Philip schaff, D. D., LL. D., Professor in the union theological seminary, new york. In connection with a number of patristic scholars of europe and america

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33 [The character of the Apocryphal Gospels is obvious. The reference of Luke (i. 1) is probably to fragmentary records, now lost. Comp. below Book iv. chap. 8.—R.]

44 Notissimi.

55 [This opinion is not only unwarranted, since Mark shows greater signs of originality, but it has been prejudicial to the correct appreciation of the Gospel of Mark. The verbal identity of Matthew and Mark in parallel passages is far less than commonly supposed.—R.]

66 Personam.

77 Luke iii. 31.

88 Matt. i. 6.

99 Some editions insert antiquos, the ancient Fathers; but the Mss. omit it.—Migne.

1010 John xix. 19–22.

1111 Ps. lxxv. 1.

1212 Two Mss. give prophetam (“prophet”) instead of prophetiam (“prophecy”).—Migne.

1313 Ps. cx. 4.

1414 1 Sam xxi. 6; Matt. xii. 3.

1515 The reading supported by the rnanuscripts is: Mariam commemorat ab Angelo manifestatam cognatam fuisse Elisabeth. It is sometimes given thus: Mariam commemorat manifeste cognatam, etc. = mentions that Mary was clearly related to Elizabeth.

1616 Luke i. 36, 5.

1717 Luke i. 32.

1818 1 Tim. ii. 5.

1919 Sine aliquo sacramento.

2020 [Here we have a mystical meaning attached to an opinion unwarranted by facts. Yet Augustin’s mystical treatment of the “Synoptic problem” is, with all its faults, not more fanciful and extravagant than some of the modern “critical” solutions of the same problem.—R.]

2121 Temporaliter.

2222 Quantum inter homines sufficere credidit.

2323 John i. 1, 3.

2424 John i. 14.

2525 John x. 30.

2626 John xiv. 9, 10.

2727 John xvii. 22.

2828 John v. 19.

2929 John xiii. 23.

3030 Illa qua itur, ista qua pervenitur.

3131 Qua vacatur.

3232 Reading lumine; but one of the Vatican Mss. gives in illuminatione, in the enlightenment of the purged.

3333 1 Cor. xiii. 12.

3434 Book xxii. 52.

3535 Laborans.

3636 Visum principium. In various editions it is given as visus principium. The Mss. have visum principium. In the passage referred to in the treatise against Faustus the Manichaean, Augustin appends the explanation, sive verbum ex quo videtur principium, = the first principle seen, or the word by which the first principle is seen. The etymologies on which Augustin proceeds may perhaps be these: for Leah, the Hebrew verb Laah, to be wearied (ha;l;

); and for Rachel the Hebrew forms Raah = see, and Chalal = begin (ll'h; ha;r;

). For another example of extravagant allegorizing on the two wives of Jacob, see Justin Martyr’s Dialogue with Trypho, chap. cxl.—Tr.

3737 [The latter application is that of Irenaeus (Adv. Haer. iii.); but the prevalent application is that of Jerome, which is accepted in mediaeval art. It differs from that of Augustin (see table below). As a curious illustration of the fanciful character of such interpretations, the reader may consult the following table, which gives the order of the following living creatures in Rev. iv. 7, with some of the leading “applications.”

3838 Rev. v. 5.

3939 Matt. ii. 1–18.

4040 Luke i. 5, 36.

4141 Luke ii. 22–24.

4242 See also Tract. 36, on John i. 5. [This figure of Augustin has controlled all the subsequent symbolism respecting the Evangelist John, and has been constantly cited by commentators.—R.]

4343 Has Domini sanctas quadrigas.

4444 Reading either palmam suae vanitatis objicere, or with several Mss. palmare, etc.

4545 Vel maxime pagani.

4646 Six Mss. omit the tunc, at that time.—Migne.

4747 Instead of de illo nuntia fama est, fourteen Mss. give de illo fama nuntiata est = is it a more trustworthy report that has been announced.—Migne.

4848 Quibas eum praedicantibus ipsa per totum mundum fama fragravit?

4949 Fama.

5050 De catholica ecclesia.

5151 Celebris.

5252 The words stand, as above, in the great majority of Mss.: tam celebris, ut eam timendo isti trepidas et tepidas contradictiunculas in sinu suo rodant, jam plus metuentes audiri quam volentes credi, Filiam Dei Unigenitum et Deum praedicat Christum? In some Mss. and editions the sense is altered by inserting est after celebris, and substituting nolentes for volentes, and praedicari for praedicat; so that it becomes = that report is of such distinguished currency, that in dread of it they can only mutter, etc.…as now rather fearing to be heard than refusing to admit the belief that Christ is proclaimed to be the only-begotten Son of God, etc. See Migne.—Tr.

5353 Simul eos cum illo pictos viderent.

5454 The text gives diem celebrius solemniter, etc.; others give diem celebrius et solemniter; and three Mss. have diem celeberrimum solemniter.—Migne.

