Copyright © 1994
Sentrong Pangkultura ng Pilipinas (Cultural Center of the Philippines) Special Publications Office CCP Complex, Roxas Boulevard Manila, Philippines
ISBN 971-8546-23-5 Volume V - ISBN 971-8546-28-6
Logo: The logo of this encyclopedia is the sun, an- cient symbol of sovereignty and enlightenment, which in giving light gives warmth and life. This so- lar representation is based on the mythological sun used by the First Philippine Republic of 1899, which had Filipino features and eight principal rays. It is hoped that this encyclopedia will shed light on the most vital affirmations of being Filipino through the centuries and thus help to define and harden the core of the nation's identity.
All rights reserved. No portion of this book-text, photograph, or artwork-may be reproduced without the permission of the publisher and/or the authors and/or the photographers and artists.
Set in Palatino and Avant-Garde Color separation by Scanatronic, Inc. Printed by Vera-Reyes, Inc.
First Printing, 1994
Area Editor Basilio Esteban S. Villaruz
Editor-in-Chief Nicanor G. Tiongson
General Managing Editor Joi Barrios
Managing Editors Elmer L. Gatchalian Roland B. Tolentino
Consultants Corazon Generoso-lfi.igo Nestor 0. Jardin Ramon A. Obusan Lucrecia Reyes-Urtula
Critic Corazon C. Dioquino
Reynaldo G. Alejandro • Ligaya F. Amilbangsa • Prosperidad M. Arandez Benita Maria P. Barros • David Bercades • Corazon C. Dioquino • Larry A. Gabao Ma. Cherish M. Garcia • Corazon Generoso-lfi.igo • Anita M. Kane • Ramon Obusan Leonor Orosa-Goquingco • Lucrecia Reyes-Urtula • Elena Rivera-Mirano • Edna Vida Basilio Esteban S. Villaruz
Biographers Erlinda Alburo • Reynaldo G. Alejandro • Carmen T. Andin • Pr:osperidad M. Arandez Nerissa S. Bake • Sarno Balt • David Bercades • Emilie B. Capulong • Rene de Guzman • Paul G. del Rosario Marge C. Enriquez • Brenda Fajardo • Doreen G. Fernandez • Larry A. Gabao • Ma. Cherish M. Garcia Elmer L. Gatchalian • Mary Jane Globio • Guillermo Gomez Rivera • Corazon Generoso-lfiigo Felicitas Layag-Radaic • Ma. Lourdes Maniquis • C. Ocampo • Mena Ojeda • Remedios V. Pinon • Lucrecia Reyes-Urtula • Roland B. Tolentino • Teresita Veloso-Pile Edna Vida • Basilio Esteban S. Villaruz
Art Director Cesar A. Hernando
Deputy Art Director Carlito de Leon Sefieres
Graphic/Lay-out Artists Nilo J. Parilla Maricar D. Cura
Photo Researchers Alice M. Esteves Elmer L. Gatchalian Pacita Gavino
American Historical Collection • Ayala Museum Ballet Philippines • Bayanihan Philippines Dance Company Centro Escolar University Archives .CCP Library CCP Performing Arts Department • CCP Public Relations Department Dance Theater Philippines Felicing Tirona Memorial Library and Arts Center GCF Books • Lopez Memorial Museum and Library The National Library Fjlipiniana and Asia Division Philippine Ballet Theater • Ramon Obusan Folkloric Group University of the Philippines Filipiniana Library
