Planning and Evaluating Physical Activity Programmes



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Planning and Evaluating Physical Activity Programmes

  • Specification:
  • Comprehensively planning physical activity programmes/experiences drawing upon knowledge underpinning achievement standards 90739 and 90740.
  • A.S. 3.1 & 3.2

Why have we changed

  • To focus on more than just fitness!
  • To... Physical Activity Programmes?
  • From... Physical Exercise Programmes
  • How fit are you?
  • Unfit
  • Moderately Fit
  • Very Fit
  • FIT FOR WHAT?

Who is the fittest?

Areas of Critique

  • Healthism
    • The body needs to be kept in tune.
    • Individual’s are responsible.
    • SPEECH factors are irrelevant to an individual’s health
  • The body as a project
    • the body is open to reconstruction to improve it
  • Commodification
    • The fitness industry makes money from people’s desire to be fit or thin
  • www.powerade.co.nz

Areas of Critique

  • Technocentricity (The body as a machine)
    • Programmes focusing on improving performance at all costs may neglect hauora.
    • Burnout due to the body being treated as a machine?
  • Scientism
    • Valuable knowledge is based on strict scientific measurement e.g. fitness testing
  • www.powerade.co.nz

Reviewing Physical Activity Content

Physical Activity Content

  • Purposes of PAP – needs of individual and/or group
  • Hauora and PA programmes
  • Benefits of PA programmes
  • Problems/concerns with PA programmes
  • Processes of planning programmes
  • Evaluating PA programmes
  • Own experiential knowledge
  • Applying Bio-physical knowledge
    • Methods of training
    • Principles of training
    • Fitness components
    • Exercise physiology
    • Sports Psychology
  • Applying socio-cultural knowledge
    • SPEECH
    • Barriers & Enablers
    • Personal & Behavioural

What are the different outcomes for Physical Activity?

  • Some of the outcomes:
  • Hauora/Well being
  • Aerobic Fitness
  • Muscular Endurance
  • Skilled sports performance
  • Elite sport performance
  • Weight Control or loss
  • Socialisation
  • Enjoyment
  • Recreational activities
  • Longevity
  • Stress management
  • Freedom from disease
  • Or a combination of the above
  • Who uses them?

How do Physical Activity Programmes relate to Hauora?

  • Taha Tinana
  • Exercise physiology
  • Pre-existing conditions
  • Injuries
  • Sleep
  • Nutrition etc etc etc
  • Taha Whanau
  • Individual vs group training
  • Sacrifices for training– family/friends etc
  • Encouragement, positive reinforcement etc
  • Taha Hinengaro
  • Exercise adherence
  • Challenge
  • Training logs
  • Enjoyment
  • Strategies
  • PST (psych skills training)
  • Taha Wairua
  • Confidence
  • Goal setting
  • Appreciation of environment

What is important when planning a physical activity programme?

  • Desired outcomes
  • SMARTER Goals
  • Principles of Training
  • Methods of Training
  • Logistics
  • Periodisation & Peaking
  • Monitoring Programmes
  • Exercise Logs/Records
  • Socio-cultural factors
  • Barriers and Enablers
  • Physiological Data
  • Personal Feelings
  • Behavioural factors
  • Hauora/Wellbeing
  • Safety, Rest, Recovery

Goal Setting “A goal is what an individual is trying to accomplish. It is the object or aim of an action” Lock, 1981

  • Goal Setting is generally thought to affect performance the following way: in
  • Attention: helps to direct a performers attention (focus) to the important aspects of the task
  • Effort: helps to mobilise or increase the appropriate degree of effort a performer needs to make in relation to specific task
  • Persistence: helps a performer maintain their efforts over time
  • New Strategies: helps a performer to develop new and various strategies in order to achieve their goals.

