Philip schaff, D. D., LL. D., Professor in the union theological seminary, new york. In connection with a number of patristic scholars of europe and america

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6767 Provfasin. But it was not their pretext, but their real motive: v 17. Any one conversant with Greek authors cannot fail to notice that, with some mental process of their own, they at times use expressions naturally suggesting the very contrary to to what they must mean.

6868 Eujlavbeian, Lit. carefulness in handling anything holy—reverence.

6969 Aujtoj, i. e., the change e[gklhma, involved in ejgkale`i.

7070 Philip. i. 17.

7171 Philip. v. 18.

7272 jEkei`noi, Lat isti, “the men”.3.

7373 Kakourgiva, , of the sophist Arist. Rhet. iii. 2, 7.4.

7474 khvpugma. In its proper sense. the thing preached, the Gospel. But it more commonly is =khruxi", which word is scarcely used at all.

7575 1 Cor. iii. 19. Drassovmeno", lit. clutches. Hence dracmh;, a handful of copper, sofouv", falsely wise. “Sofiva; ajreth; tecnh`".” Arist. Eth. Nich. 1. vi. comp. Luke xvi. 8, of the dishonest steward.

7676 Philip. i. 24.25.

7777 Aplw`".

7878 Ektenw`". Like a racer. with every muscle “stretched out.” Antilochos exclaims to his horses in the chariot race, Eimbhton, ka;i sfw`ij titaineton. Il. xxiii. 403. comp. Philip. iii. 13 ; toi`" e[mprosqen ejpektenovmeno" diwvkw; the same metaphor.

7979 Para{meinon. wait, as it were, at the door; paraj, until answered. Matt. vii. 7, tw` korouonti (to him who continues kuocking) ajnoighvsetai.

8080 Apostreqovmeno". The Pagans adopted the expression literally, Diva solo fixos oculos aversa tenebat, Virg. Aen. i. 482.

8181 Here we have poio`usi, as in English, after katevcein. See previous note. It might be katevcousi, repeated.

8282 Peridomh`", running about for votes and favour. Lat. ambitio. “Non ego * Grammaticas ambire tribus et pulpita. dignor.” ”Hor. Epist. I. 19, 40.

8383 To understand this description we have to bear in mind that, at Rome at least, legal advocates could claim no fees. They were forbidden, at least before the Imperial age, by the Cincian law. Turpe reos emptƒ miseros defendere linguƒ. Ov. A mor. i. 10, 30. Hence, the obtaining the secvices of an eminent lawyer required interest and entreaty. So the Sicilians begged Cicero to undertake the prosecution of Verres. Cic. in Verr. Div. c. 12.

8484 Ekpemyai, i. e. from the hall, as it were, of audience.

8585 Ektenevia", as above.

8686 Kunarivoi". In Greek as in Latin and German, the diminutive sometimes expresses contempt.

8787 Matt. xv. 22, 26, 28.

8888 Matt. v.23.

8989 Matt. v.24.

9090 Matt. v. 27. That is, the bread thrown to them, when it had been used to cleanse the fingers. Gr. ajpomagdaliva,ab ajpouavssomai. Comp. the very apposite passage, in which Agaracritus, a low person, says that this had been his own fare; h[ mavthn gavn ];Apomagdaliva" sitvoumeno" toso`uto" ejktrafevihn. Cleon rejoins, jApomagdalivoi" wJsper kuvwn, w\ pampovnhre; pw`" ou`n kuno" borajn sitomvmeno" mavcei su;, Aristoph Equ.412 .Kuna[ria.So “canicula”,of the dog star, invisum sidus.

9191 Tatuth=aujth`.

9292 Diakrouvshtai, as with rude violence. Lit. knock to a distance from himself, as with a hard blow.

9393 Esiga. Not literally, for Christ had answered, “It is not meet to take the children’s bread.” But that was silence, as far as returning any favorable answer went.

9494 Th;n ajndevian th`" gunaiko;". Lit the woman’s manliness ; a courage above her sex. The antithesis is doubtless intentional. virtus
. Gibbon, using this is the general sense, has the expression. “manly virtue,” in reference to ajreth`" vAdrvna Hom. Odys. xvii. 322.