Carolina Afan • Elena Alfonso • Belen Angeles • Concepcion Baylon Salvador BernaleAdoracion M. Bolos • Ernesto R. Caballero • Gilda Cordero-Fernando Zenaida Cipriano eErie V. Cruz • Vella C. Damian • Gina Daniel Leticia de Guzman • Corazon C. Dioquino • Eddie Elejar • Pacita Gavino • Lewis E. Gleeck Jr Eli R. Guieb • Lourdes Guillermo • Mario A. Hernando • Elvira Irremedio Nestor Jardin • Felicitas Layag-Radaic • Roberto M. Lopez • Edwin Manarpiis Rosalia Merino-Santos • Sonia P. Ner • Ramon Obusan • Leonor Orosa-Goquingco Reynaldo Pabion • Eduardo Pailanan • Nilo J. Parilla • Rena to S. Rastrollo Denisa Reyes • Lucrecia Reyes-Urtula • Lumen Ruiz • Violy Sahareza Julio Samba jon • Esperanza Sta. Cruz • Carli to L. Sefieres • Cecile Sicangco Celia Tolentino-Martinez • Edna Vida • Rudy Vidad • Basilio Esteban Villaruz Jaime Zobel de Ayala
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION I 2
FOLIO OF PHOTOGRAPHS I 9
I. HISTORICAL ESSAYS I 17
Philippine Dance I 18 The Ethnic Tradition 119 The Spanish Colonial Tradition I 20 The American Colonial and Contemporary Traditions I 21 Epilogue I 27
The Ethnic Tradition I 28 Ritual Dances I 28 The Life-Cycle Dances I 30 The Occupational Dances I 33 Epilogue I 34
The Spanish Colonial Tradition I 36 Background I 36 The Jota I 37 The Baise I 38 The Pandanggo I 39 The Habanera I 40 The Mazurka 141 The Polka I 42 The Rigodon and Other Quadrille Dances 142 The Paseo and Chotis I 43 The Surtidos I 43 Epilogue I 44
The American Colonial and Contemporary Traditions I 46 Bodabil Dancing I 46 Ballet I 48 Modern Dance I 54 Folk and Social Dances I 56 Epilogue I 57
Sources and Influences I 60
II. FORMS AND TYPES I 65
Aerobic Dance 166 Balitaw I 66 Ballet I 67 Baise I 71 Bodabil Dancing I 72 Courtship and Wedding Dances I 74 Cultural Dancing I 76 Dancing or. Television I 76 EscotisiChotisiSchottische I 77 Folk Dance I 78 Game Dance I 81 Habanera I 81 Jazz Dance I 82 Jota I 83 Kumintang I 84 Kuradang I 85 Kuratsa I 85 Lanceros I 86 Langka I 87 Lunsay I 87 Martial Dance I 88 Mascota I 89
Mazurka I 89 Mimetic Dance I 90 Modern Dance I 92 Pandanggo I 94 Pangalay I 95 Pantomina I 96 Paseo I 96 Paso Doble I 97 PateadoiZapateado I 97 Polka I 97 Polynesian and Tahitian Dances I 98 Rigodon de Honor I 99 Ritual Dancing I 101 Social Dancing I 102 Song Dance I 103 Spanish Dance I 104 Subli I 107 Surtido I 107 Tap Dance I 108
III. ASPECTS OF PRODUCTION I 109
Audience, Time and Space I 110 Awards and Grants I 115 Choreography I 116 Companies I 119 Criticism I 120 Design I 120 Education I 123 Folk Dance Steps, Gestures, and Formations I 125 Music I 129 Research and Documentation I 133
TABLE OF CONTENTS
IV. MAJOR WORKS I 135
Adarna I 136 Amada I 136 Anak-Bulan J 137 Awit I 138 Ang Babaylan I 138 Bagobo I 139 Bungkos Suite I 140 Carmen 1976 I 141 Carmen 1984 I 141 Carmina Burana I 142 Company I 142 Dabaw I 143 Diablos I 144 Dugso I 144 Encantada I 145 Ensalada I 146 Exultations I 146 Fifth Symphony I 147 Filipinescas: Philippine Life, Legend, and Lore in Dance I 147 For the Gods I 148 Giselle I 148 Graduation Ball I 149 Ibong Adarna I 150 Icarus Eternally Damned/ The Dupe of Time I 150 Igorot I 151 Itim Asu I 152 Juliet and Her Romeo I 153 Juru-Pakal I 153 Kapinangan I 154 Ang Kasal I 154 Kayaw I 154 La Lampara I 155 Legend of Sarimanok I 156 Limang Dipa I 157 Mariang Makiling I 157 Masks I 157 May Day Eve I 158 A Midsummer Night's Dream I 158 Mir-i-nisa I 159 Misa Filipina I 161 Mutya ng Dagat I 161 Muybridge Frames I 162
