PermReviewMid16 Abiotic Biotic Know Marine ecosystems & Characteristics

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Know Marine ecosystems & Characteristics

Rocky shore

Coral reef


Open ocean

How does salinity change in ecosyst

Know Ecosyst in Center


Know formula

Know raw materials

Know end products

Cellular respiration

Know formula

Know raw materials

Know end products

Mater cycles

Nitrogen cycle

Carbon cycle

Energy flows

10% rule in trophic level

Cold water holds

More oxygen

More dense

Phase changes

Increase energy-change

Change phase no temp chng

Salt decreases freeze rate of water



Scientific Method


Quantitative data


Manipulated variable







Food web & chain




Trophic levels
















Corals Symbiosis


Indicate whether the statement is true or false.
____ 1. A renewable resource is one that replenishes itself over long periods of time.
____ 2. Sublimation is when a substance goes from a solid to a gas, or a gas to a solid, without going through the liquid phase.
____ 3. Sea ice is less dense than fresh water ice.
____ 4. Water is a polar covalent molecule.
____ 5. Saltwater cannot freeze.
____ 6. The property of water called cohesion causes water molecules to repel each other.
____ 7. Organisms that live in an estuary do not need to tolerate wide ranges in salinity.
____ 8. When detergent is added to a full cup of water, the surface tension bulge at the top of the cup is reduced and occasionally the cup overflows.
____ 9. The energy from the Sun begins every food chain.
____ 10. Organisms that live outside of the photic zone do not receive energy and nutrients.
____ 11. Sharks are always the top predator of the food chain.
Modified True/False

Indicate whether the statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the statement true.
____ 1. All living things within an environment make up an ecosystem. ____________________
____ 2. Producers are able to make their own food through the process of photosynthesis or chemosynthesis. _________________________
____ 3. Cyanobacteria are an example of ancient phytoplankton responsible for increasing the amount of oxygen on Earth and forming the ozone layer which protects living things from the Sun’s harmful solar radiation. _________________________
____ 4. Microscopic organisms in the ocean called chloroplasts photosynthesize and are responsible for producing more than half of the oxygen on Earth. _________________________
Multiple Choice

Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
____ 1. Which of the following is an example of an abiotic factor found in a marine ecosystem?

a. plants b. animals c. sunlight d. fallen leaves

____ 2. Which statement best describes how the ocean was used by ancient peoples and is still used today?

a. We no longer rely upon the ocean as a source of food, although the ocean was an important food source for ancient peoples. b. Ancient peoples only used the ocean for food, whereas today we use the ocean for many reasons. c. Ancient peoples used the ocean for food, travel, trade, medicine and recreation. We rely on the ocean for similar reasons today. d. Ancient people did not use the ocean because they knew so little about it. Today we know nearly everything about the ocean.

____ 3. Which of the following is an example of quantitative data?

a. smell b. appearance c. height d. taste

____ 4. Producers in the aquatic and marine environments get the gas needed for photosynthesis from the

a. sun. b. sand. c. soil. d. water.

____ 5. The combined portions of Earth in which all living things exist is called the

a. biome. b. community. c. ecosystem. d. biosphere.

____ 6. All of the members of a particular species that live in one area are called a(an)

a. biome. b. population. c. community. d. ecosystem.

____ 7. The lowest level of environmental complexity that includes living and nonliving factors is the

a. biome. b. community. c. ecosystem. d. biosphere.

Figure 3–1
____ 8. The algae at the beginning of the food chain in Figure 3–1 are

a. consumers. b. decomposers. c. producers. d. heterotrophs.

____ 9. Which of the following is(are) used in the overall reactions for photosynthesis?

a. carbon dioxide b. water c. light d. all of the above

____ 10. In the overall equation for photosynthesis, six molecules of carbon dioxide result in six molecules of

a. glucose. b. water. c. oxygen. d. ATP.

