Planning What? Why? Where?

Download 119,4 Kb.
Date conversion07.12.2017
Size119,4 Kb.


There are four stages in preparing a presentation:

  1. Planning

  2. Preparing

  3. Practicing

  4. Presenting

  1. Planning 

What? Why? Where?

Answer the following questions

    • Who is your audience?

    • Why are they there?

    • What is the subject of your speech?

    • What is the purpose of your speech?

    • How long will it be?

    • Where will it take place?

    • Will you use visual aids?


Simplicity is the key to a good presentation. Here are a few tips:

    • Focus on the most important points

    • Have one key message around which you base your presentation

    • Write down 3 things that you want the audience to take away with them

Develop an outline

The outline allows you to order your thoughts logically and establish a good structure for your presentation

Here are a few tips:

    • Don't open PowerPoint

    • Work in a form (e.g. pen & paper) that allows you be creative

    • Establish the key points that you will focus on

    • Work out your key message

    • Develop the logical flow of your presentation - the order your points will come in


Good presentations have an engaging beginning, a more detailed middle and a final summary ending.

a) Beginning

This includes a thesis statement or overview. Try to get the attention of the audience with an interesting fact, a question, something humorous or an eye-catching visual aid. The first few minutes are critical!

b) Middle

This part of your talk covers the main points (remember the Kiss principle, “Keep It Simple Stupid”). This is where you develop your position. Try to link your ideas coherently so the presentation flows and makes sense.

c) End

This is where you briefly sum up your talk by restating the main points and presenting your conclusions. Make sure to thank people and ask for comments/questions.


    • For more tips on planning your presentation see:

  1. Preparing 

Preparing your presentation is straightforward if you've planned your talk well and have a logical well-developed outline and structure. Nowadays, PowerPoint dominates presentations. Remember it is only a small element of your presentation. The following tips should help you in your preparation:

3 friends

Prepare 3 documents for your presentation:

  • Your notes which no else sees

  • Handouts with more detailed information & references

  • Visual aids (usually PowerPoint) that support your talk and help engage the audience.

Visual Aids

Make sure visual aids are clear, simple and uncluttered. If using overhead transparencies or slides, limit the text using as large a font as possible (30+). You can also use flipcharts, videos, displays, etc. Have back ups!

PowerPoint Tips

Keep text to a minimum - avoid full sentences, keep bullets to a minimum, use a sans-serif font ( like Arial or Helvetica) - serif fonts are harder for people to read on screens (e.g. Times New Roman). Use colour to focus people on the most important details. Use images to support your content.


Prepare a presentation that welcomes everyone. Below are some guidelines from AHEAD ( on accessible PowerPoint slides

    • Minimum font size of 18 (ideally 30)

    • Easily read fonts (sans serif) like Arial

    • Limit the amount of onscreen information

    • Avoid blocks of text

    • Use ‘bold’ to highlight points rather than underlining

    • Use both uppercase and lowercase letters (avoid ALL UPPERCASE)

    • Keep backgrounds simple, avoid patterns

    • Dark text on light background for bright rooms

    • Light text on dark background for dark rooms.


    • A video tutorial on using PowerPoint:

    • Images for your Presentation: (free) (commercial)

    • PowerPoint Themes: (free) (commercial)

  1. Practicing 

Most people never practice delivering their presentation. It is essential. It gives you a chance to correct things you don’t like and it gives you confidence.

Preparation and practice are the best medicine for nerves:

  1. Become familiar with the venue - practice there if possible.

  2. Try imagining the room and giving the presentation in a successful way.

  3. Use positive thoughts.

  4. Know your material

  5. Anticipate what might go wrong and prepare ahead, i.e. a glass of water in case your mouth goes dry.

  6. Take a deep breath, inhaling through the nose and exhaling through your mouth to relieve tension – no one can see you do it!

  7. If you need to use a script, make sure that it’s written in casual spoken language. Most people end up writing their script in the style of an essay and it is subsequently very dense and difficult to listen to. Even the best speakers often write down the wording of key phrases.

  8. Have a bottle of water – it will help you pause naturally, stop your voice from going dry and it also helps to relax you.

