Philip schaff, D. D., LL. D., Professor in the union theological seminary, new york. In connection with a number of patristic scholars of europe and america



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Atrio, court [The Revised Version properly renders the terms referring to the “court,” etc. “Palace” (Authorized Version) is misleading.—R.]

9999 Mark xiv. 66.

100100 Or, regarding him, respiciente.

101101 Ps. xiii. 3.

102102 Converte.

103103 Ps. vi. 4.

104104 [This fanciful interpretation is unnecessary. The inner court of the large Jewish house, with rooms looking upon it, would allow place for all the incidents, without any departure from the simple historical sense.—R.]

105105 Matt. xxvii. 1, 2.

106106 Mark xv. 1, 2.

107107 Luke xxii. 63-xxiii. 1. [That Luke’s account gives in detail the formal meeting of the Sanhedrin at daybreak in altogether probable, since Matthew and Mark distinguish this assembly from the night examination.—R.]

108108 The text gives: ut inde caetera contexerent quousque perducerent, etc. Seven Mss. read perduxerant, = as far as they had drawn out their account, etc.

109109 Matt. xxvi. 59-xxvii. 1, 2; Mark xiv. 55-xv. 1, 2.

110110 Adducunt ergo Jesum ad Caiapham.

111111 John xviii. 28.

112112 In his 114 Tractate on John, Augustin again attempts to grapple with the difficulty created here by the reading which was before him, namely, to Caiaphas, instead of from Caiaphas. [The Greek text is “from Caiaphas.” The other reading is probably harmonistic error, of early origin.—R.]

113113 The text gives filii Israel, instead of a filiis Israel = they of the children of Israel.

114114 Matt. xxvii. 3–10.

115115 [It is refreshing to find this exhibition of critical judgment and candour. The critical canon respecting the lectio difficilier is virtually accepted. The easier reading was suggested by Origen.—R.]

116116 [The simplest explanation is that the name “Jeremiah” was applied to the collection of prophetical books, in which it was placed first by the Jews.—R.]

117117 Reading a quo non dicta sint. Most of the Mss. omit the non.

118118 [This explanation is at variance with many of the healthy expressions regarding inspiration which abound in Augustin’s expository writings.—R.]

119119 See Jer. xxxii.

120120 Reading delineanda. Four Mss. give delibanda = proper to touch upon.

121121 Matt. xxvii. 11–26.

122122 Mark xv. 9.

123123 Or, Christs, Christos.

124124 The text gives: et qui dixit illum an illum.

125125 Or, Christs, Christos.

126126 Mark xv. 2–15.

127127 Luke xxiii. 2, 3.

128128 Luke xxii. 4–12.

129129 Luke xxiii. 13, 14.

130130 The words, and of the chief priests, are omitted in the text. [So the Greek text, according to the best authorities. Comp. Revised Version.—R.]

131131 Luke xxiii. 15–23.

132132 Luke xxiii. 24, 25.

133133 John xviii. 28–30.

134134 John xviii. 31–34.

135135 John xviii. 35–37.

136136 John xviii. 37-xix. 7.

137137 John xix. 8–12.

138138 John xix. 13–16.

139139 [Many harmonists, in view of the fact that Jesus had been scourged before the events narrated in John xix. 2–16, place these occurrences after the delivery of Jesus to be crucified. In § 36 Augustin defends the view that Matthew and Mark have varied from the order. See also chap. xiii.—R.]

140140 Matt. xxvii. 27–31.

141141 Mark xv. 16–20.

142142 John xix. 1–3.

143143 Matt. xxvii. 30, 31.

144144 Mark xv. 20.

145145 Matt. xxvii. 32.

146146 Mark xv. 20, 21.

147147 Luke xxiii. 26. [This probably implies that the afterpart of the cross was laid upon Simon, not the whole of it. This obviates the necessity for the explanation given by Augustin.—R.]

148148 John xix. 16–18.

149149 Matt. xxvii. 33.

150150 Vinum. [So the correct Greek text. Comp. Revised Version.—R.]

151151 Matt. xxvii. 34.

152152 Mark xv. 23.

153153 Matt. xxvii. 35, 36. The words, “that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, They parted my garments among them, and upon my vesture did they cast lots,” are omitted [So the Greek text, according to the best authorities. Comp. Revised Version.—R.]

154154 Mark xv. 24.

155155 Luke xxiii. 34, 35.

156156 John xix. 23, 24.

157157 Matt. xxvii. 37. [No notice is taken of the different forms the “title” on the cross, recorded by the evangelists.—R.]

