Philosophy 3322 philosophy and the arts: an introduction to aesthetics

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Professor E. H. Duncan

Books to Buy:
A Modern Book of Esthetics (5th edition) Rader
Philosophy of Art: Readings, Duncan
Introduction to Aesthetics, An Analytic Approach, Dickie

In this course you will read and have a chance to discuss some of the best works ever written on the problems encountered in the philosophy of art. These writings have been selected from various sources. No single anthology--including the ones chosen for this course--is fully adequate.

Your grade will be determined by your class participation, grades on three hour exams and the final exam and your grade on a 10-15 page (type-written, double-spaced) paper, written on a subject of your own choosing. For a list of topics, see the subject index of the Twenty Year Cumulative Index to the Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism (1941-1962). There is also an updated version; the Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism has published, in 1979, a Cumulative Index, Volumes I-XXXV, 1941-1977, with a supplement added to 1982. Other references may be found under "Aesthetics" in The Philosopher's Index, and in the "Selective Current Bibliography for Aesthetics and Related Fields," published annually in the Summer issue of JAAC (to 1972). Finally, see the column, "Aesthetics for Contemporary Artists," published in the Spring and Fall issues of Leonardo, to 1983.
Some Abbreviations:
APQ ------------------ American Philosophical Quarterly
BJA ------------------ British Journal of Aesthetics
JAAC ------------------ Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism
JAE ------------------ Journal of Aesthetic Education
JP ------------------ Journal of Philosophy
PAS ------------------ Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society
PPR ------------------ Philosophy and Phenomenological Research
PR ------------------ Philosophical Review
ZAAK ------------------ Zeitschrift für Aesthetik und allgemeine Kunstwissenschaft
A few other books you will

want to dash out and buy:
Beardsley, Monroe C. Aesthetics: Problems in the Philosophy of Criticism,

1958, 1981.

Beardsley, Monroe C. Aesthetics from Classical Greece to the Present: a

Short History.
Osborne, Harold. Aesthetics and Art Theory: a Historical Introduction.
Dickie, George and Sclafani, R.J. and Roblin, Ronald (eds). Aesthetics: a

Critical Anthology, 2nd Edition.
Margolis, Joseph (ed). Philosophy Looks at the Arts (1st and 3rd editions).
Dickie, George. The Art Circle.
Dickie, George. Art and the Aesthetic: an Institutional Analysis.
Vivas, Eliseo and Krieger, Murray (eds). The problems of Aesthetics: a

Book of Readings.
Elton, William (ed). Aesthetics and Language.
Shields, Allan. A Bibliography of Bibliographies in Aesthetics.
Townsend, Dabney. Aesthetics: Classic Readings from the Western Tradition.

LECTURE 1: "The History of Aesthetics and the Division of Labor"
Read: The Introductions to the Rader and Duncan volumes, and my "The Lack

of Historical Perspective in Aesthetics: the Topic Revisited"

(Duncan, Section 2).
See Also: Louis Arnaud Reid, "Artists, Critics, and Philosophers," in Vivas and

Krieger, pp. 19-30.

Monroe C. Beardsley, "Aesthetics, History of," in The Encyclopedia

of Philosophy, Vol. 1, pp. 18-35.
Stephen C. Pepper and Thomas Munro, article on "Aesthetics,"

Encyclopedia Britannica, 15th ed., Macropaedia, Vol. 1,

pp. 149-163.

Dickie, George, Introduction to Aesthetics, "An Historical

Introduction to Analytic Aesthetics," pp. 1-73.

Campbell Crockett, "The Lack of Historical Pespective in Aesthetics,"

JAAC, 10, 2 (Dec. 1951): 160-165.
Thomas Munro, "Editor's Comment: A College Program in Aesthetics

and the Arts," JAAC, 4, 2 (Dec. 1945): 115-118.

Allan H. Gilbert, "On 'A College Program in Aesthetics and the Arts',"

JAAC, 4, 4 (June 1946): 224-247.
Charles Edward Gauss, "On the content of a Course in Introductory

Aesthetics," JAAC, 8, 1 (Sept. 1949): 53-58.