9595 Fhsi;n with no nominative Certainly not Christ-the disciples said it. We might expect favsin; but this I believe Chrysostom never uses in these cases. “It says i. e. the history, or he”, the Evangelist. Sometimes ti" is understood.

9696 Apokrousovmeqa. Rebut the charges brought against us., comp. the double sense of the Lat. crimen.

9797 Parrhsivan. Here, liberty to address the Court. So King Agrippa says, “Paul, thou art permitted to speak for thyself” Acts xxvi. 1. Chrysostom throughout maintains the metaphor of the judicial process— ajprostavteuto", k.t.l

9898 Qugatrion. Here a diminutive of endearment filola. \W Swkratidion filtaton, Arist. Nub. 736. As the Greeks said, uJpokoristidw`".

9999 Kairon, , Aristotle, A critical moment.

100100 Eujkoliv". Effect for cause ; contentedness for that which creates it; ease. Comp. “O Melib’e, Deus nobis haec otia fecit”, Virg. Ecl. i. 6.

101101 Eke`i. The Greek euphemism for the other world. Aristophanes speaks of the kindliness and contentedness of Sophocles in both states of being, JO dj ejukolo" mevn ejnqavd e[ukalo" dj ejkei. Ran’, 82. See last note.

11 1 Tim. . 3, 15.

22 1 Cor. xv. 8,9.

33 Luke v.8.

44 Matt. x. 3.

55 Ps. xxxvii. 5.

66 Isa. vi. 5.

77 Eph.ii. 6, 7.

88 Eph. ii. 7.

99 2 Cor. ix. 15.

1010 Phil. iv. 7.

1111 Gen. iv. 1.

1212 Gen. iv. 25.

1313 Luke xxiii. 43.

1414 Gen. xi. 6.

1515 Gen. xi. 6.

1616 Amos iii. 6.

1717 Ps. lxxviii. 34.

1818 Isa. xiv. 7.

1919 Matt. vi. 34.

2020 Job i. 21.

2121 Matt. viii. 28 sqq.

2222 Luke xiii. 4.

2323 Ps. cxxix. 3.

2424 Matt. v.22.

2525 Matt. v.37.

2626 Matt. v.28.

2727 John v.5,14.

11 Matt. viii. 31.

22 Ecclus. xvi. 3.

33 Job i:16

44 Ps. civ. 24.

55 Wisd. xiii. 5.

66 Rom. i. 20.

77 Rom. 1.21, 25.

88 1 Cor. i. 18.

99 1 Cor. i. 23.

1010 2 Cor. ii. 16.

1111 John ix. 39.

1212 1 Cor. v. 5.

1313 2 Cor. ii. 8, 7, 11.

1414 Job ii. 5, 6.

1515 1 Cor. v. 5.

1616 1 Thess. v.2.

1717 Ecclus. v.8.

1818 1 Thess. v.3.

1919 Isa. xliii. 26.

2020 Ps. xxxii. 5.

2121 Matt. vi. 14.

2222 Luke xviii. 3.

2323 Dan. iv. 27.

2424 Luke xviii. 13.

2525 Mark xii. 42.

11 Prov. ix. 12.

11 dianoiva". In Chrysostom equivalent to the nou’s of St. Paul (Rom. xii. 2); the moral and spiritual mind. Amarthvmata. Lit. missings of the mark: errors of the moral will.

22 ejkolavzeto. The imperfect denotes the continuous character of the punishment. So ejphne`ito “had lasting praise.” . Aristotle Eth.

33 Eqevlonta". In its theological sense. . Not a classical, but an ecclesiastical word (John i. 13). So our Lord, eiv ti" qevlei, has the will.

44 oiJ mollovi, as opposed to oiJ carievnte", those of culture and refinernent. Arist. Eth.

55 A common sense of ,manqanw. Manqavnei"; ouj manqavnw. Aristophanes; who was a favorite author with Chrysostom.

66 The article here has this universal force. Matt. xviii. 15.

77 1 Cor. iv. 6; 2 Cor. xii. 21.