Noli Dance Suite I 163 The Nutcracker I 164 Of Cocks and Kings I 164 Pamalugu I 165 Piano Concerto No 1 in B Minor I 166 Pictures at an Exhibition J 166 Ang Pilya I 167 Rama, Hari I 168 Reconstruction Ballet J 169 Romeo and Juliet I 169 Siete Dolores I 170 Singkil I 170 Sisa I 171 Ang Sultan I 172 Tagabili I 172 Tales of the Manuvu I 173 Tanan I 173 Te Deum I 174 Testament I 174 Trend: Return to Native J 175 Tropical Tapestry I 176 Tchaikovsky Fantasy I 177 Vision of Fire I 177 Yerma I 178 Zagalas de Manila I 178
V. ARTISTS AND ORGANIZATIONS I 179
Aboitiz, Maribel I 180 Acuna, Rupert I 180 Adameit, Luva I 180 Aiko, Jess I 181 Alcoriza, Jamin I 181 Alejandro, Reynaldo G. I 181 Amilbangsa, Ligaya F. J 182 Appiani, Maestro I 182 Arandez, Prosperidad M. J 182 Araneta Coliseum Dance Group I 183 Arnaldo-Reyes, Josefa I 183 Balcena, Jose I 184 Ballet Arts Studio Dance Group I 184 Ballet Federation of the Philippines I 184 Ballet Philippines (1962) J 185
Ballet Philippines (1969) I 185 Bait, Sarno I 186 Banez-Alonso, Veda I 187 Barreda, Maniya I 187 Barroso Jr, Osias I 188 Bayanihan Philippine Dance Company I 188 Belmonte, Paz Cielo Angeles I 189 Bernal, Salvador F. I 189 Bobadilla, Franklin J 190 Bohol, Antonio and Josefina Bacalso I See Index Borromeo, Julie I 191 Borromeo, Rose I 191 Calzada, Lito I 192 Caringal, Gener I 192 Casimiro, Bayani j 192 Cassell, Ricardo and Roberta Cassell I 193 Castillo, Carmelito I 193 Catoy, Katsch S.J. I 194 Cebu Ballet Center I 194 Coronel, Joy I 195 Cosmopolitan Ballet and Dancing School I 195 Cruz, Arturo V. I 195 Cruz, Eric V. I 196 Cruz-Romulo, Chloe I 196 Cultural Center of the Philippines (CCP) I See Index Cuturan, Yvonne I 196 Damian, Augustus I 197 Damian, Vella C. I 197 Dance Concert Company (DCC) I 197 Dance Education Association of the Philippines (DEAP) I 198 Dance Theater Philippines (DTP) I 198 Darangan Cultural Dance Troupe I 199 Datoc, Salud C. I 199 De Oteyza, Totoy I 200 De Paz, Jess I 200 Dizon, Rey I 200 Domingo, Sonia T. I 201 Dubsky-Zipper, Trudl I 201 Duque, Monino I 202
Dy-Liacco, Conrad I 202 Elejar, Eddie I 203 Ella, Ricardo I 204 Enriquez, Marge C. I 204 Espiritu-Basilio, Emerita I 204 Fabella, Tony I 204 Fajardo, Libertad V./ 205 Far Eastern University Dance Group I 205 Far Eastern University Modern Experimental Group I 206 Felix-Velarde, Joji I 206 Filipinescas Dance Company (FDC) I 206 Filipino Dancers Abroad I 207 Franquelli, Fely I 208 Froilan, Nonoy I 208 The Frontierettes I 209 Gabriel, El I 209 Gaston-Mafiosa, Inday I 209 Generoso-Ifiigo, Corazon I 210 Gomez-Rivera, Guillermo I See Index Gonzalez, Toni Lopez I 210 Halili-Cruz, Shirley I 211 Hariraya Ballet Company I 211 Hofer-Ele, Henrietta I 212 Hwa Yi Ethnic Dance Center I 212 Indong-Colasing I See Index Jackson, Kristin I 213 Jardin, Nestor I 213 Julie Borromeo Dance Company I 214 Jumalon, Noordin I 214 Kaanyag Pilipinas Dance Company I 214 Kane, Anita M. I 214 Labayen, Enrico I 215 Lauchengco-Drilon, Mercedes I 216 Layag, Luis I 216 Layag-Radaic, Felicitas I 217 Leyte Kalipayan Dance Company I 217 Llacer, Tony I 217 Locsin, Agnes I 218 Lopez-Gonzalez, Sony I 218 Macuja, Lisa I 219 Madarang-Gaston, Lydia I 219 Manila Metropolis Ballet
