Philip schaff, D. D., LL. D., Professor in the union theological seminary, new york. In connection with a number of patristic scholars of europe and america



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119119 Condere…tinea et comestura exterminant; Vulgate, thesaurizare…aerrugo et tinea domolitur.

120120 Not the specific rust of metals; wider sense of wear and tear.

121121 Condere…tinea et comestura exterminant; Vulgate, thesaurizare…aerrugo et tinea domolitur.

122122 Erit; Vulgate, est.

123123 Ps. cxv. 16.

124124 Matt. xxiv. 35. Robert South gives his sermon on this passage the heading, “No man ever went to heaven whose heart was not there before.” It has been remarked, as regards an earthly Church, one does not take abiding interest in it unless one gives toward it.

125125 Lucerna…lumen.

126126 Lucerna…lumen.

127127 Rom. xiii. 10.

128128 Col. iii. 5.

129129 “Singleness of intention will preserve us from the snare of having a double treasure, and therefore a divided heart” (Plumptre).

130130 Eph. v. 13. Augustin’s rendering here is the true sense of the original.

131131 The eye is as the lamp (Revised Version) through which the body gets light,—the organ whose proper work it is to transmit light. The blind have no light, because their lamp is out or destroyed. The light within us is “the reason, especially the practical reason” (Meyer); that which is left of the divine image in man (Tholuck): the reason that was left after the fall of Adam (Calvin); the Old-Testament revelation perverted (Lange); the conscience (Alford). “The spirit of man is the candle (lamp, Revised Version) of the Lord” (Prov. xx. 27): it guides the faculties of the soul. But if it be in darkness how great is that darkness; i.e. the darkness which already existed! What a terrible condition those are in who do not receive the Spirit of enlightenment (who becomes the “inner light”), and feel no need of Him! “He whose affections are on heavenly things, has his whole soul lighted; he whose affections are depraved, has his understanding and his whole soul darkened also” (Mansel).

132132 Alterum patietur; Vulgate, unum sustinebit.

133133 Augustin is the only one to give this derivation. His residence in North Africa is the explanation of his knowledge of the Punic. The word probably comes from the Chaldee and through the Hebrew word aman, “what is trusted in.” (See Thayer, Lexicon.)

134134 John xii. 31 and xiv. 30.

135135 Ecclus v. 5, 6.

136136 Patientia…invitat; Vulgate, benignitas…adducit.

137137 Patientia…invitat; Vulgate, benignitas…adducit.

138138 Rom. ii. 4.

139139 Rom. xi. 17–24.

140140 Luther says the world can do it in a masterly way, and carry the tree (or “water” according to the English figure) on both shoulders. This verse is a rebuke to those who think they can combine a supreme affection for heavenly and for earthly things at the same time, and pursue both with equal zeal.

141141 Wisd. i. 1.

142142 Habere sollicitudinem; Vulgate, sollicitae sitis.

143143 Edatis; Vulgate, manducetis.

144144 John xii. 25.

145145 Detrimentum faciat; Vulgate, detrimentum patiatur.

146146 Matt xvi. 26.

147147 Curans; Vulgate, cogitans.

148148 The term hjlikiva, translated by Augustin and the Vulgate statura, and by the English version stature, more probably means the measure of life, or age (American notes to Revised Version, Tholuck, De Wette, Trench, Alford, Meyer, Schaff, Plumptre, Weiss, etc.) A cubit was equal to the length of the forearm. The force of the Lord’s words would be greatly diminished if such a measure was conceived of as possible to be added to the stature. The idea is, that human ingenuity and labor cannot add the least measure.

149149 To the Jew the highest representative of splendour and pomp.

150150 Vestitutus; Vulgate, coopertus. “As the beauties of the flower are unfolded by the divine Creator Spirit from within, from the laws and capacities of its own individual life, so must all true adornment of man be unfolded from within by the same Spirit. This hidden meaning must not be overlooked” (Alford). The law of spiritual growth is mysterious and spontaneous.