88 jEdeixa. jEndeixi". Lat. index (digitus) the fore-finger.

99 The idea seems to be that of making the accused entirely forget the defence, such as used to be written for him by some Attic orator.

1010 e[nteuxi", an Aristotelic term. , the way of addressing a large body.

1111 Still continuing the simile of a wind.

1212 katevlusan, de-struo, to take to pieces, pull down, a building.

1313 ejdeeto. Denotes continuance in prayer. Comp. Matt. vii. 7,8.

1414 ejpilabevsqai, as in wrestling.

1515 Heb. xi. 16.

1616 Allav. This adverb is not always adversative. It is sometimes, as here, connective denoting a transition in treating the subject. Comp. Aristophanes Acharn. 377–383.

1717 jAuth;. The use of ajuto;" in the nominative in this sense ; ipse, seems to have been introduced in the Alexandrian period of Greek literature. LXX.

1818 jAuth;. The use of ajuto;" in the nominative in this sense ; ipse, seems to have been introduced in the Alexandrian period of Greek literature. LXX.

1919 The constant signification of duvnami" in the Gospels.

2020 Prooimivwn, lit. the prelude, overture. Oi[ma" Mou`" ejdivdaxe fu`lon ajoidw`n, Hom. Od. 481. .

2121 jAuth`" , lege de; au`thvn.

2222 Paramevenonta, waiting; as it were, like a beggar at the door.

2323 Pajrrjhsivan, a phrase of courtly ceremonial: sometimes coupled with prasagwgh, the antecedent ceremony of introduction to a king’s presence. Xenphon, Cyrop. vii. 5,45. Both occur in Virg. Aen. i. 520. “Postquam introgressi, et coram data copia fandi.” The literal translation of parjrJhsi[a: coram = parav “in the presence.” Comp. Chrysost. Hom. II. in 2 Cor. of the catechumens standing outside the holy rails, and not allowed to take part in the Lord’s Prayer.

2424 Literally “from below.” Comp. Virgil ’n. l. 37; imoq trahens de pectore vocem.

2525 Matt. v. 16.

2626 To strike any one within “the precincts of the court” even has been made a capital offence.

2727 Matt. xviii. 28.

2828 Possibly “stomach” comp. Thuc. ii. 49, oJpovte ij" th;n kapdian othrixai. Lat. stomachor. A medical sense, and the metaphor here is medical throughout. So “cardiacus.” Juvenal.

2929 Becauae it is filled with better thoughts. No room for him.

11 In Eutrop. i. 104, 105.

22 In Eutrop. ii. 39, 136.

33 Hom. i. 2.

44 Hom. i. 3.

55 Hom. ii. 1.

66 Hom. ii. i.

77 For a fuller account of all these events, see Life cf St. John Chrysostom by W. R. W. Stephens (pp.298–356, 3d edition).

11 Prov. xxvii. 6.

22 tw`n oujden ojntwn oujdaminwvtera.

33 Holy vessels would be the literal rendering of the word (skevuesi), but it is clear from what follows that the altar is intended.

44 Possibly an allusion to the curtain which in Eastern Churches, was drawn in front of the altar.

55 Luke xxiii. 34.

66 Is. xl 6 7.

77 Ps. xxxvii. 2.

88 Ps. cii. 4.

99 Matt. xvi. 18.

1010 oju tovpon mojnon ajlla; kai` trovpon.

11 Pesinus was in Galatia, Apamea in Bithynia, Appiaria I have not identified.

22 Libellos, a technical word signifying a formal petition of complaint or accusation.

33 Curiosus, an official whose duty it was to investigate charges, and inform the Emperor of offenders.

44 i. e., Easter Eve.

55 oi\koi ejukthvroi. Churches were sometimes so called, more often, however, private chapels as distinguished from parish churches. The meaning here is not very obvious; perhaps some chambers attached to the Church, where catechumens prayed before baptism, are referred to.

66 Campiductores—their special business was to drill recruits.

77 I have followed the Latin here. The Greek version of the pssage seems to me hopelessly confused.

88 The Council of Sardica was convened A.D. 343, (or A.D. 344 ?) with a view of settling the Arian controversy. The Oriental bishops, however, of whom the majority belonged to the Arian faction, seceded from Sardica, and held a separate council at Philippopolis. where they drew up a creed which was condemned by the Western bishops as heretical.

