Terrorism, 5(3): 345-358.

Baker-Beall et al (eds.) (2015) Counter-radicalisation: Critical Perspectives. Abingdon: Routledge.

Coolsaet, R. (Ed.). Jihadi terrorism and the radicalization challenge: European and American Experiences. Aldershot: Ashgate.

Dalgaard-Nielsen, A. (2010). Violent radicalization in Europe: What we know and what we do not know. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 33: 797-814.

Dawson, L. L. (2010) ‘The study of new religious movements and the radicalization of home-grown terrorists: Opening a dialogue’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 22: 1-21.

Githens-Mazer, J. (2008) ‘Islamic radicalisation among North Africans in Britain’, The British Journal of Politics & International Relations 10(4): 550-570.

Heath-Kelly, C. (2013) ‘Counter-Terrorism and the Counterfactual: Producing the ‘Radicalisation’Discourse and the UK PREVENT Strategy’, The British Journal of Politics & International Relations, 15(3), 394-415.

Hofmann, D. C., & Schmid, A. P. (2012) ‘Selected Literature on (i) Radicalization and Recruitment,(ii) De-Radicalization and Dis-Engagement, and (iii) Counter-Radicalization and Countering Violent Extremism’ Perspectives on Terrorism 6(6).

Horgan, J. (2009) Walking Away from Terrorism. London: Routledge.

Hörnqvist, M. and Flyghed, J. (2012) ‘Exclusion or culture? The rise and the ambiguity of the radicalisation debate’, Critical Studies on Terrorism 5(3): 319-334.

King, M. & Taylor, D. (2011) ‘The Radicalisation of Homegrown Jihadists: A Review of Theoretical Models and Social Psychological Evidence’, Terrorism and Political Violence 23(4).

King, M., & Taylor, D. M. (2011) ‘The radicalization of homegrown jihadists: A review of theoretical models and social-psychological evidence’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 23, 602-622.

Kundnani, A. (2014). The Muslims are Coming!: Islamophobia, Extremism, and the Domestic War on Terror. London: Verso Books.

Lindekilde, L. (2012) ‘Introduction: assessing the effectiveness of counter-radicalisation policies in northwestern Europe’, Critical Studies on Terrorism 5(3): 335-334.

Lynch, O. (2013) ‘British Muslim youth: radicalisation, terrorism and the construction of the “other”’, Critical Studies on Terrorism, 6(2): 241-261.

Ranstorp, M. (2009) Understanding Violent Radicalisation. London: Routledge.

Sageman, M. (2004) Understanding Terror Networks. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Sageman, M. (2008) Leaderless Jihad: Terror Networks in the Twenty-First Century. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Types of Terrorism

Core Reading:

Jackson et al (2011): Chapter 7

Additional Reading:

Burke, J. (2004) Al-Qaeda: The True Story of Radical Islam. Harmondsorth: Penguin.

Byman, D. (2003) ‘Al-Qaeda as an Adversary: Do We Understand Our Enemy?’, World Politics 56(1): 139-163.

Guelke, A. (2008) The New Age of Terrorism and the International Political System. London: IB Tauris.

Jackson, R. & Sinclair, J. (eds.) (2012) Contemporary Debates on Terrorism. London: Routledge. Chapter 2 (Contributions by A. Bolanos, Duyvesteyn and Malkki).

Kennedy, J. & Weimann, M. (2011) ‘The Strength of Weak Terrorist Ties’, Terrorism & Political Violence 23(2).

Leader, S. H., & Probst, P. (2003). The earth liberation front and environmental terrorism.

Lutz, B. & Lutz, J. (2008) Global Terrorism (second edition). (London: Routledge) Chapters 5-9.

Lynch, O. and Ryder, C. (2012) ‘Deadliness, organisational change and suicide attacks: understanding the assumptions inherent in the use of the term ‘new terrorism’, Critical Studies on Terrorism 5(2): 257-275.

Mishal, S. et al (2005) 'Al Qaeda as a Dune Organization: Toward a Typology of Islamic Terrorist Organizations', Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 28.

Moghadam, A. (2003) 'Palestinian Suicide Terrorism in the Second Intifada: Motivations and Organizational Aspects', Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 26 [available via Google Scholar].

Monaghan, R. (2000) 'Single Issue Terrorism: A Neglected Phenomenon?', Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 23 [available via Google Scholar].

Morgan, M. (2004) ‘The Origins of the New Terrorism’, Parameters XXXIV(1): 29-43.

Mozaffari, M. (1988) 'The New Era of Terrorism: Approaches and Typologies', Cooperation and Conflict 23(2).

Nesser, P. (2011) ‘Ideologies of Jihad in Europe’, Terrorism and Political Violence 23(2).

Neumann, P. (2009) Old and New Terrorism: Late Modernity, Globalization and the Transformation of Political Violence. Cambridge: Polity.

