Artificial intelligence pursued within the cult of computationalism stands not even a ghost of a chance of producing durable results … it is time to divert the efforts of AI researchers - and the considerable monies made available for their support - into avenues other than the computational approach. (Sayre, Three more flaws in the computational model. Paper presented at the APA (Central Division) Annual Conference, 1993)
AI is the quest for the best agent program on a given architecture.
AI makes machines think.
An under-specified problems
Turing Test: An experimental answer
Weak AI: Can machines act intelligently
Turing lists: Machines can never …
Be kind, resourceful, beautiful, friendly, have initiative, have a sense of humor, tell right from wrong, make mistakes, fall in love, enjoy strawberries and cream, make someone fall in love with it, learn from experience, use words properly, be the subject of its own thought, have as much diversity of behavior as man, do something really new.
How has this argument held up historically?
Computers can play chess, check spelling, steer cars and helicopters, diagnose diseases, …
“Not until a machine could write a sonnet or compose a concerto because of thoughts and emotions felt, and not by the chance fall of symbols, could we agree that machine equals brain - that is, not only write it but know that it had written it” (Geoffrey Jefferson, 1949, quoted by A. Turing)
We are interested in creating programs that behave intelligently, not whether someone else pronounces them to be real or simulated.
We avoid the question: “When are artifacts considered real?”
Is an artificial Picasso painting a Picasso painting?
Are artificial sweeteners sweeteners?
Distinction seems to depend on intuition
Strong AI: Can Machines Really Think
Turing proposes “a polite convention” that everyone thinks
Searle: “No one supposes that a computer simulation of a storm will leave us all wet … Why on earth would anyone in his right mind suppose a computer simulation of mental processes actually had mental processes (1980)
Mental state is any intermediate causal condition between input and output.
Mental states are high-level emergent features that are caused by low-level neurological processes in the neurons and it is the properties of the neurons that matter.