John Henry Melzer, "On the Teaching of Aesthetics," The Personalist,

37, 2 (April 1956): 136-146.

Ruth Saw, "'Apology' for Aesthetics," BJA, 9, 4 (Oct. 1969):

Allan Shields, "Aesthetic Studies: a College Curriculum," JAE, 4, 2

(April 1970): 133-143.
Jean G. Harrell, "Aesthetics as Philosophy," The Personalist,

53, 2 (Spring 1972): 115-126.

Richard J. Sclafani, Review of Aesthetics: An Introduction by George

Dickie, JP, 70, 10 (May 24, 1973): 303-307.

W. B. Gallie, "The Function of Philosophical Aesthetics" in Elton,

Aesthetics and Language, pp. 13-35.
Jerome Stolnitz, "Notes on Analytic Philosophy and Aesthetics," BJA,

3,3 (July 1963): 210-222.

Bertram Jessup, "Analytic Philosophy and Aesthetics," BJA, 3, 3

(July 1963): 223-233.

J. A. Passmore, "The Dreariness of Aesthetics" in Elton, Aesthetics

and Language, pp. 36-55.
Allan Shields, "Talk About Talk About Art," JAAC, 26, 2 (Winter

1967): 187-192.

LECTURE 2: "The Play Theory and Empathy"
Read: Theodor Lipps, "Empathy, Inner Imitation and Sense-Feelings," in

Rader, pp. 371-378.

Friedrich Schiller, "Esthetic Play and Human Liberation," in Rader,

pp. 477-483.

See Also: I. A. Richards, Principles of Literary Criticism, ch. 31

(esp. pp. 231-234).

The Earl of Listowel, Modern Aesthetics: An Historical Introduction,

ch. 3, "The Theory of Play," pp. 23-26, and ch. 7, "The Theory of

Einfühlung," pp. 49-87.
Van Meter Ames, pp. 575-579 of Understanding the World (selection

on Einfühlung).

Ducasse, The Philosophy of Art, ch. 7.
Hilde Hein, "Play as an Aesthetic Concept," JAAC, 27, 1 (Fall

1968): 67-71.

Rene Wellek, "Vernon Lee, Bernard Berenson and Aesthetics," in his

Discriminations, pp. 164-186.
M. B. Wiseman, "Empathetic Identification," APQ, 15 (1978):


LECTURE 3: "Psychical Distance and the Aesthetic Attitude"
Read: Edward Bullough, "Psychical Distance," in Rader, pp. 347-362.
George T. Dickie, "The Myth of the Aesthetic Attitude," in

Duncan (Section 3).

See Also: Sheila Dawson, "'Distancing' as an Aesthetic Principle," The

Australasian Journal of Philosophy, 39, 2 (Aug. 1961):

George T. Dickie, Introduction to Aesthetics, pp. 28-37.

C. A. Mace, "The Aesthetic Attitude," BJA, 12, 3 (Summer 1972):

Marshall Cohen, "Aesthetic Essence" in Max Black's Philosophy in

America, pp. 115-133.
My argument with Dickie in the "Letters Pro and Con" section, JAAC,

23, 4 (Summer 1965): 517-521.

Aldrich, Philosophy of Art, ch. 1.
Virgil C. Aldrich, "Back to Aesthetic Experience," JAAC, 24, 3

(Spring 1966): 364-371.

George Dickie, "Bullough and Casebier: Disappearing in the

Distance," The Personalist, 53, 2 (Spring 1972): 127-131.

George Dickie, "Psychical Distance: In a Fog at Sea," BJA, 13, 1

(Winter 1973): 17-29.

Jerome Stolnitz, "The Artistic and the Aesthetic" in Perspectives

in Education, Religion, and the Arts, ed. by Kiefer and

Munitz, pp. 266-294.

James L. Jarrett, "On Psychical Distance," The Personalist, 52,1

(Winter 1971): 61-69.

Allan Casebier, "The concept of Aesthetic Distance," The Personalist,

52, 1 (Winter 1971): 70-91.

Timothy J. Reiss, "Psychical Distance and Theatrical Distance in

Sartre's Drama," Yale French Studies, 46 (1971): 5-16.