(MMB) I 220 Manning-Drumm, Carlyn I 220 Manunubli ng Sinala I 220 Mafiosa, Maiqui Gaston I 220 Mendoza, Cesar I 221 Merino-Santos, Rosalia I 221 Metropolitan Dance Theater Company (MDTC) I 222 Miranda, Branda I 222 Molina, Manuel I 222 Monserrat, Greta I 223 Morgan, William I 223 Nafias, Effie I 223 Nierras, Douglas /224 Nieto, Ruben I 224 Obusan, Ramon A. I 224 Orosa-Goquingco, Leonor I 225 Pacafia, Nicolas I 226 Perez, Luther I 226 Philippine Ballet Theater (PBT) I 226 Philippine Barangay Folk Dance Troupe I 227 Philippine Dance Company of New York I 228 Philippine Folk Dance Society I 228 Pil, Teresita Veloso I 228 Powerdance I 229 Puertollano, Lulu I 229 Queen City Junior Ballet I 229 Quezon City Ballet (QCB) I 230 Quinn, Al I 230 Ramon Obusan Folkloric Group (ROFG) I 230 Reyes, Alice I 230 Reyes, Benjamin I 232 Reyes, Denisa I 232 Reyes, Ricardo I 233 Reyes-Aquino, Francisca I 233 Reyes-Urtula, Lucrecia I 234 Rigor-Ferrer, Adina I 234 Rimpos, Ester V. I 235 Rosado, Manalo I 235 Roxas, Elizabeth I 235 Sabarre, Odon I 236 Sabarre, Tommy I 236 Sabas, Hazel I 236 Sala-Villarica, Fe I 237
Sandoval, Lucio I 237 Santos, Tina I 237 Santos-Lang, Shirley I 238 Sicangco, Cecile I 238 Silliman University Dance Company I 238 Sining Pananadem I 239 Sison-Friese, Jovita I 239 Sokkong, Benicia I See Index Studio Dance Group I 240 Suzara, Dolores I 240 Szilard, Paul I 240 Tabije-Andin, Carmen / 240 Tambuli Cultural Troupe I 241 Tiongco, Maureen I 241 University of the East Dance Company I 241 University of the Philippines Filipiniana Dance Group I 242 University of the Philippines Folk Song and Dance Club I Troupe I 242 Vida, Edna I 242 Villadolid, Anna I 243 Villanueva-Pinon, Remedios I 243 Villaruz, Basilio Esteban I 244
VI. REFERENCES I 245
Books and Monographs I 246 Articles I 253 Theses and Dissertations I 258 Programs/Brochures/ Others I 258 Interviews I 259 Records I 259 Videos /260
Philippine dance encompasses all the dance forms that have been used by the Filipinos through the centuries to express themselves. As types, they may be classified as folk, ritualistic, occupational, mimetic, or aesthetic in nature. These dances may either be products of the people's creativity or imagination, or may have been the result of their exposure, assimilation, and reaction to the varied cultures and traditions introduced by the waves of colonial rule that have reached the Philippine shores. They can be performed in an enclosed venue or an open space, to an appreciative and/ or participative audience, and almost always to the accompaniment of music.
This volume on dance is the very first attempt to gather from various sources, both public and private, the existing printed, audio-visual, photographic studies on dance, in order to create a comprehensive picture of the Philippine dance. To be sure, a few books have already been published on the subject, but these were limited to the discussion of either the dances of one region, or the dances of a few selected tribes, or the history and achievements of one dance company, or the forms of Philippine dance through the centuries. Others are technical hand- books on how to execute particular dances. For the first time, this volume dissects the many aspects of dance in order to cover systematically its traditions, types, process of creation and production, major works, artists and organizations, and important sources. With its coverage, the volume hopes to be the first stop for all students and scholars who want to get a bird' s eye- view of the dances of this archipelago.