158158 Mark xv. 25.

159159 John xix. 13–16.

160160 Luke ix. 28.

161161 Matt. xvii. 1; Mark ix. 1.

162162 Matt. xxvii. 45; Mark xv. 33; Luke xxiii. 44.

163163 Mark xv. 25.

164164 John xix. 23.

165165 John xviii. 29–31.

166166 Matt. xxvii. 19.

167167 Luke xxiii. 16, 18.

168168 Luke xxiii. 20, 21.

169169 Luke xxiii. 22, 23.

170170 John xix. 4, 5.

171171 John xix. 6.

172172 John xix. 6–12.

173173 John xix. 12–14.

174174 John xix. 15.

175175 John xix. 15, 16.

176176 [The arrangement of the various details is open to discussion; but the probability is, that the virtual surrender of Pilate to the demand of the Jews took place about the third hour (9 A.M.), and that it was nearly two hours before the crucifixion took place.—R.]

177177 Mark xv. 13, 14.

178178 Dixit.

179179 Dicebat. (The Greek also has the imperfect, evlegen. But in the use of this verb in the New Testament the continuous force of the imperfect cannot be insisted upon, as many examples will show. The conclusion of Augustin is correct, despite the insufficiency of this argument.—R.]

180180 Fluitat = floats.

181181 2 Cor. iv. 3.

182182 2 Cor. ii. 16.

183183 John ix. 39.

184184 Rom. ix. 21.

185185 Rom. ix. 20.

186186 Rom. xi. 34.

187187 Rom. i. 24–28.

188188 Ps. xcii. 5, 6.

189189 Mark xv. 24.

190190 [There is so much force in the positions of Augustin in regard to the time of day, that one may overlook the irrelevant arguments he introduces. He at least candidly accepts the readings before him. The supposition of an early confusion of the numbers has no support, and such an alteration is altogether unlikely.—R.]

191191 Matt. xxvi. 66; Mark xiv. 64.

192192 [This view is extremely fanciful. “Preparation” was a Jewish term, with a distinct meaning. In early Christian times it meant Friday. To modify the sense is impossible.—R.]

193193 See above, Book ii. ch. 20.

194194 Matt. xxvii. 38.

195195 Mark xv. 27; Luke xxiii. 33.

196196 John xix. 18.

197197 Matt. xxvii. 39, 40.

198198 Matt. xxvii. 41–43.

199199 Mark xv. 29–32; Luke xxiii. 35–37.

200200 Matt. xxvii. 44.

201201 Mark xv. 32.

202202 Luke xxiii. 39.

203203 Luke xxiii. 40–43.

204204 Heb. xi. 33.

205205 Heb. xi. 37.

206206 Ps. ii. 2.

207207 Acts iv. 26, 27.

208208 Matt. xxvii. 45.

209209 Mark xv. 33–36; Luke xxiii. 44, 45.

210210 Matt. xxvii. 46, 47.

211211 Matt. xxvii. 48.

212212 Mark xv. 36.

213213 Matt. xxvii. 49.

214214 Luke xxiii. 36.,37.

215215 See chap. xvi.

216216 [This act of the soldiers was probably distinct from the giving of the vinegar referred to by the other evangelist; it belongs to the time when all were mocking the Crucified One.—R.]

217217 John xix. 28, 29.

218218 Matt. xxvii. 50.

219219 Mark xv. 37.

220220 Luke xxiii. 46.

221221 John xix. 30.

222222 [This view of the order is altogether the more probable one. See commentaries.—R.]

223223 Matt. xxvii. 51.

224224 Mark xv. 38.

225225 Luke xxiii. 45.

226226 Matt. xxvii. 51–53.

227227 Matt. xxvii. 54.

228228 Mark xv. 39.

229229 Luke xxiii. 47.

230230 Matt. xxvii. 55, 56.

231231 Mark xv. 40, 41.

232232 Luke xxiii. 48, 49.

233233 John xix. 25–27.

234234 Matt. xxvii. 57, 58.

235235 [Augustin’s text has jam a second time, agreeing with some early Greek Mss. Comp. Revised Version margin, “were already dead.”—R.]

236236 Mark xv. 42–45.

237237 Luke xxiii. 50–52.

238238 John xix. 38.

239239 Matt. xxvii. 59, 60.

240240 [All three evangelists use the same term in referring to “the linen cloth.” so the Latin text, The Authorized Version makes an unnecessary variation. John uses another word: see below.—R.]

241241 Mark xv. 46.

242242 Luke xxiii. 53.

243243 John xix. 39.

244244 John xix. 40–42.

245245 [John uses the term ojqonivoi", which the Latin renders linteis. Augustin’s discussion is not intelligible unless this variation is recognised.—R.]