5555 A pingentibus fingentes decepti sunt.

5656 Acts ix. 1–30.

5757 Civitatem.

5858 The text gives deos…colendos propitiare. Five mss. give deos…colendo propitiare.—Migne

5959 Chrism.

6060 Christos.

6161 Et qui eruit te, Deus Israel, universae terrae vocabitur. Isa. liv. 5. [Compare the Hebrew, from which the Latin citation varies.—R.]

6262 In his Retractations (ii. 16) Augustin alludes to this sentence, and says that the word Hebrews (Hebraei) may be derived from Abraham, as if the original form had been Abrahaei, but that it is more correct to take it from Heber, so that Hebraei is for Heberaei. He refers us also to his discussion in the City of God, xvi. 11.

6363 Gen. xxviii. 14.

6464 Chrism.

6565 The text gives probetur veritas Christi, etc.; six Mss. give profertur veritas, etc.—Migne.

6666 Or adduce—male laudando.

6767 The philosopher of the Neo-Platonic school, better known as one of the earliest and most learned antagonists of Christianity. Though a native either of Tyre or Batanea, he is called here, as also again in the Retractations, ii. 31, a Sicilian, because, according to Jerome and Eusebius (Hist. Eccles. vi. 19), it was in Sicily that he wrote his treatise in fifteen books against the Christian religion.—Tr.

6868 Luke iv. 41.

6969 Ps. xcvi. 5. [Comp 1 Cor. x. 20, where “demons” is the more correct rendering (so Revised Version margin and American revisers’ text).—R.]

7070 Or, to such power in interpreting the divine mind—tantae divinitati resistatur.

7171 Or, power—virtutis.

7272 The text gives invitandos; others read imitandos, to be imitated.

7373 Or, Away with that vain necessity and ridiculous timidity—Sed fuerit ista vana necessitas, etc.

7474 Reading fata. Seven Mss. give facta = deeds.

7575 [This reference to the destruction of idols has been used to fix the date of the Harmony; see Introductory Notice of translator. The polemic character of the larger part of Book i. seems due to the circumstances of that particular period in North Africa.—R.]

7676 Reading futuras etiam litteras…in auctoritate ita sublimi. Six Mss. give futurum…sublimari, but with substantially the same sense.

7777 Nihil aliud pro magno appetant quam cum aliquid eorum responsis sibi futurum esse didicerint.

7878 Reading notior; others give potior = preferable. [The text of Migne reads notior et potentior, but five Mss. read notior et potior. The argument favours the former reading, and the latter can readily be accounted for.—R.]

7979 Some read audere timeant = fear to dare. But the Mss. give more correctly audiri timeant = fear to be heard; i.e., the demons were afraid that, if they interdicted His worship, the true God might be made known by their own hand.—Migne.

8080 Or, the breathed air—spiritum.

8181 Jer. xxiii. 24.

8282 Spiritum, breath.

8383 Aërem.

8484 Alluding to the derivation of the word Aegis = aijgiv", a goatskin, from the Greek aivx = goat.

8585 See the first book of his De Natura Deorum, c. 42. Compare also Lactantius, De Falsa Religione, i. 11; and Varro, De Re Rustica, i. 48.

8686 The father of Roman literature, born B.C. 239 at Rudiae in Calabria, both a poet and a man of learning, and well versed, among other things, in Oscan, Latin, and Greek—linguistic accomplishments beyond his day. Of his writings we now possess only fragments, preserved by Cicero, Macrobius, Aulus Gellius, and others.

8787 Tusculan Disputations, Book i. 13.

8888 Honorem opinionis.

8989 From the Third Oration against Catiline, § 1.

9090 Non figat sed fingat.

9191 On this Leo or Leon, see also Augustin’s City of God, viii. 5. Reference is often made to him by early Christian writers as a thinker agreeing so far with the principles of Euhemerus (in whose time, or perhaps somewhat before it, he flourished) as to teach that the gods of the old heathen world were originally men. He is mentioned by Arnobius, Adversus Gentest, iv. 29; (Clement of Alexandria, Stromata, i. 23; Tertullian, De Corona, c. 7. Tatian, etc.

9292 Reading, with Migne, Sed quid ad nos? Dicant se Jovem, etc. Others give, Sed quid ad nos si decant, etc. = But what is it to us although they say that they worship, etc. The si, however, is wanting in the Mss.

9393 Reading, with Migne, Quid dicunt de Saturno? Quem, etc. Others give, Quid dicunt de Saturno qui = What do those say about Saturn who worship Saturn? The Mss. have quem.

9494 Quasi latentem indicat, in reference to the story introduced in the Virgilian passage, that the country got its name, Latium, from the disappearance of the god.

9595 The statue of Saturn represented him with a sickle or pruning-knife in his hand.

9696 Migne’s text gives, on the authority of Mss., the reading, Nam videris si fuit ille homo, etc. Others edit, Nam tametsi fuerit ille, etc. = For although he may have been a man…yet we interpret, etc.