G. Dickie, "Taste and Attitude: The Origin of the Aesthetic,"

Theoria, 39 (1973): 153ff.
F. Kovach, "Aesthetic Disinterestedness in Premodern Thought,"

Southwestern Journal of Philosophy, 5 (1974): 59ff.
R. McGregor, "Art and the Aesthetic," JAAC, 32 (1974): 549ff.
J. Kupperman, "Art and Aesthetic Experience," BJA, 15 (1975):

D. J. Crossley, "The Aesthetic Attitude: Back in Gear with

Bullough," The Personalist, 56 (1975): 336ff.
S. Pandit, "In Defense of Psychical Distance," BJA, 16 (1976):

K. Price, "The Truth About Psychical Distance," JAAC, 35 (1977):

J. Stolnitz, "'The Aesthetic Attitude' in the Rise of Modern

Aesthetics," JAAC, 36 (1978): 409ff.

J. Stolnitz, "The Artist and the Aesthetic in 'Interesting

Times'," JAAC, 37, 4 (Summer 1979): 401-413.

Gary Kemp, "The Aesthetic Attitude," BJA, 39, 4 (October 1999):


LECTURE 4: "The Institutional Theory of Art"
Read: George Dickie, "What is Art? An Institutional Analysis" in

Rader, pp. 459-472.

V. Mendenhall, “Dickie and Cohen on What Art Is,” in Duncan, (Section 4).
See Also: Ted Cohen, "The Possibility of Art" in Margolis, pp. 186-202.
G. Dickie, "A Response to Cohen: the Actuality of Art," in

Dickie and Sclafani, pp. 196-200.

George Dickie, "Art As a Social Institution," ch. 11,

Aesthetics: an Introduction, pp. 98-108.
G. Dickie, "The Institutional Conception of Art," in Language

and Aesthetics, ed. by Benjamin Tilghman, pp. 21-30.
M. H. Mitias, "Art as a Social Institution," The Personalist, 56

(1975): 330ff.

A. Silvers, "The Artworld Discarded," JAAC, 34 (1976): 441ff.
M. Mitias, "The Institutional Theory of the Aesthetic Object," The

Personalist, 58 (1977): 147ff.
R. J. Yanal, "The Institutional Theory of the Aesthetic Object:

a Reply to Michael Mitias," The Personalist, 58 (1977): 156ff.

R. Cormier, "Art as a Social Institution," The Personalist, 58

(1977): 161ff.

R. McGregor, "Dickie's Institutionalized Aesthetic," BJA, 17

(1977): 3ff.

J. E. Bachrach, "Dickie's Institutional Definition of Art:

Further Criticism," JAE, 11 (July 1977): 25ff.

Carolyn Korsmeyer, "On Distinguishing 'Aesthetic' from 'Artistic',"

JAE, 11 (Oct. 1977): 45ff.
V. C. Aldrich, "McGregor on Dickie's Institutionalized Aesthetic,"

JAAC, 36 (1977): 213ff.
D. Townsend, "Phenomenology and the Definition of Art, "South-

western Journal of Philosophy, 8 (1977): 133ff.
Morris Weitz, The Opening Mind: a Philosophical Study of

Humanistic Concepts, pp. 81-90.
Michael D. Beaty, "The Institutional Theory of Art Examined,"

critical paper written for the Master's Degree in Philosophy,

Baylor University, June, 1975.
George Dickie, The Art Circle: A Theory of Art, 1984.
Stephen Davies, "A Defense of the Institutional Theory of Art,"

The Southern Journal of Philosophy, Vol. XXVI, No. 3

Fall, 1988, pp. 307-324.

George Dickie, "The New Institutional Theory of Art," in

Dickie, Sclafani, and Roblin, eds., Aesthetics, a Critical

Anthology, 2nd ed., pp. 196-205.
Robert Stecker, "The End of an Institutional Definition of Art,"

in Dickie, Sclafani and Roblin, pp. 206-213, and Dickie's

"Reply to Stecker," pp. 214-217.
Robert Yanal, ed., Institutions of Art: Reconsiderations of

George Dickie's Philosophy
George Dickie, “The Institutional Theory of Art,” Chapter 8 of

Introduction to Aesthetics, pp. 82-93.