Rapoport, D. (2002) 'The Four Waves of Rebel Terror and September 11', Anthropoetics 8(1).

Schmid, A. P., & Jongman, A. J. (1988). Political terrorism: A new guide to actors, authors, concepts, databases, theories and literature. New Brunswick: Transaction Books.

Spencer, A. (2006) ‘Questioning the Concept of “New Terrorism”’, Peace, Conflict & Development 8: 1-33.

Tosini, D. (2007) 'Sociology of Terrorism and Counterterrorism: A Social Science Understanding of Terrorist Threat' Sociology Compass 1(2).

Religious Terrorism

Core reading:

Jackson, R. and Gunning, J. (2011) ‘What’s so religious about religious terrorism?’, Critical Studies on Terrorism 4(3).

Additional reading

Antúnez, J. C., & Tellidis, I. (2013) ‘The power of words: the deficient terminology surrounding Islam-related terrorism’, Critical Studies on Terrorism 6(1): 118-139.

Hasenclever, A. & Rittberger, V. (2000) ‘Does Religion Make a Difference? Theoretical Approaches to the Impact of Faith on Political Conflict’, Millennium: Journal of International Studies 29(3): 641-674.

Hellmich, C. (2014) ‘How Islamic is al-Qaeda? The politics of Pan-Islam and the challenge of modernisation’, Critical Studies on Terrorism 7(2): 241-256.

Hoffman, B. (1995) ‘“Holy terror”: the implications of terrorism motivated by a religious imperative’, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 18(4): 271-284.

Juergensmeyer, M. (1997) ‘Terror mandated by God’, Terrorism and Political Violence, 9(2): 16-23.

Pratt, D. (2010) ‘Religion and Terrorism: Christian Fundamentalism and Extremism’, Terrorism and Political Violence 22(3).

Ranstorp, M. (1995) ‘Terrorism in the Name of Religion’, Journal of International Affairs 50(1): 41-62.

Rapoport, D. (1984) ‘Fear and Trembling: Terrorism in Three Religious Traditions’, American Political Science Review 78(3): 658-677.

Schbley, A. (2003) ‘Defining religious terrorism: A causal and anthological profile’, Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 26(2): 105-134.

Sedgwick, M. (2004) 'Al Qaeda and the Nature of Religious Terrorism', Terrorism & Political Violence 16(4).

Turner, J. (2010) From Cottage Industry to International Organisation: The Evolution of Salafi-Jihadism and the Emergence of the Al Qaeda Ideology’, Terrorism & Political Violence 22(4).

Terrorism Threat

Core Reading:

Jackson et al (2011): Chapter 6

Additional Reading:

Crenshaw, M. (2007) 'Explaining Suicide Terrorism: A Review Essay', Security Studies 16(1): 133-162.

Dershowitz, A. (2002) Why Terrorism Works: Understanding the Threat, Responding to the Challenge. London: Yale University Press.

Goldman, O. (2010) ‘The Globalisation of Terror Attacks’, Terrorism & Political Violence 23(1).

Horgan, J. & Morrison, J. (2011) ‘Here to Stay? The Rising Threat of Violent Dissident Republicanism in Northern Ireland’, Terrorism and Political Violence 23(4).

Jackson, R. & Sinclair, J. (eds.) (2012) Contemporary Debates on Terrorism. London: Routledge. Chapters 4, 5 and 6 (Contributions by Lutz & Lutz, Lustick, Carpintero-Santamaria, Mueller, Cozzens & Ranstorp, and Jarvis).

Jones, D. & Smith, M. (2007) 'The Commentariat and Discourse Failure: Language and Atrocity in Cool Britannia', International Affairs 82(6).

Kassimeris, G. (ed.) (2007) Playing Politics with Terrorism: A User’s Guide. New York: Columbia University Press.

LaFree, G. et al (2009) 'Trajectories of Terrorism: Attack Patterns of Foreign Groups that have targeted the United States, 1970-2004', Criminology & Public Policy 8(3) [available via Google scholar].

Mueller, J. (2005) ‘Six Rather Unusual Propositions about “Terrorism” and “Response”’, Terrorism & Political Violence 17: 487-505, 523-528.

Mueller, J. (2006). Overblown: How politicians and the terrorism industry inflate national security threats, and why we believe them. New York: Free Press.

Mueller, J. (2009) Atomic Obsession: Nuclear Alarmism from Hiroshima to Al-Qaeda. Oxford: OUP.

Mullins, S. (2011) ‘Islamist Terrorism and Australia: An Empirical Examination of the “Home Grown” Threat’, Terrorism and Political Violence 23(2).

Pape, R. (2003) 'The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism', American Political Science Review 97(3): 343-361.

Robison, K. (2009) ‘Terror's True Nightmare? Reevaluating the Consequences of Terrorism on Democratic Governance’, Terrorism & Political Violence 22(1).