9797 For Kronos.

9898 Saturetur—saturated, abundantly furnished.

9999 Chronos, Kronos.

100100 Or satiety.

101101 Choros.

102102 Nous.

103103 Full, mind.

104104 Reading arces. Some editions give artes = arts.

105105 Genethliacos.

106106 Senex.

107107 Vicus Senis.

108108 Vicus Saturni.

109109 Reading colorare, as in the Mss. Some editions give colere = revere.

110110 Reading fecunditatis. Faeditatis, foulness, also occurs.

111111 Gen. i. 1.

112112 Gen. v. 24.

113113 Gen. vii.

114114 Gen. xxii. 18.

115115 Gen. xxvi. 4.

116116 Jer. xvi. 19.

117117 Deut. vi. 4. [See Revised Version, text and margin, for the variations in the rendering of the Hebrew. Comp. Mark xii. 29 for similar variations in the passage as cited in the New Testament.—R.]

118118 Exod. xx. 4.

119119 Exod. xxiii. 24. [Simulacra eorum. The Revised Version renders “their pillars,” with “obelisks” in the margin.—R.]

120120 Vocabunt.

121121 Isa. vii. 14; Matt. i. 23.

122122 Reading Si Saturnum putant. Others read, Si Saturnum Deum putant = if they deem Saturn to be God, etc.

123123 Ps. lxxii. 11.

124124 Homo.

125125 Vir.

126126 The text gives humiliatum; but elatum seems to be required, corresponding with the LXX metewron.

127127 Reading cedrum Libani excelsorum et elatorum, which is given by the Mss., and is accordant with the LXX uyhlwn kai metewrwn. Some editions give cedrum Libani excelsam et elatam = Every high and elevated cedar of Lebanon.

128128 The LXX. here has kai epi pa;n o;endoon Basavm = And upon every tree of the acorn of Bashan. For the balavou Augustin adopts Libani, as if he read in the Greek Aibanou.

129129 The fifteenth verse of our version is wholly omitted.

130130 [Ver. 18, though very relevant, is omitted: “And the idols shalt utterly pass away.”—R.]

131131 Isa. ii. 5–21. [The variations from the Hebrew are quite numerous; compare the English versions.— R.]

132132 Per suorum libros.


[…Et dedita sacris

Incerti Judaea Dei.—R.]

134134 Reading torpidus; for which others give tepidus, cool.

135135 Ps. xix. 6.

136136 [Ps. xix. 1–6, partly in citation, partly in allegorizing paraphrase.—R.]

137137 Reading humilitate; some editions give humanitate, the humanity.

138138 Isa. liv 5.

139139 Puer.

140140 Purgare deus illum de plaga.

141141 Figurare per sensum = set forth in sensible figure.

142142 Reading aulas tuas confige; others give caulas = thy folds.

143143 Isa. lii. 13-liv. 5 [The variations from the Hebrew, especially in some of the more obscure passages, are worthy of notice. Compare the Revised Version, text and margin, in loco.—R.]

144144 Matt. xxvi., xxvii.; Mark xiv., xv.; Luke xxii., xxiii.; John xviii., xix.

145145 [Isa. lii. 15 (in the Revised Version): “So shall He sprinkle many nations,” with margin, “Or, startle.”—R.]

146146 Rom. xv. 16, 21.

147147 Magis ipsae vident quam vera nuntiata sint per prophetas.

148148 John xii. 37, 38; Rom. x. 16.

149149 Rom. v. 20.

150150 Deut. vii. 5.

151151 Pythonum.

152152 Aruspicia.

153153 Reading defessa; others give depressa, crushed.

154154 Others read nolunt, who refuse.

155155 See Cicero’s Oration in behalf of Roscius.

156156 See Cicero, Against Verres, 5.

157157 Rom. v. 5.

158158 In rebus orintibus et occidentibus occupata tenebatur.

159159 Fieret et deorsum hominibus exemplum redeundi et eis qui sursum sunt angelis exemplum manendi.

160160 Reading quae medietas temporalis esset de imis, justa de summis. Another version gives quae medietas temporalis esset de imis mixta et summis = which temporal mediatizing factor might be made up of the lowest and the highest objects together, or = which might be a temporal mediatizing factor made up, etc.

161161 1 Tim. ii. 5.

162162 Hominem.

11 Matt. i. 1.

22 Matt. viii. 20, ix. 6.

33 Isa. liii. 8.

44 Luke iii. 23. [Revised Version, “And Jesus Himself, when He began to teach, was about,” etc. The Latin, erat incipiens, conveys the same sense.—R.]

55 Luke ii. 40, 41.

66 Et erat pater ejus, etc., instead of Joseph, etc. [The correct text in Luke ii. 33 is undoubtedly that given by Augustin. Compare critical editions of the Greek text. So Revised Version, “And His father and His mother,” etc.—R.]

77 Luke ii. 33.

88 [Compare Revised Version, where the parenthesis is correctly given.—R.]

99 Rom. i. 3.

1010 Luke i. 5.

1111 Luke i. 36.

1212 Matt. i. 1–16.

1313 Luke iii. 23–38.

1414 In the
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