151151 The argument, so called, a minore ad majus.

152152 Luke xviii. 2–8.

153153 Edemus…vestiemur; Vulgate, manducabimus…operiemur.

154154 Edemus…vestiemur; Vulgate, manducabimus…operiemur.

155155 Apponentur; Vulgate, adjicientur.

156156 Matt. vi. 33.

157157 Acts xx. 34.

158158 Quoerunt; Vulgate, volunt.

159159 2 Cor. xi. 12.

160160 Templo; Vulgate, sacrario.

161161 Inanem faciat; Vulgate, evacuet.

162162 1 Cor. ix. 13–17.

163163 Nor is it said, “Seek…in order that all these things may be added:” simply, “and all,” etc., yet largely inclusive,—sanctity and comfort. The comfort follows naturally. The passage is a rebuke to those who condemn the amenities of life and art, and a caution to those who place these things before themselves as a chief end. The passage justifies the statement that religion (or godliness) is profitable for the life that now is. The Psalmist never saw the righteous forsaken. A traditional saying of Jesus, quoted by Clement, Origen, and Eusebius, runs. “Ask great things, and little things shall be added; ask heavenly things, and earthly things shall be added.”

164164 Nor is it said, “Seek…in order that all these things may be added:” simply, “and all,” etc., yet largely inclusive,—sanctity and comfort. The comfort follows naturally. The passage is a rebuke to those who condemn the amenities of life and art, and a caution to those who place these things before themselves as a chief end. The passage justifies the statement that religion (or godliness) is profitable for the life that now is. The Psalmist never saw the righteous forsaken. A traditional saying of Jesus, quoted by Clement, Origen, and Eusebius, runs. “Ask great things, and little things shall be added; ask heavenly things, and earthly things shall be added.”

165165 Cogitare in crastino; Vulgate, solliciti esse in crastinum. There is no uniformity in Augustin’s or the Vulgate’s translation of the Greek merimnavw (“take anxious thought”) in this passage.

166166 The morrow will bring its own vexations and anxieties. The English version entirely misleads as to the meaning of the special clause, “will take care of itself.” The Revised Version is a literal translation, and at least gives the true sense by implication. But with each day’s temptations and troubles, it is implied, special enablement and deliverance will be provided.

167167 Wiclif, following the Vulgate, translates malice; Tyndale, trouble; the Genevan Bible, grief.

168168 Our Lord’s precept is not against provident forethought,—of which Augustin goes on to give examples,—but against anxious thought which implies distrust of God’s providence. Anxious, fretful, distrustful care for the future, unreliant upon God’s bounty, wisdom, and love (as implied in the address, your heavenly Father) is declared to be unnecessary (25, 26), foolish (27–30), and heathenish (32, “After these things do the Gentiles seek”). The passages teach trust in God, who is more interested in His children than in the fowls of the air, and will certainly take care of them.

169169 Matt. iv. 11.

170170 John xii. 6.

171171 Thesaurizans; Vulgate, recondens.

172172 Advenero; Vulgate, praesens fuero.

173173 1 Cor. xvi. 1–8.

174174 Not in the original Greek or Vulgate, but implied in the preceding context.

175175 Not in the original Greek or Vulgate, but implied in the preceding context.

176176 Acts xi. 27–30. The clause shows much divergence from the Vulgate in construction.

177177 Acts xxviii. 10.

178178 Operans; Vulgate, operando.

179179 Eph. iv. 28. Unde tribuere cui opus est; Vulgate, unde tribuat necessitatem patienti.

180180 1 Thess. ii. 9; 2 Thess. iii. 8.

181181 Acts xviii. 2, 3.

182182 Rom. v. 3–5.

183183 2 Cor. xi. 23–27.

184184 Sine scientia, amore, necessitate (“without knowledge, love, necessity.”—Bengel). The discussion is one of the most thorough and satisfactory sections of Augustin’s commentary.

185185 Judicetur de vobis…judicabitur; Vulgate, judicemini…judicabimini.

186186 Judicetur de vobis…judicabitur; Vulgate, judicemini…judicabimini.

187187 1 Cor. v. 12.

188188 Rom. xiv. 3, 4.

189189 Cogitationes; Vulgate, consilia.

190190 1 Cor. iv. 5.