Scraton, P. (ed.) (2002) Beyond September 11: An Anthology of Dissent. London: Pluto.

Walt, S. (2012) ‘What Terrorist Threat?’ Available online at: http://walt.foreignpolicy.com/posts/2012/08/13/what_terrorist_threat#.UCwlF7Akpb9.twitter

Whittaker, D. (2002) Terrorism: Understanding the Global Threat. London: Longman.

WMD Terrorism

Core reading:

Parachini, J. (2003). Putting WMD terrorism into perspective. Washington Quarterly, 26(4).

Additional reading:

Auerswald, D. P. (2006). Deterring Nonstate WMD Attacks. Political Science Quarterly, 121(4).

Byman, D. (2007). Do Counterproliferation and Counterterrorism Go Together?. Political Science Quarterly, 122(1).

Cameron, G. (2000) ‘WMD terrorism in the United States: the threat and possible countermeasures’, The Nonproliferation Review 7(1): 162-179.

Ellis, P. D. (2014). Lone Wolf Terrorism and Weapons of Mass Destruction: An Examination of Capabilities and Countermeasures. Terrorism and Political Violence, 26(1).

Enemark, C. (2006). Biological attacks and the non-state actor: A threat assessment. Intelligence and National Security, 21(6).

Hoffman, B. (1997) 'Terrorism and WMD: Some Preliminary Hypotheses', The Non-Proliferation Review. [available via google scholar].

Laqueur, W. (1999) The New Terrorism: Fanaticism and the Arms of Mass Destruction. Oxford: OUP.

Leitenberg, M. (2005). Assessing the biological weapons and bioterrorism threat. ARMY WAR COLL STRATEGIC STUDIES INST CARLISLE BARRACKS PA. Available online via: http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a442204.pdf

Mueller, J. (2006). Overblown: How politicians and the terrorism industry inflate national security threats, and why we believe them. New York: Free Press.

Mueller, J. (2009). The atomic terrorist?. Terrorizing Ourselves: Why US Counterterrorism Policy Is Failing and How to Fix It, 139 [Available online via google scholar].

O’Neil, A. (2003) ‘Terrorist Use of Weapons of Mass Destruction: How Serious is the Threat?’, Australian Journal of International Affairs 57(1): 99-112.

Rosand, E. (2009). Combating WMD Terrorism: The Short-Sighted US-led Multilateral Response. The International Spectator, 44(1).

Stern, J. (1999). The prospect of domestic bioterrorism. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(4).

State Terrorism

Core reading:

Jackson et al (2011): Chapter 8

Additional reading:

Bailes, J. & Aksan, C. (eds.) Weapon of the Strong: Conversations on US State Terrorism. London: Pluto.

Blakeley, R. (2009) State Terrorism and Neoliberalism: The North in the South. London: Routledge.

Blakeley, R. (2007). Bringing the state back into terrorism studies. European political science, 6(3).

Blakeley, R. (2008). The elephant in the room: a response to John Horganand Michael J. Boyle. Critical Studies on Terrorism 1(2).

Byman, D. (2005) Deadly Connections: States that Sponsor Terrorism. Cambridge: CUP.

Chomsky, N. (2002) Pirates and Emperors, Old and New: International Terrorism in the Real World. London: Pluto.

Claridge, D. (1996) 'State Terrorism: Applying a Definitional Model', Terrorism and Political Violence 8(3) [available via google scholar].

Garrett, S. (2004) 'Terror bombing of German cities in World War II', in Primoratz, L. (ed.) Terrorism: The Philosophical Issues. Basingstoke: Palgrave.

Jackson, R. & Sinclair, J. (eds.) (2012) Contemporary Debates on Terrorism. London: Routledge. Chapter 3 (Especially contributions by Stohl and Wight).

Jackson, R. et al (eds.) (2009) Contemporary State Terrorism: Theory and Cases. London: Routledge.

Jarvis, L. & Lister, M. (2014) ‘State Terrorism Research and Critical Terrorism Studies: An Assessment‘, in Critical Studies on Terrorism 7(1): pp. 43-61.

Lackey, D. (2004) 'The evolution of the modern terrorist state: area bombing and nuclear deterrence ', in Primoratz, L. (ed.) Terrorism: The Philosophical Issues. Basingstoke: Palgrave.

Lutz, B. & Lutz, J. (2008) Global Terrorism (second edition). (London: Routledge) Chapters 4 & 10.

Primoratz, L. (2004) 'State terrorism and counter-terrorism', in Primoratz, L. (ed.) Terrorism: The Philosophical Issues. Basingstoke: Palgrave.

Stohl, M. (2006) ‘The State as Terrorist: Insights and Implications’, Democracy and Security 2(1): 1-25.

Stohl, M. (2008) 'The Global War on Terror and State Terrorism', Perspectives on Terrorism 2(9) [online journal].