SMARTER Goals

  • Specific
  • Measurable
  • Achievable/Accepted/Adjustable
  • Realistic
  • Time frame
  • Exciting
  • Recorded

Planning

  • Pre Planning
  • Programming
  • (synthesis)
  • Purpose
  • Timeline
  • Biophysical factors influencing programme
  • Socio-cultural influencing programme
  • Considerations-safety, environment.
  • Logistics, equipment
  • (evaluation)
  • Justify plan from alternatives (based on considerations – safety, equipment, logistics)
  • Use evidence to back up choices (knowledge of physiological responses to exercise, goals of programmes, motor skill learning theory)
  • Use experiences to support choices.

Biophysical & Socio-cultural factors

  • Biophysical
  • Nutrition
  • Heart rate
  • Oxygen uptake
  • The body’s response
  • to exercise
  • Fatigue
  • Injuries
  • Muscle changes
  • Flexibility
  • Fitness testing
  • PST
  • Socio-cultural
  • Barriers & enablers
  • Goal Setting
  • Body Image
  • Self Esteem
  • Fitness myths
  • Enjoyment
  • Fitness vs Health
  • SPEECH
  • (Society, Political, Economic, Environment, Cultural and Historical)

Sequence for writing a programme

  • Davis, D., Kimmet, T., Ackerly, D., McAree, A. VCE Physical Education book 2. 3rd edition.

Evaluating

  • Evaluation:
  • Identifies desired outcomes and constraints
  • White Hat
  • Yellow Hat
  • Positives of programme – intended and unintended. Programme strengths – use examples, knowledge of Ex.phys, motor skill acquisition and socio-cultural factors. Use experiences as support.
  • Black Hat
  • Negatives – as above
  • Green Hat
  • What could have been done differently? Explanations for this.
  • Red Hat
  • What are the issues – Assumptions? Bias? Limitations?
  • Blue Hat
  • Overview and conclusions – a conclusion must be made based on considerations above/personal feelings
  • Conclusions could be:
  • The programme was excellent because…
  • Most was good but the following changes …
  • The following limitations must be addressed.

Critically Evaluate – Points to consider

  • Effectiveness of a particular aspect of programming
  • The effectiveness of a programme to achieve its outcomes
    • e.g. Peaking individuals for an event; unexpected outcomes: fatigue, overtraining; injury, illness, dehydration, heat exhaustion
  • The effectiveness of programmes in general
    • e.g. The value of having a programme plan or goal setting
  • The effectiveness of a programme for a particular:
    • Person e.g. Individual needs in a team sport or group situation
    • Purpose e.g. Specificity to a playing position; peaking for an event vs maintaining performance over a season; well-being vs sport

References

  • Davis, D., Kimmet, T. et al. (2004). Senior Physical Education. An Integrated Approach. 2nd edition.
  • Wilmore, J. & Costill, D. (1994). Physiology of Sport and Exercise.
  • Wesson, K., Wiggins-James. et al. (2005). Sport and PE. A Complete Guide to Advanced Level Study. 3rd edition.

Unpacking 2006 Question

  • Question 3: PAP context
  • PE teacher Taylor Smith provides a programme for his PE class to train for a 10km run.
  • Evaluate the one size fits all method of programming. Present different views.
  • Depth & breadth of biophysical factors
    • Exercise physiology, skill acquisition, principles of training, methods of training, components of fitness, and components of sports psychology
  • Depth & breadth of socio-cultural factors
    • Hauora (wellbeing), the diversity of outcomes people seek when participating in PA, the factors that influence participation

Unpacking 2006 Question

  • Question 3: PAP context
    • Used the scenarios of the four students to explain the different needs and goals and the effects of overtraining for the swimmer / sportsman
    • Discussed the specificity of training i.e. while the swimmer would have a good aerobic endurance the muscle development would be specific to swimming not running
    • Provided a sound argument against a one size fits all programme
    • Acknowledged some good points of everybody doing a programme together but then provided ways of still catering to individual needs

Relevant Definitions...