191191 1 Tim. v. 24, 25.

192192 Omnis qui percusserit; Vulgate, omnes qui acceperint.

193193 Matt. xxvi. 52.

194194 Luke xxiii. 33–43.

195195 The meaning is, how wilt thou have the effrontery to say, dare to say. The precept forbids all meddling, censoriousness, and captious faultfinding, and the spirit of slander, backbiting, calumny, etc.

196196

“Ere you remark another’s sin,



Bid your own conscience look within.” —Cowper.

197197 Lucrifacerem; Vulgate, facerem salvos.

198198 1 Cor. ix. 19–22.

199199 Gal. v. 13.

200200 Cant. iv. 1.

201201 Eph. v. 27.

202202 John xvi. 12.

203203 1 Cor. iii. 1, 2.

204204 Matt. xxii. 15–34.

205205 Chap. xxi. 23–27.

206206 John i. 19–27.

207207 The conditions of effective prayer are, that it should be made in the name of Christ (John xv. 16), with faith, and according to God’s will (1 John v. 14).

208208 This has been regarded as a strong proof-text for the doctrine of original sin. Bengel calls it “a shining testimony for original sin.” Stier says it is “the strongest proof-text for original sin in the whole of the Holy Scriptures.” Meyer says the reference is to actual sin; while Plumptre declares that “the words at once recognise the fact of man’s depravity, and assert that it is not total.”

209209 Ps. xxiv. 1.

210210 Ps. cxlvi. 6.

211211 Bona; the Vulgate does not contain it.

212212 The nearest approach that any uninspired Jewish teacher came to the Golden Rule—the designation by which these words are known—was the saying of Hillel, “What is unpleasant to thyself, do not to thy neighbour. This is the whole law, and all the rest is commentary upon it.” Beautiful as the saying is, it falls behind Christ’s words, because it is merely negative, while they are a positive requirement. The Stoics and the Chinese ethics also have a similar negative precept. It is strange that the Teaching of the Twelve Apostles (1. 2) gives the negative form, and not the positive precept. Augustin says we ought to be glad when writers before Christ spoke things in the Gospel (En. in Ps. cxl. 6).

213213 Matt. xxii. 37–40.

214214 Matt. v. 8.

215215 Introite; Vulgate, intrate.

216216 The narrowness of the way is taken to represent the self-denial and hardships of disciples (Meyer, Mansel, etc.), or righteousness (Bengel, Schaff, etc.). “The picture is a dark one, and yet it represents but too faithfully the impression made, I do not say on Calvinist or true Christian, but on any ethical teacher, by the actual state of mankind around us. If there is any wider hope, it is found in hints and suggestions of the possibilities of the future (I Pet. iii. 19, iv. 6),” etc. ( Plumptre).

217217 Lene…sarcina; Vulgate, suave…onus.

218218 Lene…sarcina; Vulgate, suave…onus.

219219 Matt. xi. 28–30.

220220 Cavete a pseudoprophetis; Vulgate, attendite a falsis prophetis.

221221 Excellency of fruitage is sanctity of life (Bonitas fructuum est sanctitas vitae (Bengel).

222222 More particularly his works against the Manichaeans, Contra Faustum Manichaeum, etc. Augustin also made much use of this passage against the Pelagians, to show that the will must be aided to produce good thoughts and deeds; that the unregenerate man is incapable of restoring himself.

223223 Matt. xii. 33, 34.

224224 Matt. xxiii. 3,2.

225225 Jer. xii. 13.

226226 Gal. v. 19–23.

227227 Isa. lvii. 21, according to the Septuagint.

228228 Col. ii. 3.

229229 Many called Him Lord, but He never called any one Lord (ipsum multi, etiam amplissimi viri,—ipse neminem ne Pilatum quidem, dominum vocavit.—Bengel).

230230 1 Cor. xii. 3.

231231 1 Cor. xiii. 6.

232232 Dicam; Vulgate, confitebor; Greek, oJmologhvsw. Meyer says, “It is the conscious dignity of the future Judge of the world.” Bengel calls attention to the great power of the word (magna potestas hujus dicti). In this action Christ lays the most confident claim to functions not imparted to any human being.