Stokes, D. (2004) America’s Other War: Terrorizing Colombia. London: Zed.

Stokes, D. (2006) ‘“Iron Fists in Iron Gloves”: The Political Economy of US Terrorocracy Promotion in Colombia’, British Journal of Politics and International Relations 8(3): 368-387.

Core reading:

Jarvis, L. & Macdonald, S. (eds.) (forthcoming, online first) ‘What is Cyberterrorism? Findings from a Survey of Researchers’, Terrorism & Political Violence.

Additional reading:

Cavelty, M. (2007) ‘Cyber-terror - Looming Threat or Phantom Menace? The Framing of the US Cyber-Threat Debate’, Journal of Information Technology and Politics 4(1): 19-36.

Chen, T. et al (eds.) (2014) Cyberterrorism: Understanding, Assessment and Response. New York, NY: Springer.

Collin, B. C. (1997). The future of cyberterrorism: where the physical and virtual worlds converge. Crime & Justice International, 13(2): 15-18.

Conway, M. (2002). Reality bytes: Cyberterrorism and terrorist ‘use’of the Internet. First Monday, 7(11).

Conway, M. (2003). Cyberterrorism: the story so far. Journal of Information Warfare, 2(2), 33-42.

Conway, M. (2007) ‘Cyberterrorism: media myth or clear and present danger?, in Irwin, J. (ed.) War and Virtual War: The Challenges to Communities. Amsterdam: Rodopi, pp.79-95.

Conway, M. ‘Against Cyberterrorism: Why cyber-based Terrorist Attacks are Unlikely to Occur’, Viewpoints: Privacy and Security 54(2).

Debrix, F. (2001). Cyberterror and media-induced fears: the production of emergency culture. Strategies: Journal of Theory, Culture & Politics, 14(1), 149-168.

Embar-Seddon, A. (2002). Cyberterrorism Are We Under Siege?. American Behavioral Scientist, 45(6), 1033-1043.

Gordon, S., & Ford, R. (2002). Cyberterrorism?. Computers & Security, 21(7), 636-647.

Jarvis, L. & Macdonald, S. (2014) ‘Locating Cyberterrorism: How Terrorism Researchers Use and View the Cyber Lexicon’, Perspectives on Terrorism 8(2): pp. 52-65.

Jarvis, L., Macdonald, S. & Chen, T. (eds.) (Forthcoming, 2015) Terrorism Online: Politics, Law and Technology. Abingdon: Routledge

Jarvis, L., Macdonald, S. & Nouri, L. (2014) ‘The Cyberterrorism Threat: Findings From a Survey of Researchers’, in Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 37(1): pp. 68-90.

Pollitt, M. M. (1998) ‘Cyberterrorism—fact or fancy?’, Computer Fraud & Security, 1998(2), 8-10.

Vegh, S. (2002). Hacktivists or cyberterrorists? The changing media discourse on hacking. First Monday, 7(10).

Weimann, G. (2005). Cyberterrorism: The sum of all fears?. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 28(2), 129-149.

You may also be interested in reports and other material available via the Cyberterrorism Project: http://www.cyberterrorism-project.org/

Lone wolf terrorism

Core Reading

Spaaij, R., & Hamm, M. S. (2014). Key Issues and Research Agendas in Lone Wolf Terrorism. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, published online ahead of print.

Additional Readings

Baele, S. (2014) ‘Are terrorists “insane”? A critical analysis of mental health categories in lone terrorists’ trials’, Critical Studies on Terrorism 7(2): 257-276.

Becker, M. (2014). Explaining Lone Wolf Target Selection in the United States. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 37(11).

Garfinkel, S. (2003). Leaderless resistance today. First Monday 8(3).

Joosse, P. (2007). Leaderless resistance and ideological inclusion: The case of the Earth Liberation Front. Terrorism and Political Violence 19(3), 351-368.

Kaplan, J. (1997). Leaderless resistance. Terrorism and Political Violence 9(3), 80-95.

Kaplan, J., Lööw, H., & Malkki, L. (2014). Introduction to the Special Issue on Lone Wolf and Autonomous Cell Terrorism. Terrorism and Political Violence, 26(1), 1-12.

- This is the introduction to a Special Issue with a number of articles on ‘Lone Wolf terrorism’. It includes theoretical studies, case studies from the early twentieth century onwards, and reflection on the importance of technological developments.

Simon, J. (2013) Lone Wolf Terrorism: Understanding the Growing Threat. New York, NY: Prometheus Books.

Spaaij, R. (2010). The enigma of lone wolf terrorism: an assessment. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 33(9), 854-870.

Weimann, G. (2012). Lone wolves in cyberspace. Journal of Terrorism Research, 3(2).