11 Sozomen , Ch. Hist., VIII.2.

22 Socrates and Kurtz (in both the 10th edition of his Kirchengeschichte, I. 223) confound this Basil with Basil the Great Cappadocia, who was eighteen years older than Chrysostom and died in 379. Chrysostom’s friend was probably (as Baronius and Montfaucon conjecture) edentical Basil, bishop of lRaphanea in Syria near Antioch, who attended the Council of Constatntinople in 381. Comp. Stephens, l.c. p. 14; and Venables in Smith & Wace, I. 297.

33 See the Greek original of this collect in Chrysostom’s Liturgy, in Migne’s edition, Tom. xii. 908; Daniel’s Codex Liturgicus, tom. iv.; Fasc. II. 343 (comp. the foot-note in tom. iii. 358); and Fr. Procter’s History of the Book of Common Prayer (11th ed. 1874), p. 245 sq. The precise origin of this prayer is uncertain. It does not occur in the oldest Mss. of Chrysostom’s Liturgy, but in those of the Liturgy of St. Basil. It precedes the third anthem in the communion service, and was used since the ninth century or earlier in the exarchate of C’sarea and the patriarchate of Constantinople. In the Oriental churches the prayer is said silently by the priest. See Bjerring, The Offices of the Oriental Church, p. 43. In the Anglican Church, it was placed at the end of the Litany (by Cranmer), in 1544, and at the close of the daily Morning and Evening Prayer in 1661. In the English Homilies (Hom. I.), Chrysostom is called “that godly clerk and great preacher”.

44 So Montfaucon, Tillemont, Neander, Stephens, Venables, and others. Baur (Vorlesungen ber die Dogmengerschichte, Bd. I. Abthlg. II., p. 50) and others erroneously State the year 354 or 355, Villemain assigns the year 344 as that of his birth.

55 Babai; , oi|ai para; cristianoi` gunai`kev" ei,si. Chrysostom himself relates this of his heathen teacher (by whom, undoubtedly, we are to understand Libanios), though, it is true, with immediate reference only to the twenty years’ widowhood of his mothor, and adds: “Such is the praise and admiration of widowhood not only with us, but even with the heathen.” Ad viduam juniorem (Opera, Bened. ed. Tom. i. 340; in Migne’s ed. Tom. i., P.II., 601).

66 Sozomen, Ch. Hist., VIII 2.

77 Socrates and Kurtz (in the 10th edition of his Kirchengeschichte, I. 223), confound this Basil with Basil the Great of Cappadocia,who was eighteen years older than Chrysostom and died in 379. Chrysostom’s friend was probably (as Baronius and Montfaucon conjecture) identical with Basil, bishop of Raphanea in Syria, near Antioch, who attended the Council of Constantinople in 381. Comp. Stephens, 1. c. p. 14; and Venables in Smith & Wace, I.297.

88 De Sacerd. I. 5.

99 Socrates and Sozomenos represent Diodor and Karterius as abbots under whom Chrysostom lived as monk, but Neander (in the 3d ed. I.29) thinks it more likely that Chrysostom was previously instructed by Diodor at Antioch. .

1010 Par’nesis ad Theodorum Lapsum, in Migne’s ed. I., Pars I. 277–319. The second letter is milder than the first, and was written earlier. It is somewhat doubtful whether the first refers to the same case. Neander (I.38 sq.) conjectures that the second only is addressed to Theodore.

1111 Comp. on the patristic views of accommodation, Neander, Geschichte der Christl. Ethik., p.156 sqq.; and Wuttke, Christl. Sittenlehre 3d ed. vol.II., 305 sq. Canon Venables of Lincoln (in Smith & Wace, I. 519 sq.) justly condemns Chrysostom’s conduct on this occasion ’“as utterly at variance with the principles of truth and honor.”

1212 On the origin and character of early monasticism ,see Schaff, Ch. Hist, vol. III., 147 sqq.
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