LECTURE 5: "Art as Pleasure Objectified"
Read: George Santayana, "The Nature of Beauty," in Rader, pp. 162-181.
See Also: Willard E. Arnett, Santayana and the Sense of Beauty, ch. 2.
Beardsley, Aesthetics, a Short History, pp. 328-332.
George Boas, "Santayana and the Arts" in Schilpp (ed), The

Philosophy of George Santayana, pp. 241-261 (Santayana

replies, pp. 554-560).

Timothy L. S. Sprigge, Santayana, an Examination of His

Frederick A. Olafson, Article on Santayana in the Encycylopedia of

The biography by John McCormick, ch. 9, pp. 123-139.
The critical edition of The Sense of Beauty has an Introduction

by Arthur Danto, pp. xv-xxviii.

Jerome Ashmore, Santayana, Art, and Aesthetics.

LECTURE 6: "Bergson?"
Read: Henri Bergson, "The Individual and the Type," in Rader, pp.

See Also: Susanne K. Langer, Feeling and Form, ch. 7, pp. 104-119.

Gabriel Marcel, "Bergsonism and Music" in Reflections on Art,

ed. by S. K. Langer, pp. 142-151.

T. Mitchell, "Bergson, Le Bon and Hermitic Cubism," JAAC, 36

(1977): 175ff.

T. A. Goudge, article on Bergson in The Encyclopoedia of Philosophy.
T. E. Hulme, "Bergson's Theory of Art," in his Speculations,

pp. 141-169.

T. E. Hulme, "A Personal Impression of Bergson" in The Life and

Opinions of T. E. Hulme, edited by A. R. Jones, pp. 205-208,

plus Jones' chapter on "H. Bergson," pp. 57-67.

Ruth Lorand, "Bergson's Concept of Art," BJA, 39, 4 (October 1999):


And for lots more, see the Bibliography (see appendix "C" below) by P. A. Y. Gunter.

LECTURE 7: "Art as Experience"
Read: John Dewey, "Having an Experience," in Rader, pp. 137-151.
Dorothy Walsh, "Virtual Experience," in Rader, pp. 151-159.
Van Meter Ames, "John Dewey as Aesthetician," in Duncan, (Section 5).
See Also: Robert Newman Glass, “Theory and Practice in the Experience of

Art: John Dewey and the Barnes Foundation,” JAE, 6,3 (Fall 1997):

pp. 91-105.
Bertram Morris, "Dewey's Theory of Art," in Guide to the Works

of John Dewey, ed. by Jo Ann Boydston, pp. 156-182.

Stephen C. Pepper, "Some Questions on Dewey's Esthetics" in

Schilpp's The Philosophy of John Dewey, pp. 369-389 (Dewey

replies, pp. 549-554).

Edward G. Ballard, "An Estimate of Dewey's Art as Experience,"

Tulane Studies in Philosophy, 4 (1955): 5-18.
Benedetto Croce, "On the Aesthetics of Dewey," JAAC, 6, 3

(March 1948): 203-207. ("A Comment on the Foregoing

Criticism" by John Dewey, pp. 207-209.)
Benedetto Croce, "Dewey's Aesthetics and Theory of Knowledge,"

JAAC, 11, 1 (Sept. 1952): 1-6.
George H. Douglas, "A Reconsideration of the Dewey-Croce Exchange,"

JAAC, 28, 4 (Summer 1970): 497-504.
John Dewey, Review of A History of Aesthetics by Bernard Bosanquet,

PR, 2, 1 (Jan. 1893): 63-69.
George H. Mead, "The Nature of Aesthetic Experience," The

International Journal of Ethics, 36, 4 (July 1929): 382-393.
D. W. Gotshalk, "On Dewey's Aesthetics," JAAC, 23, 1 (Fall 1964):

Beardsley, Aesthetics, A Short History, pp. 332-342.

Ducasse, The Philosophy of Art, ch. 6.
Donald B. Kuspit, "Dewey's Critique of Art for Art's Sake," JAAC,

27, 1 (Fall 1968): 93-98

Bertram Morris, "Dewey's Aesthetics: The Tragic Encounter with

Nature," JAAC, 30, 2 (Winter 1971): 189-196.