Counter-terrorism strategies and impacts

Core Reading:

Jackson et al (2011): Chapter 10

Additional Reading:

Amoore, L. & De Goede, M. (eds.) (2008) Risk and the War on Terror. London: Routledge.

Aysha, E. (2005) ‘September 11 and the Middle East Failure of US “Soft Power”: Globalisation contra Americanisation in the “New” US Century’, International Relations 19(2): 193-210.

Bellamy, A. (2006) ‘No Pain, No Gain? Torture and Ethics in the War on Terror’, International Affairs 82(1): 121-148.

Bellamy, A. et al (eds.) (2008) Security and the War on Terror. London: Routledge.

Bryan, B. & Conybeare, J. (1994) ‘Retaliating Against Terrorism’, American Journal of Political Science 38(1): 196-210.

Crelinsten, R. (2009) Counterterrorism. Cambridge: Polity.

Cronin, A. (2011) How Terrorism Ends. Princeton University Press.

Davis, D. & Silver, B. (2004) ‘Public Opinion in the Context of the Terrorist Attacks on America’, American Journal of Political Science 48(1): 28-46.

de Graaf B. & de Graaf, B. (2010) 'Bringing Politics Back In: The Introduction of the 'Performative Power' of Counterterrorism', in Critical Studies on Terrorism 3(2).

de Graaf, B. & Malkki, L. (2010) ‘Killing it Softly? Explaining the Early Demise of Left-Wing Terrorism in the Netherlands’, Terrorism & Political Violence 22(4).

English, R. (2009) Terrorism: How to Respond. Oxford: OUP.

Erckson, C. (2007) ‘Counter-Terror Culture: Ambiguity, Subversion, or Legitimization’, Security Dialogue 38(2): 197-214.

Gearty, C. (2007) 'Terrorism and Human Rights', Government and Opposition 42(3).

Guelke, A. (2007) 'The Northern Ireland Peace Process and the War against Terrorism: Conflicting Conceptions?' Government and Opposition 42(3).

Jackson, R. & Sinclair, J. (eds.) (2012) Contemporary Debates on Terrorism. London: Routledge. Chapters 9, 10, 11 and 12.

Jarvis, L. & Lister, M. (2010) ‘Stakeholder Security: The New Western Way of Counter-Terrorism?’, Contemporary Politics 16(2): 173-188.

Jarvis, L. & Lister, M. (2013) ‘Disconnected Citizenship? The Impacts of Anti-terrorism Policy on Citizenship in the UK‘, in Political Studies 61(3): pp. 656-675.

Jarvis, L. & Lister, M. (2013) ‘Disconnection and Resistance: Anti-Terrorism and Citizenship in the UK‘, in Citizenship Studies 17(6-7): pp. 756-769.

Jarvis, L. & Lister, M. (eds.) (2015) Critical Perspectives on Counter-terrorism. Abingdon: Routledge.

Jarvis, L. & Lister, M. (Forthcoming, 2015) Anti-terrorism, Citizenship and Security. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Kydd, A. (2011) ‘Terrorism and Profiling’, Terrorism & Political Violence 23(3).

Legrand, T. & Jarvis, L. (Forthcoming, available online) ‘Enemies of the State: Proscription Powers and Their Use in the U.K.‘, British Politics.

Lutz, B. & Lutz, J. (2008) Global Terrorism (second edition). (London: Routledge). Chapter 12.

Macdonald, S. (2008) ‘Why We Should Abandon the Balance Metaphor: A New Approach to Counterterrorism Policy” ILSA Journal of International and Comparative Law 15(1).

Macdonald, S. (2009) ‘The Unbalanced Imagery of Anti-Terrorism Policy” Cornell Journal of Law and Public Policy 18(2).

MacGinty, R. (2010) 'Social Network Analysis and Counter-insurgency: A Counterproductive Strategy', in Critical Studies on Terrorism 3(2). [available free via journal website].

Miesels, T. (2005) ‘How Terrorism Upsets Liberty’, Political Studies 53(1): 162-181.

Miller, M. & Stefanova, B. (eds.) (2007) The War on Terror in Comparative Perspective: US Security and Foreign Policy after 9/11. Basingstoke: Palgrave.

Monar, J. (2007) 'Common Threat and Common Response: The European Union's Counter-Terrorism Strategy and its Problems', Government and Opposition 42(3).

Mythen, G. et al (2008) 'Terrorism, Risk and International Security: The Perils of Asking 'What If?'', Security Dialogue 39(2).

Rees, W. & Aldrich, R. (2005) ‘Contending Cultures of Counterterrorism: Transatlantic Divergence or Convergence’, International Affairs 81(5): 905-923.

Sussman, D. (2005) ‘What’s Wrong with Torture?’, Philosophy and Public Affairs 33(1): 1-33.

Toros, H. (2008) 'We Don't Negotiate With Terrorists! Legitimacy and Complexity in Terrorist Conflicts', Security Dialogue, 39(4).