246246 Matt. xxvii. 61.

247247 Mark xv. 47.

248248 Matt. xxvii. 62–66.

249249 Vespere autem Sabbati. [The Greek does not present the difficulty which is found in the Latin text, and discussed by Augustin in § 65 (latter part). The phrase is properly rendered in the Revised Version, “Now late on the Sabbath day.”—R.]

250250 The editions often give, in prima Sabbati = on the first day of the week. The best Mss. read, as above, in primam, etc.

251251 Matt. xxviii. 1–7.

252252 Mark xvi. 5.

253253 Mark xvi. 8.

254254 Matt. xxviii. 8.

255255 Mark xvi. 2. [Mark’s expression, according to the Greek text is more explicit: “when the sun was risen.” But this is to be explained by the context, as Augustin indicates.—R.]

256256 Aurorae.

257257 Mane.

258258 Albescente.

259259 Mane.

260260 Diluculo.

261261 Valde mane.

262262 Valde diluculo.

263263 Mane cum adhuc tenebrae essent.

264264 [The difficulty arises from taking vespere in its technical sense, as referring to the previous evening. As already intimated (see note on § 63), the Greek does not necessarily imply this.—R.]

265265 Diluculo.

266266 A sentence is sometimes added here in the editions, namely, Hinc magna redditur ratio verbi Domini = hence a large account is given of the Lord’s word. It is omitted in the Mss.

267267 Matt. xii. 40.

268268 The text gives, extremum diem tempus parasceues. One of the Vatican Mss. reads primum diem, etc. = the first day.

269269 See above, Book ii. chap. 56, § 113.

270270 [The Greek text connects closely this clause with the following one. Comp. Revised Version.—R.]

271271 The words, “and certain others with them,” are omitted here. [So the Greek text, according to the best authorities. Comp. Revised Version.—R.]

272272 Luke xxiii. 54-xxiv. 12.

273273 [Matthew tells nothing of their entering the tomb: but Mark distinctly affirms this, as does Luke.—R.]

274274 [The view that there were two parties of women is not noticed by Augustin. His explanations are in the main pertinent, though harmonists and commentators still disagree in regard to the details.—R.]

275275 John xx. 1–18.

276276 The text follows the Mss. in reading sine dubio caeteris mulieribus…plurimum dilectione ferventior. Some editions insert cum before caeteris mulieribus; in which case the sense would be = Mary Magdalene, unquestionably accompanied by the other women who had ministered to the Lord, but herself more ardent, etc.

277277 John xx. 9, 10.

278278 John xix. 41.

279279 Matt. xxviii. 5–7.

280280 John xx. 13.

281281 Luke xxiv. 5–8.

282282 John xx. 13–18.

283283 Matt. xxviii. 9.

284284 Matt. xxviii. 10.

285285 John xx. 18.

286286 Luke xxiv. 10, 11.

287287 [Augustin makes no allusion to the doubtful genuineness of Mark xvi. 9–20. The passage appears in nearly all early Latin codices.—R.]

288288 Matt. xxviii. 11–15.

289289 Some editions read undecim = the eleven.

290290 1 Cor. xv. 3–8.

291291 [Tu solus peregrinus es, agreeing with the Greek text: “Art thou the only sojourner,” etc. But comp. Revised Version.—R.]

292292 Another reading occurs here, non invenerunt = Him they found not.

293293 Luke xxiv. 13–24.

294294 [Luke xxiv. 12 is omitted by Tischendorf, on the authority of codices allied to the text of the Vulgate. The omission was probably occasioned by the difficulties discussed above.—R.]

295295 The text has, Sive alios quosdam duodecim discipulos Paulus, etc. In the Mss. another reading is found: Sive alios quosdam duodecim apostolus, etc. = it may be that the Apostle Paul intended some other twelve to be understood, etc.

296296 For sacratum illum numerum, five Mss. give sacramentum illius numeri = the mystical symbol of that number.

297297 Acts i. 26.

298298 Mark xvi. 12.

299299 In villam.

300300 Castellum.

301301 Villam.

302302 Agrum = field, domain, as the equivalent for ajgrovn.

303303 Castella.

304304 Municipia.

305305 1 Cor. x. 17.

306306 Matt. xvii. 2.

307307 The text gives, Non enim sicut erat, apparuit, etc. Some editions make it non enim aliter quam erat, sed sicut erat apparuit = for He did not really assume another form, but appeared in that which He had.

308308 Luke xxiv. 33, 34.

309309 Luke xxiv. 35.

310310 Mark xvi. 13.

311311 The words
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