  • Sport vs Physical activity
  • Types of fitness
    • health related vs skill related
  • Fitness vs Wellbeing
  • Competitive vs Social athletes
  • Sedentary vs Active Lifestyles
  • Healthism – The body as a machine

What is known

  • Students choose PE as a subject for different reasons.
  • People choose to participate in physical activity for different reasons.
  • Playing sport does not imply a person is fit.
  • Fitness is specific to a purpose e.g. wellbeing vs weightlifting.
  • Cardiovascular endurance and muscular endurance of legs are important for a 10km run
  • Muscular endurance is specific to the muscle groups.
  • Muscular endurance may interfere with explosive power and strength.

What may NOT be known

  • How much time is available in a lesson?
  • How many lessons in a week?
  • At what level is the training programme pitched?
  • What is the programming experience of the teacher?
  • What is the importance of the 10km run for the students?
  • Do the students have to participate in the stipulated programme?

Other details

  • What other information could be relevant
  • What position does James play in Rugby and Cricket? What part of the rugby season is it? How strong is the rugby team?
  • Is Marama a distance swimmer? What type of training is she doing? How long are each of her training sessions?
  • How does Peter get home in the afternoons? What other PA opportunities is Peter getting through PE? How much incidental PA does Peter get in the school day?
  • What is Sarah’s level of fitness? How often and at what intensity does Sarah participate in the activities?

What is wrong with a blue print for creating physical activity programmes?

  • Is there any value in using a “one size fits all” or standardised programme approach?
  • What challenges could you encounter if you used this sequence in designing all types of physical activity programmes?

“One Size Fit’s All” Programmes

  • Positives:
  • Getting active
  • Ease of management
  • Working with others (doing the same thing)
  • Training relevant components
  • Negatives:
  • Might not match your desired outcome/goals
  • Negative influence this could have on individual if outcomes aren’t achieved
  • Injuries not considered
  • Current level of fitness

Court Room Battle

  • Up to 15 people divide into 3 groups
  • Each group has a role to play...
    • the pluses;
    • the minuses;
    • the judge and jury.

Court Room Battle

  • The sequence of events...
  • Planning time (7 mins)
  • Presentations from the pluses & minuses (3 mins each)
  • Feedback from Judge & Jury (5 mins)
  • Consideration of issues (20 mins)
  • Suggestions (20 mins)
  • Major conclusions (15 mins)

PMIS & the Court Room Battle

  • Essay
  • Descriptors
  • Debate
  • Introduction
  • Key words
  • Relevant content
  • Hard facts
  • Facilitators
  • Pluses
  • Positive view point
  • What do you agree with?
  • Own experience
  • OPV
  • Strengths
  • Plus group
  • Minuses
  • Negative view point
  • What do you disagree with?
  • Weaknesses
  • Who benefits?
  • Errors of logic
  • OPV
  • Own experience
  • Minus group
  • Issues
  • Examine bias
  • Challenge validity
  • Challenge assumptions
  • Judge &
  • Jury group
  • Suggestions
  • Initiatives
  • New ideas
  • Alternatives
  • All
  • Conclusion
  • Reflect
  • Main points
  • All

Debate Guidelines

Court Room Battle

  • Preparation time
  • 7 min
  • Presentations
  • Pluses present
  • 3 min
  • Minuses present
  • 3 min

Court Room Battle

  • Judge & Jury Presentation
  • 5 min
  • Identify assumptions, limitations & bias
  • Identify gaps in content or arguments
  • Weigh up ideas and judge
  • Identify winner

Post debate discussion

  • In your group:
  • Examine bias
  • Challenge assumptions
  • Identify omissions
  • Add ideas to your group’s sheet
  • Write main issue on the board
  • Share most significant issue
  • Identify other issues considered

Suggestions

  • Initiatives
  • New Ideas
  • Alternatives
  • Ways forward
  • Add ideas to your group’s sheet
  • Write main idea on the board
  • Share most significant issue
  • Identify other ideas considered

Conclusion

  • Take a position
    • Justify with 1-2 of the main points from the debate
    • Write your ideas on the group sheet
  • Present ideas


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