233233 Luke x. 20.

234234 1 Cor. vi. 9.

235235 Exod. vii. and viii.

236236 Inducantur etiam electi; Vulgate, inducantur, si fieri potest, etiam electi.

237237 Matt xxiv. 23–25.

238238 Mitem…diversa sentientes; Vulgate, mansuetum…resistunt veritati.

239239 Mitem…diversa sentientes; Vulgate, mansuetum…resistunt veritati.

240240 2 Tim. ii. 24, 25.

241241 Matt. v. 9.

242242 Similis est… Vulgate, assimilabitur. Meyer, Tholuck, etc, refer this to the future judgment, “I will make him like,” etc., when Christ will establish those who keep His sayings for ever (opposed by Alford etc.).

243243 1 Cor. x. 4. So Alford, who thinks this signification too plain to be overlooked.

244244 Offenderunt; Vulgate, irruerunt.

245245 The transitory teachings and institutions of men as opposed to Christ’s own word.

246246 Offenderunt; Vulgate, irruerunt.

247247 Facta est; Vulgate, fuit.

248248 Vulgate adds et Pharisaei. The people were astonished, not merely at His teachings, but the dignity and self-consciousness with which Christ uttered them, quod nova quaedam majestas et insueta hominum mentes ad se raperet (Calvin). The Scribes spoke as expounders of the law, and referred back to Moses for their authority; Christ spoke in His own name, and as an independent legislator, vested with greater authority than Moses and a higher dignity. The Scribes by elaborate sophistry often drew many meanings from a single precept, and burdened the people with an intricate and endless variety of precepts for the details of conduct, laying painful stress upon their observance; Christ directed attention from outward acts to the motive and intent of the heart. “He opposed a genuine righteousness to the mock righteousness of the Scribes and Pharisees.”

249249 Ps. xii. 5, 6.

250250 Isa. xi. 2, 3.

11 The writer may be pardoned for alluding to his own experience in connection with this point. In the exegetical labours of some years, he found himself accepting the theory that the three Synoptists wrote independently of each other. Afterwards, when the task of editing Dr. Robinson’s Greek Harmony compelled him to compare again and again every word of each account, the evidences of independence seemed to him to be overwhelming.

22 See Schaff, History of the Christian Church, vol. ii. rev. ed., pp. 493 sqq., 726 sqq.; also Schaff-Herzog, Encyclopedia, article “Diatessaron.” For the literature, see as above, and the supplementary volume of the Ante-Nicene Fathers, pp. 33–35. Tatian’s Address to the Greeks may be found in vol. ii. Ante-Nicene Fathers, pp. 65–83.

33 For full titles of these volumes, see Schaff, as above.

44 The letter of Eusebius to Caprianus is given by C. R. Gregory (Prolegomena to Tischendorf’s eighth edition, part i. pp. 143–153), together with a full list of the sections arranged under the separate canons. The numbers signify as follows:—

1. In all four Gospels, 71.

2. In Matthew, Mark, Luke, 111.

3. In Matthew, Luke, John, 22.

4. In Matthew, Mark, John, 26.

5. In Matthew, Luke, 82.

6. In Matthew, Mark, 47.

7. In Matthew, John, 7.

8. In Luke, Mark, 14.

9. In Luke, John, 21.



10. In one Gospel: Matthew, 62; Mark, 21; Luke, 71; John, 97.

55 For lists of Harmonies, see Schaff, History of the Christian Church, rev. ed. vol. i.pp. 575, 576; Gardiner, Harmony, pp. xxxiv.-xxxvii.; Robinson, Harmony, revised by Riddle, pp. ix, x. Each of these lists contains references to older authors and their lists. See also Smith, Bible Dictionary, Am. ed. (Hackett and Abbot) ii. pp. 950, 960.

11 Reading redditum. Four Mss. give revelatum = as brought to light.—Migne.

22 Instead of Qui non solum, as above, many Mss. read Cujus, etc.—Migne.
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