C. M. Smith, "The Aesthetics of John Dewey and Aesthetic Edu-

cation," in Aesthetics and Problems of Education, ed. by Ralph

A. Smith, pp. 64-85.
L. J. Dennis and J. F. Powers, "Dewey, Maslow, and Consumma-

tory Experience," JAE, 8 (Oct. 1974): 51ff.

S. Buettner, "John Dewey and the Visual Arts in America" JAAC,

33 (1975): 383ff.

M. R. Kadish, "John Dewey and the Theory of Aesthetic Practice," in New

Studies in the Philosophy of John Dewey, ed. by S. M. Cahn, pp. 75ff.
Dewey and His Critics: Essays from the Journal of Philosophy, edited

by Sidney Morganbesser, The Journal of Philosophy, Inc.,

New York, 1944, has two essays on "Dewey's Esthetic Theory"

(both from 1935) by E. H. Shearer, plus another on "Art as

Cognitive Experience" (1953) by James L. Jarrett.
Thomas M. Alexander,"The Art of Life: Dewey's Aesthetics," in Reading

Dewey, Interpretations for a Postmodern Generation, edited by

Larry A. Hickman, pp. 1-22.

And see the volumes on Dewey by Tiles and Westbrook.

LECTURE 8: "Art as Intuition"
Read: Benedetto Croce, "Intuition and Expression," in Rader, pp. 80-87.
See Also: Gilbert and Kuhn, A History of Esthetics (rev.), pp. 550-556.
Beryl Lake, " A Study of the Irrefutability of Two Aesthetic

Theories," in Elton, Aesthetics and Language, pp. 110-113.

George Dickie, Introduction to Aesthetics, pp.62-69.
Bernard Bosanquet, "The Esthetic Attitude and Its Embodiments,"

in Rader, pp. 195-200.

Curt Ducasse, The Philosophy of Art, ch. 3.
Beardsley, Aesthetics, a Short History, pp. 318-324.
John Hospers, "TheCroce-Collingwood Theory of Art," Philosophy,

31, 119 (Oct. 1956): 291-308.

Peter Jones, "A Critical Outline of Collingwood's Philosophy of

Art," in Critical Essays on the Philosophy of R. G.

Collingwood, ed. by Michael Krausz, pp. 42-67.
Richard Wollheim, "On an Alleged Inconsistency in Collingwood's

Aesthetic," ibid., pp. 68-78.

Angelo A. de Gennaro, "Vico and Croce: The Genesis of Croce's

Aesthetics," The Personalist, 50, 4 (Autumn 1969): 508-525.

Merle E. Brown, Neo-Idealistic Aesthetics: Croce-Gentile-

George H. Douglas, "Croce's Expression Theory of Art Re-

visited," The Personalist, 54 (Winter 1973): 60-70.

P. G. Ingram, "Art, Language and Community in Collingwood's

Principles of Art," JAAC, 37 (1978): 53ff.
Aaron Ridley, “Not Ideal: Collingwood’s Expression Theory,”

JAAC, 55, 3 (Summer 1997): 263-272.

LECTURE 9: "The Mystery of Creation"
Read: Monroe C. Beardsley, "On the Creation of Art," in Duncan, (Section 6).
See Also: Vincent Tomas, “Creativity in Art," in his anthology, Creativity

in the Arts, pp. 97-109 (all of the selections in this volume

are relevant).

Jack Glickman, "Creativity in the Arts," in Margolis, pp. 169-185.
Henry James, "The 'Germ' of a Story" and "The Art of Fiction," in

Vivas and Krieger, pp. 118-125.

Carl R. Hausman, "Mechanism or Teleology in the Creative Process,"

JP, 58, 20 (Sept. 28, 1961): 577-584.
Vincent Tomas, "A Note on Creation in Art," JP, 59, 17

(Aug. 16, 1962): 464-469.