Turner, I. (2011) ‘Freedom From Torture in the “War on Terror”: Is it Absolute?’, Terrorism & Political Violence 23(3).

Waldron, J. (2003) ‘Security and Liberty: The Image of Balance’, The Journal of Political Philosophy 11(2): 191-210.

Weinberg, L. (2011) The End of Terrorism? London: Routledge.

Wilkinson, P. (2006) Terrorism Versus Democracy: The Liberal State Response (Revised Edition). London: Routledge.

Woods, N. (2005) ‘The Shifting Politics of Foreign Aid’, International Affairs 81(2): 393-409.

Cultural constructions of terrorism

Core reading:

Jackson et al (2011): Chapter 3

Additional Reading:

Al-Sumait, F. et al (2009) 'Terrorism's Cause and Cure: The Rhetorical Regime of Democracy in the US and UK', Critical Studies on Terrorism 2(1) [available free via journal website].

Anker, E. (2005) ‘Villains, Victims and Heroes: Melodrama, Media and September 11’, Journal of Communication 55(1): 22-37.

Appleby, N. (2010) 'Labelling the Innocent: How Government Counter-terrorism Advice Creates Labels that Contribute to the Problem', Critical Studies on Terrorism 3(3).

Baker, M. (2010) 'Narratives of Terrorism and Security: 'Accurate Translations, Suspicious Frames', Critical Studies on Terrorism 3(3).

Biernatzki, W. (2002) ‘Terrorism and Mass Media’, Communication Research Trends 21(1-3): 1-27.

Chermak, S. (2003) ‘Marketing Fear: Representing Terrorism After September 11’, Journal for Crime, Conflict and the Media 1(1): 5-22.

Collins, J. & Glover, R. (2002) Collateral Language: A User's Guide to America's New War. New York, NY: New York University Press.

Croft, S. (2006) Culture, Crisis and America’s War on Terror. Cambridge: CUP.

Debrix, F. (2008) Tabloid Terror: War, Culture and Geopolitics. London: Routledge.

Devetak, R. (2005) ‘The Gothic Scene of International Relations: Ghosts, Monsters, Terror and the Sublime after September 11’, Review of International Studies 31(4): 621-643.

Dittmer, J. (2005) ‘Captain America’s Empire: Reflections on Identity, Popular Culture and Post-9/11 Geopolitics’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers 95(3): 626-643.

Dodds, K. (2007) ‘Steve Bell’s Eye: Cartoons, Geopolitics and the Visualization of the “War on Terror”’, Security Dialogue 38(2): 157-177.

Gow, J. (2005) ‘Team America – World Police: Down-Home Theories of Power and Peace’, Millennium: Journal of International Studies 34(2): 563-568.

Hess, Stephen et al (2003) The Media and the War on Terrorism. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.

Hill, A. (2009) Re-Imagining the War on Terror: Seeing, Waiting, Travelling. Basingstoke: Palgrave.

Holland, J. & Jarvis, L. (2014) ‘“Night Fell on a Different World”: Experiencing, Constructing and Remembering 9/11’, in Critical Studies on Terrorism 7(2).

Hoskins, A. (2006) ‘Temporality, Proximity and Security: Terror in a Media-Drenched Age’, International Relations 20(4): 453-466.

Jackson, R. (2005) Writing the War on Terrorism: Language, Politics and Counterterrorism. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Jackson, R. (2006) ‘Genealogy, Ideology and Counter-Terrorism: Writing Wars on Terrorism from Ronald Reagan to George W. Bush Jr., Studies in Language and Capitalism 1: 163-193.

Jackson, R. (2007) ‘Constructing Enemies: “Islamic Terrorism” in Political and Academic Discourse’, Government & Opposition 42(3): 394-426.

Jackson, R. (2009) ‘The 9/11 Attacks and the Social Construction of a National Narrative’, in Morgan, M. (ed.) The Impact of 9/11 on the Media, Arts and Entertainment: The Day That Changed Everything? Basingstoke: Palgrave.

Jarvis, L. & Holland, J. (2014) ‘We [for]got him’: Remembering and Forgetting in the Narration of bin Laden’s death‘, in Millennium: Journal of International Studies 42(2): pp. 425-447.

Jarvis, L. & Lister, M. (2015) ‘I read it in the FT’, in Jarvis, L. & Lister, M. (eds.) Critical Perspectives on Counter-terrorism. Abingdon: Routledge.

Jarvis, L. (2008) ‘Times of Terror: Writing Temporality into the War on Terror’, Critical Studies on Terrorism 1(2): 245-262.

Jarvis, L. (2009) Times of Terror: Discourse, Temporality and the War on Terror. Basingstoke: Palgrave.

Jarvis, L. (2010) ‘Remember, Remember, 11 September: Memorializing 9/11 on the Internet’, Journal of War and Culture Studies 3(1): 69-82.