But even as the volume seeks to be of service to students, it also hopes to be a sourcebook for dance artists and designers, who will find in the book visual and verbal records of the various indigenous, Spanish-influenced, and American colonial dances that they could study as possible sources for inspiration and technique for the dances they create for the contempo- rary audiences. Time was when the "legitimate" stage was partial to the productions of what were considered "legitimate" dance, meaning Western dances like classical ballet. Fortunately, that situation has begun to change, with more and more choreographers realizing that they can only contribute to the history of dance if they express themselves as Filipinos, and that they cannot create as Filipinos if they do not go back to their roots in indigenous and folk culture. The encyclopedia hopes to encourage this return to roots by making available to the would-be choreographer the essential data on those ancient traditions.
As the volume presents a holistic picture of Philippine dance, it also hopes to instill in its readers, and in the students and scholars of academic institutions of the archipelago, the love and passion for research. As it is, the dance volume is the thinnest of all volumes, and mainly because many topics, names, and works had to be eliminated because there are no available data on them. Many individual dances, which were originally listed as separate entries, were subsumed under bigger types because data on them were either nonexistent, not available, or
hopelessly sketchy, impressionistic, or otherwise insubstantial. Many more artists would have been included if more scholars had taken scholarly interest in choreographers and dancers in the past. The same may be said of the major works, especially of the pre-WWII period.
In a wider perspective, this volume also aims to call the attention of dance scholars, critics, and artists from all over the world to the wealth and vitality that is Philippine dance. It is to be regretted that in the few histories of dance in the world, the Philippines is given but a few lines, if it is mentioned at all. This has contributed to the marginalization of the country's dances in the consciousness of the world, a situation which is understandable though hardly fair. In its own modest way, this volume then seeks to put the Philippines in the map of dance scholarship in the world.
This volume is arranged into groups of entries with the following main divisions: Histori- cal Essays, Forms and Types, Aspects of Production, Major Works, Artists and Organizations, and References.
The section on Historical Essays begins with a historical survey of Philippine dance, whose individual traditions are detailed by the following essays: the ethnic tradition essay, which discusses the ritual dances, the life-cycle dances, and the occupational dances found among the cultural minorities of the islands; the Spanish colonial tradition essay, which focuses on the types of dances introduced by the Spanish colonizers, like the jota, balse, pandanggo, mazurka, polka, rigodon, paseo, chotis, and surtido, and their respective variants; the Ameri- can colonial and contemporary traditions essay, which touches on the types of dances that were introduced during the American occupation--bodabil danCing, classical ballet, modern dance, folk and social dancing--and which continue to prosper in the contemporary Philippine dance scene. These three essays trace in general how the dances belonging to each tradition came into being, how they were adapted and refashioned by the Filipinos to suit their aesthetic expressions, and how they influenced contemporary works in Philippine dance. The section ends with the essay on sources and influences which establishes the links between Philippine dances and the Southeast Asian, Spanish, and American dances, and pinpoints some of the materials from which Philippine dance creations drew inspiration. Names of notable choreog- raphers and their works are cited as samples in each essay.
The section Forms and Types goes into a detailed discussion of a variety of dances belong- ing to the three traditions. The entries, arranged alphabetically, elucidate the history and devel- opment of every existing type of dance performed in the Philippines, including the steps, formation, time, rhthym, and gestures; the venues and occasions where these dances are per- formed; the region where these dances have evolved and are popular; the appropriate cos- tumes and the paraphernalia attached to the performance of a particular dance; and the innova- tions done by contemporary artists on these dances.
The section on Aspects of Production expounds on the aspects involved in dance creation and performance, like choreography, design, folk dance steps, gestures, and formations, and audience, time, and space. It also looks into topics related to the creation of dance, like awards, companies, criticism, education, music, and research and documentation.
The section on Major Works is a listing of dance pieces deemed by the editors as significant landmarks in Philippine dance history. The inclusion of a dance work is based on its overall importance--its scope and insight, its artistic integrity, and its historical significance. Most of these works belong to the categories of classical ballet, modern ballet or dance, modern 'ethnic dance or ballet, dance drama, folk dance choreography, dance suites, and rock opera ballets. The number of acts, the dates and places of performance, the names involved in the produc- tion, and the synopses of the work are also included.