Donald F. Henze, "Logic, Creativity and Art," The Australasian

Journal of Philosophy, 40, 1 (May 1962): 24-34.
Donald Brook and Maxwell Wright, "Henze on Logic, Creativity, and

Art," The Australasian Journal of Philosophy, 41, 3

(Dec. 1963): 378-385.
Donald F. Henze, "Creativity and 'Create': A Rejoinder to Brook

and Wright," The Australasian Journal of Philosophy, 42, 1

(May 1964): 103-109.
Donald F. Henze, "Creativity and Prediction," BJA, 6, 3 (July

1966): 230-245.

Gordon Westland, "The Investigation of Creativity," JAAC, 28, 2

(Winter 1969): 127-131.

Gordon Westland, "Selection and Education for Creativity," BJA,

10, 2 (April 1970): 152-161.

W. E. Kennick, "Creative Acts," Perspectives in Education,

Religion, and the Arts, ed. by Kiefer and Munitz, pp. 238-261.
Jack Glickman, "On Creating (A Response)," ibid., pp. 262-265.
H. R. Nardow, "Creativity in Art and Ethics," JAAC, 34 (1975): 183ff.
H. Khatchadourian, "The Creative Process in Art," BJA, 17 (1977): 230ff.
H. Osborne, "Inspiration," BJA, 17 (1977): 242ff.
M. N. Mitias, "The Institutional Theory of Artistic Creativity,"

BJA, 18 (1978): 330ff.
Harold Osborne, "The Concept of Creativity in Art," BJA, 19, 3

(Summer 1979): 224-231.

LECTURE 10: "Apollinian and Dionysian"
Read: Friedrich Nietzsche, "Apollinian and Dionysian Art" in Rader, pp. 91-108.
See Also: Salim Kemal, Joan Gaskell, and Daniel W. Conway, Nietzsche, Philosophy

and the Arts, Cambridge, 1998.
Kaufmann, Nietzsche, ch. 6.
Beardsley, Aesthetics, A Short History, pp. 275-279.
Gilbert and Kuhn, A History of Esthetics, pp. 516-523.
E. M. Butler, "The Dionysiac: Friedrich Nietzsche [1844-1900],"

in The Tyranny of Greece over Germany, pp. 307-315.

Santayana, The German Mind, ch. 11-13, pp. 114-143.
Edward F. Mooney, "Nietzsche and the Dance," Philosophy Today,

14, 1 (Spring 1970): 38-43.

John Sallis, "The Play of Tragedy," Tulane Studies in Philosophy,

19 (1970): 89-108.

Richard Schacht, "Nietzschean Art in The Birth of Tragedy" in

Dickie and Sclafani, pp. 269-312.

Check also books in the bibliography on Nietzsche by Macintyre,

Solomon and Higgins, and Silk and Stern.

LECTURE 11: "Psychology and Aesthetics"
Read: Sigmund Freud, "Wish-Fulfillment and the Unconscious" in Rader,

pp. 108-120.

See Also: Douglas Morgan, "Psychology and Art Today" in Vivas and Krieger, pp. 30-47.
George T. Dickie, "Is Psychology Relevant to Aesthetics?", PR,

71, 3 (July 1962): 285-302.

Campbell Crockett, "Psychoanalysis in Art Criticism," JAAC,17, 1

(Sept. 1958): 34-44.

Paul Grimley Kuntz, "The Hidden Order of Anton Ehrenzweig: A

Review Article," JAAC, 27, 3 (Spring 1969): 349-360.

(Includes an extensive bibliography.)
C. A. Mace, "Psychology and Aesthetics," in Aesthetics in the

Modern World, ed. by Harold Osborne, pp. 283-299.
Richard Wollheim, "Freud and the Understanding of Art," BJA, 10, 3

(July 1970): 211-224.

R. W. Pickford, "Dream-Work, Art-Work, and Sublimation in Relation

to the Psychology of Art," BJA, 10, 3 (July 1970): 275-283.

Harold James McWhinnie, "Is Psychology Relevant to Aesthetics?

(George Dickie-Revisited),{ Proceedings of the Annual

Convention of the American Psychological Association, 6, 1

(1971): 419-420.

J. K. Feibleman, "The Psychology of Artistic Endeavor," Scientific
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