____ 11. Which of the following is released during cellular respiration?

a. oxygen b. air c. energy d. lactic acid

____ 12. What is the correct equation for cellular respiration?

a. 6O2 + C6H12O6 ® 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy b. 6O2 + C6H12O6 + Energy ® 6CO2 + 6H2O c. 6CO2 + 6H2O ® 6O2 + C6H12O6 + Energy d. 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy ® 6O2 + C6H12O6

____ 13. Prokaryotes lack

a. cytoplasm. b. a cell membrane. c. a nucleus. d. genetic material.

____ 14. Which of the following contain a nucleus?

a. prokaryotes b. bacteria c. eukaryotes d. organelles

____ 15. Most prokaryotes are

a. heterotrophs. b. photoautotrophs. c. chemoautotrophs. d. photoheterotrophs.

____ 16. Unlike plant cells, animal cells do not have

a. nuclei. b. organelles. c. cell walls. d. cell membranes.

____ 17. The upper side of an organism is its

a. dorsal side. b. ventral side. c. anterior side. d. posterior side.

____ 18. Organisms that spend their entire adult lives attached to one spot are said to be

a. sessile. b. heterotrophic. c. flagellated. d. symmetric.

____ 19. Sponges reproduce sexually by a process called

a. cephalization. b. internal fertilization. c. radial symmetry. d. budding.

Short Answer
1. In the table below, list one negative and one positive human activity that could impact a marine ecosystem. Describe how each activity would impact the ecosystem.


Impact on the Ecosystem





2. Describe two factors that may result in an algal bloom.

3. How are coral reefs formed?
4. Why do hard corals require light?
1. The planet is covered mostly by ocean. From your studies of the different marine ecosystems, you learned that the ocean is not uniform (the same) in all places on the planet. Choose two of the marine ecosystems you have studied to answer the following questions:

a. Compare and contrast the habitats of each ecosystem. Describe what it is like to live in each of these habitats.

b. Compare at least three biotic and abiotic factors found in each of these ecosystems.

c. For each ecosystem, choose one abiotic factor and explain how it influences and/or interacts with a biotic factor.

2. The ocean consists of many different marine ecosystems. These environments vary both in their physical factors and based on their location. Choose two marine ecosystems you have studied. For each ecosystem you choose, answer the following questions.

a. Describe the characteristics of each ecosystem by discussing the biotic and abiotic factors common to each environment.

b. Illustrate on the map where you might find the ecosystems you have chosen. Create a key to indicate each ecosystem.

3. All ecosystems undergo a natural process in which they change gradually over time. Usually a change occurs to the ecosystem that allows for different species to gradually replace one another until a stable community is reached.

a. State the name of the process described above.

b. Use an example from class in order to support this statement. Describe the changes that occur in your example.

Describe what happens when cold water from the beaker on the right is added to the beaker of warm water.

5. How does the density of solid water versus liquid water affect marine organisms? Provide an example.
6. Describe the salinity of water in estuarine environments. Identify at least 3 important functions of estuaries.
7. Water is considered to be essential to the support of life on Earth.

a. Describe two properties of water.

b. For each property, explain how this property allows at least one type of organism to survive.
8. Based on your knowledge of scientific inquiry, explain why it is a cyclical process.

9. You have examined how humans have relied upon the ocean throughout history by creating an Ocean Timeline. Based on the classroom Ocean Timeline, choose four categories of how humans have relied upon the ocean from the list below. For each category, provide an example from history and describe how the ocean was important in the past. Also, provide a current example of how the ocean is important and describe how it is utilized today.
Categories: Food, Products from the Sea, Recreation, Trade and Navigation, Scientific Exploration and Research, National Security, Marine Technologies, Ecosystem Protection and Management.


Example in History

Current Example and How It is Utilized





10. Explain why energy is not a part of the Earth’s biochemical cycles.

11. Explain why decomposers are an important part of the food chain.
12. Describe the roles of bacteria in the nitrogen cycle.
13. How do sponges differ from other animals?
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