Jarvis, L. (2011) '9/11 Digitally Remastered? Internet Archives, Vernacular Memories and WhereWereYou.Org', Journal of American Studies 45(4).

Kennedy, L. (2003) ‘Remembering September 11: Photography as Cultural Diplomacy’, International Affairs 79(2): 315-326.

Lisle, D. (2007) ‘Benevolent Patriotism: Art, Dissent and the American Effect’, Security Dialogue 38(2): 233-250.

Mogensen, K. (2008) ‘Terrorism Journalism During Terror Attacks’, Media, War & Conflict 1(1): 31-49.

Nacos, B. (1994) Terrorism and the Media. New York, NY: Columbia.

Norris, P. et al (2003) Framing Terrorism: The News Media, The Government, and The Public. London: Routledge.

Power, M. (2007) ‘Digitized Virtuosity: Video War Games and Post-9/11 Cyber-Deterrence’, Security Dialogue 38(2): 271-288.

Rai, A. (2004) ‘Of Monsters: Biopower, Terrorism and Excess in Genealogies of Monstrosity’, Cultural Studies 18(4): 538-570.

Riegler, T. (2010) ‘Through the Lenses of Hollywood: Depictons of Terrorism in American Movies’, Perspectives on Terrorism IV(2): 35-45. [Online journal].

Spencer, A. (2010) The Tabloid Terrorist. Basingstoke: Palgrave.

Staun, J. (2010) 'When, How and Why Elites Frame Terrorists: A Wittgensteinian Analysis of Terror and Radicalisation', Critical Studies on Terrorism 3(3) [available free via journal website].

Steuter, E. & Wills, D. (2010) ‘“The Vermin Have Struck Again”: Dehumanizing the Enemy in Post-9/11 Media Representations’, Media, War & Conflict 3(2): 152-167.

Volpi, (2007) 'Constructing the 'Ummah' in European Security: Between Exit, Voice and Loyalty', Government and Opposition 42(3).

Winkler, C. (2006) In The Name of Terrorism: Presidents on Political Violence. NEW York: SUNY.

Gender and terrorism

Core Reading:

Jackson et al (2011): Chapter 4

Additional Reading:

Alison, M. (2004) ‘Women as Agents of Political Violence: Gendering Security’, Security Dialogue 35(4): 447-463.

Alison, M. (2009) Women and Political Violence: Female Combatants in Ethno-National Conflict. London: Routledge.

Bloom, M. (2011) Bombshell: The Many Faces of Women Terrorists. London: Hurst.

Fangen, K. (1997) ‘Separate or equal? The emergence of an all‐female group in Norway's rightist underground’, Terrorism & Political Violence 9(3).

Gentry, C. (2004) ‘The relationship between new social movement theory and terrorism studies: The role of leadership, membership, ideology and gender’, Terrorism & Political Violence 16(2).

Hawthorne, S. & Winter, B. (eds) (2002) September 11, 2001: Feminist Perspectives. North Melbourne, Victoria: Spinifex.

Hoglund, A. (2003) ‘War on Terrorism: Feminist and Ethical Perspectives’, Security Dialogue 34(2): 242-245.

Holt, M. (2010) 'The Unlikely Terrorist: Women and Islamic Resistance in Lebanon and the Palestinian Territories', Critical Studies on Terrorism 3(3) [available free via journal website].

Hunt, K. & Rygiel, K. (eds.) (2006) (En)gendering the War on Terror: War Stories and Camouflaged Politics. London: Ashgate.

Hyndman, J. ‘Beyond Either/Or: A Feminist Analysis of September 11th’, ACME 2(1) [E-journal].

Jacques, K. & Taylor, P. (2009) ‘Female Terrorism: A Review’, Terrorism & Political Violence 21(3).

Lawless, J. (2004) ‘Women, War and Winning Elections: Gender Stereotyping in the Post-September 11 Era’, Political Research Quarterly 57(3): 479-490.

Lorber, J. (2002) ‘Heroes, Warriors, and Burqas’, Sociological Forum 17(3): 377-396.

Masters, C. (2009) ‘Femna Sacra: The “War on/of Terror”, Women and the Feminine’, Security Dialogue 40(1): 29-49.

Ness, C. (ed.) (2008) Female Terrorism and Militancy: Agency, Utility and Organization. London: Routledge.

Puar, J. & Rai, A. (2002) ‘Monster, Terrorist, Fag: The War on Terrorism and the Production of Docile Patriots’, Social Text 20(3): 117-148.

Ray, A. (1996) ‘Shame of It: Gender-Based Terrorism in the Former Yugoslavia and the Failure of International Human Rights Law to Comprehend the Injuries’, American University Law Review 46.

Stack-O’Connor, A. (2007) ‘Lions, Tigers, and Freedom Birds: How and Why the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Employs Women’, Terrorism & Political Violence 19(1).