  9. Work out what you are going to do with your body: are you going to stand behind the podium? If so, how can you ensure you connect with the audience? If you are going to stand in front of the audience, what are you going to do with your hands? Body language has a significant impact on an audience’s impression, whether they trust you etc. (here’s an example of BAD body language:

  10. Before your talk, build up your confidence and warm up your voice by asking questions in previous presentations or by talking to audience members as they come into the room.

  11. Finally, make sure you have some time before your talk to relax and take your mind off your presentation. If you’ve prepared your material and practiced your presentation, you’ll be fine!

  1. Presenting 

If you've followed the previous steps, then on the day you can focus on delivering your presentation in the most engaging way.

    • If possible check out the room to ensure everything works and you have an idea of the layout.

    • Try not to “read” your talk. Use cue cards to prompt your memory.

    • Use a conversational tone. Make sure you are speaking loud enough to be heard.

    • Be aware of your body language i.e. maintain eye contact. Face the audience and try smiling occasionally!

    • Try to be enthusiastic.

    • Make sure to pause between points, indicating to the audience a change and helps to slow down your pace.


A Few Final Tips

A few points remember for future presentations are the following:

- Never EVER read the text on your slides

- Use images where appropriate to support your point

- Drip feed information to the audience (e.g. one bullet point at a time)

- Be ruthless with the amount of text you use - never use sentences, try to stick to key phrases

- Use colour on your slides to draw the eye to the important detail

- Put the most important detail up front on your slide, so that it jumps out.

- Use a sans-serif font (a font without the squiggly things) such as Arial or Helvetica

- Force yourself to use at least font size 30 - this will help you cut down text as well!

- Think of an interesting way in to your presentation for the audience, this could be an image, a story from your experience or a funny story.

General Guidelines for Presenting

Garr Reynolds 10 tips to presenting

  1. Keep it simple

  1. Limit bullets & text

  1. Limit transitions and animations

  1. Use high-quality graphics

    • Avoid using PowerPoint Clip Art or other cartoonish line art.

    • Again, if it is included in the software, your audience has seen it a million times before.

  1. Have a visual theme but avoid Powerpoint templates

  1. Use appropriate charts

Always be asking yourself, "How much detail do I need?" Presenters are usually guilty of including too much data in their on-screen charts.

  1. Use colour well

Colour evokes feelings. Colour is emotional. The right colour can help persuade and motivate. Studies show that colour usage can increase interest and improve learning comprehension and retention.

  1. Choose your fonts well

Gill Sans as it is somewhere in between a serif and a sans-serif font and is professional yet friendly and "conversational."

  1. Use Audio & Video

  1. Spend time with the slide sorter

For more detail on these points visit this website:

10/20/30 Rule

Guy Kawaski’s 10/20/30 Rule of Powerpoint states that a presentation:

“should have ten slides, last no more than twenty minutes, and contain no font smaller than thirty points.”


Ten is the optimal number of slides in a PowerPoint presentation because a normal human being cannot comprehend more than ten concepts in a meeting


“You should give your ten slides in twenty minutes. Sure, you have an hour time slot, but you’re using a Windows laptop, so it will take forty minutes to make it work with the projector. Even if setup goes perfectly, people will arrive late and have to leave early. In a perfect world, you give your pitch in twenty minutes, and you have forty minutes left for discussion.”


The reason people use a small font is twofold:

-> they don’t know their material well enough
-> they think that more text is more convincing.
Force yourself to use no font smaller than thirty points. It will make your presentations better because it requires you to find the most salient points and to know how to explain them well.

If you would prefer to see a presentation of the 10/20/30 rule visit this website:

For more detail on the 10/20/30 rule visit this website:

PowerPoint Accessibility

AHEAD guidelines 2008

  • Minimum font size of 18 (ideally 30)

  • Try to use easily read fonts (sans serif) like Arial

  • Limit the amount of onscreen information

  • Avoid blocks of text

  • Use ‘bold’ to highlight points rather than underlining

  • Use bullet points rather than sentences

  • Use pictures or simple diagrams to illustrate points

  • Use double rather than single spacing

  • Use both uppercase and lowercase letters (avoid ALL UPPERCASE)

  • Keep backgrounds simple, avoid patterns

  • Have a theme: Maintain consistency of style and colour through presentation

  • Dark text on light background for bright rooms & light text on dark background for dark rooms.


The database is protected by copyright © 2016
send message

    Main page