The section Artists and Organizations presents profiles of dance personalities and institu- tions. In choosing the artists, the editors took into consideration that dance, especially dance theater, tends to be an art for young practitioners. For inclusion, a dancer must have reached principal or extraordinary soloist status; a choreographer or director must have created a substantial body of works, and choreographed for a long period of time; an artist-teacher must have exerted real leadership and pervasive influence. Awards and publications were also considered as well as peer recognition and professional affiliations.
In terms of institutions, the list includes only the groups that have proven their vision and influence in Philippine society. There were a few institutions which were initially considered, but upon closer evaluation were eliminated because their importance got diminished or modi- fied when research data on them were completed. On the other hand, other groups, which had shorter lives, were included because they had great impact on the profession and promotion of the dance.
The section References lists down the works used by the essays in the volume and pro- vides the titles of other important works on dance. It is divided into published works, such as books and monographs; articles in periodicals and journals; unpublished works like theses and dissertations; and ephemeral materials like brochures, programs, reports, and proceedings of seminars and conferences. A separate group is composed of materials not in print but in video format.
In the preparation of the volume, the area editor met many times with the other editors, consultants, and editor-in-chief to conceptualize the entire volume, outline its major divisions and component essays, and draw up and refine the lists of artists and major works based on definite criteria. The entries were then assigned for research and writing to the scholars or experts who had done work on those topics. The writing phase took more than a year. As the essays started to come in, they were read by the area editor, managing editor, the editor-in- chief, and consultants, who recommended reconceptualization, revision, or expansion which they often did themselves. The final essays were passed on to the editor-in-chief, who did the final revision and editing, chose the photos prepared by the managing editor, supervised the lay-out and captioning of the pictures.
Research for the essays in this volume included looking for books, periodicals, theses, dissertations, and dance programs in public and private libraries; the search and viewing of films and videos of many dances in all traditions; the sending of questionnaires and setting of interviews with dance artists or with relatives of artists already dead.
Although the editors tried their very best to pull together and present data on dance that will give a proper appreciation of the art as it is practiced in the Philippines, they were con- fronted with and had to accept certain limitations. To begin with, dance, like music, is an art that is performed, and therefore eludes verbal description. Videos and films do a better job of documenting and presenting dance, but lacking these, the volume had to content itself with giving a glimpse or taste of dance through photographs and a plot synopsis or movement- pattern description.
Because dance is difficult to document and discuss in words, there are very few writers on the dance, or the performing arts for that matter. A serious limitation faced by the editors, therefore, was the lack of writers, who knew dance from the inside, as either dancers or choreographers, but at the same time had the ability to talk about dance in coherent fashion and describe dance as dance, not as story or design or technical handbook of steps, gestures and formations. Thus, historians of the dance cannot but be grateful to A.V.H. Hartendorp who de- scribed Trudl Dubsky's Manila Ballet Moderne choreographies in his Philippine Magazine before WWII, just as one cannot but lament the fact that Hartendorp's best efforts at description fail to give us a clear image of these works as dances. There are very few writers who can write about dance as dance; there are even fewer dancers, alas, who can write. It is not surprising therefore that many of those who finally did write and submitted good coherent articles were the researchers of dance who were also classroom teachers adept at articulating ideas and concepts.
Another limitation to the study was the lack of data on many of the dances, especially the indigenous and folk dances. Although scholars like Francisca Reyes-Aquino, Lucrecia Reyes- Urtula, Libertad V. Fajardo, Juan C. Miel, Jovita Sison-Friese, Ligaya F. Amilbangsa, Teresita Pascua-Ines, Petronila Suarez, Lourdes Buena, Leon Tuy, Gloria Cabahug, and Ramon A. Obusan, have done much in the recording of tribal and folk dances, many of these recordings were only partly successful, especially if they were done before the coming of video recording. Often too, the dance researchers concentrated on recording principally the movements and formations, costumes and music, but failed to record the social context and meaning of the dance. Moreover, no systematic effort has been taken in the past to conduct in-depth taped interviews of choreographers on their works, so that now data on individual choreographies are limited to whatever are available in the program notes.