Sjoberg, L. & Gentry, C. (2007) Mothers, Monsters, Whores: Women’s Violence in Global Politics. London: Zed.

Sjoberg, L. (2009) ‘Feminist Interrogations of Terrorism/Terrorism Studies', International Relations 23(1).

Sylvester, C. & Parashar, S. (2009) ‘The Contemporary “Mahabharata” and the many “Draupadis”: Bringing Gender to Critical Terrorism Studies’, in Richard Jackson et al. (eds.) Critical Terrorism Studies: A New Research Agenda. London: Routledge.

Tickner, J. (2002) ‘Feminist Perspectives on September 11’, International Studies Perspectives 3: 333-350.

War on Terror: Bush and Obama

Core reading:

Jackson et al (2011): Chapter 11.

Additional reading:

Bentley, M., & Holland, J. (Eds.). (2013) Obama's Foreign Policy: Ending the War on Terror. Abingdon: Routledge.

Boyle, M. J. (2013). ‘The costs and consequences of drone warfare’, International Affairs, 89(1), 1-29.

Buckley, M. & Fawn, R. (eds.) Global Responses to Terrorism: 9/11, Afghanistan and Beyond. London: Routledge.

Buckley, M. & Singh, R. (eds.) (2007) The Bush Doctrine and the War on Terrorism: Global Responses, Global Consequences. London: Routledge.

Campbell, D. (2002) ‘Time is Broken: The Return of the Past in the Response to September 11’, Theory and Event 5(4).

Cole, D. (2005) Enemy Aliens: Double Standards and Constitutional Freedoms in the War on Terrorism. New York: New Press.

Cox, M. (2002) ‘American Power Before and After 11 September: Dizzy with Success?’, International Affairs 78(2): 261-276.

Cox, M. (2004) ‘Empire, Imperialism and the Bush Doctrine’, Review of International Studies 30(4): 585-608.

Cox, M. (2005) ‘Empire by Denial: The Strange Case of the United States’, International Affairs 81(1): 15-30.

Dauphinee, E. & Masters, C. (eds.) The Logics of Biopower and the War on Terror: Living, Dying Surviving. Basingstoke: Palgrave.

Dunn, D. (2003) ‘Myths, Motivations and “Misunderestimations”: The Bush Administration and Iraq’, International Affairs 79(2): 279-297.

Gilmore, (2011) 'A Kindler, Gentler Counter-terrorism: Counter-insurgency, human security and the war on terror', Security Dialogue 42(1).

Ham, P. van (2003) ‘War, Lies and Videotape: Public Diplomacy and the USA’s War on Terrorism’, Security Dialogue 34(4): 427-444.

Holland, J. (2012) Selling the war on terror: Foreign policy discourses after 9/11. Abingdon: Routledge.

Holland, J. (2012). ‘Blair's War on Terror: Selling Intervention to Middle England’, The British Journal of Politics & International Relations, 14(1), 74-95.

Ignatieff, M. (2003) ‘The End of the Neoconservative Moment’, Survival 46(1): 7-22.

Jackson, R. (2011) ‘Culture, identity and hegemony: Continuity and (the lack of) change in US counterterrorism policy from Bush to Obama’, International Politics 48(2): 390-411.

Jackson, R. ‘Language, Policy and the Construction of a Torture Culture in the War on Terrorism’, Review of International Studies 33:353-371.

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Jervis, R. (2003) ‘Understanding the Bush Doctrine’, Political Science Quarterly 118(3): 365-388.

Kennedy, L. & Lucas, S. (2005) ‘Enduring Freedom: Public Diplomacy and US Foreign Policy’, American Quarterly 57(2): 309-333.

Leffler, M. (2003) ‘9/11 and the Past and Future of American Foreign Policy’, International Affairs 79(5): 1045-1063.

Litwak, R. (2002) ‘The New Calculus of Pre-Emption’, Survival 44(4): 53-80.

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Essay Questions

  1. Should the terminology of ‘terrorism’ be abandoned by academics or governments?

  2. Is the study of terrorism a scientific enterprise?

  3. To what extent should the study of terrorism seek to prevent or reduce its threat?

  4. What might be gained from a gendered analysis of terrorism?

  5. What might be gained from a gendered analysis of counter-terrorism?

  6. How has terrorism been constructed in contemporary film, literature or video games? Illustrate your argument using relevant examples.

  7. How should the threat of ‘lone wolf’ terrorism be countered?

  8. Compare and contrast the causes behind two terrorist campaigns of your choice. What can be learned from their similarities and differences?

  9. What, if anything, causes radicalisation?

  10. Can the torture of those suspected of terrorism ever be justified?

  11. How significant a threat is posed by cyberterrorism?

  12. How useful are drone strikes as a form of counterterrorism?

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