Part II: Transformation through Re-Self-Organization! Examining Relatively Traditional Genres Dealing with Chaotic Change



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Part II: Transformation through Re-Self-Organization!

Examining Relatively Traditional Genres Dealing with Chaotic Change*

1. Preamble
In the following essay-paper let us approach and focus upon this topic of profitably harnessing chaotic change through the skilful re-appropriation of genres that traditionally deal with this type of phenomenon or type of phenomenal situation. (0)

2. Introduction
Let me re-introduce this topic by noting a difference between non-chaotically oriented change and chaotically oriented change. (1)
Then, let me examine traditional genres that deal with this type of phenomenal situation. To this end let me briefly examine insurance, stock-market mechanisms for obviating risk, weather-forecasting, etc. (2)
From this research let me formulate a number of principles or guiding-ideals as to how we deal/should deal with genres dealing with chaotic or chaotic-like phenomena. (3)
In a conclusion let me re-state these philosophical observations. (4)

3. Utilizing non-chaotic/chaotic change
In this first paper I noted the difference between non-chaotic change and chaotic change. The former is realized incrementally and non-chaotically in a sense of redirection, i.e., more of the same to the extent change is realized and can be described in a linear fashion. A bit like driving a car along the road at 20 kph and then increasing the speed to 40 kph. The only difference is a mater of speed (along with a need to be even more careful in driving). However, increase that speed to 300 kpm, and faster, and we soon would reach a point where the car cannot be handled in the same manner to its use at a normal speed. It might shake, develop a tremor, and be found difficult to steer in a straight line… or worse… reach a point where we rapidly lose control of the car itself. In a chaotic state a sense of re-direction is arrived at where a new sense of direction is taken. In this we can passively participate and/or actively participate. In ether form of participation we can do this either productively and/or non-productively or counter-productively. Let me illustrate these non-absolute distinctions. (5)

*Latest version: www.homestead.com/noelshomepage/noelshomepage4.html



Through exercised intentionality we actively participate. To the extent we are beholden to intended or unintended consequences and redirected/re-directed otherwise we are passively beholden to that arrived at state of being. A careful driver drives carefully but despite their careful driving they cannot absolutely anticipate what other drivers may or may not do or, for that mater, anticipate what they might have to confront in their passage along that road. A car can crash or be crashed into. A tyre might blow or boulders might fall from a cliff above, etc. Driving a car from A to B comes with a probability of success that can only be estimated until that journey is completed or unable to be completed. In the world we interface a linear world of redirection and a non-linear world of re-direction. Most of the world is of the latter character but by selectively opting for linear-oriented inputs and opting out of non-linear inputs we appear to operate in a non-chaotically oriented domain. But we are immersed in an overwhelmingly chaotic domain where we have no absolute control despite all appearances otherwise. Thankfully, this illusion of a non-chaotic world is usually comforting and found to be conforming to expectations and so we generally find ourselves arriving at our desired destinations. Through processes of redirection we normally arrive at where we expect to find ourselves meeting those desired destinations. Chaotic inputs can disrupt this fact of our existence, or, it can actually augment a facilitation of such intent. In this series of paper, this latter possibility of augmentation is going to be seriously investigated and productively appropriated (theoretically or hypothetically). (6)
Previously, in a first paper, I dealt with the distinction between redirection and re-direction. ‘Redirection’ is realized through the exercise of a linear-like equation wherein change is achieved through more of the same, exercising the same pattern of intentionality directed performance hence the parallel redirection of the participants in that process of redirection. However, when a chaotic point of bifurcation is reached linear-like equations breakdown and a process of chaotic re-direction in instigated. I have argued that incremental processes of redirection eventually realize a point of chaotic re-direction. To qualify that rule I might add that if a limit should be approached but not absolutely reached then incremental input merely approaches that limit without inducing a point of bifurcation should that chaotic process of re-direction not occur in closely observing that limit as a limit qua limit. Should a point of bifurcation be reached through an incremental process of redirected input a chaotic like outcome can be appreciated through noting how incremental increments about that point of re-direction suddenly reveal considerable differences in outcome (a method adopted, e.g., in computing to what degree a weather system is potentially chaotic by running a number of simulations with only minor differences in input in order to observe to what degree resultant outputs do or do not differ greatly among themselves. A ledger of such results, in its totality or their arbitrarily divided segments, could then be subjected to comparative processes of compression in order to mathematically determine to what extent that system, in whole or in part, is subject to non-linear-like forms of information that relatively defy compression conducted along linear lines of operation and/or simulation). (7)
We meet all the time with chaotic phenomena. More often than not, we assume all processes operate in a deterministic, linear-like fashion that we often overlook a chaotic dimension of change. But, the weather is a perfect example of how incremental changes, more often than not, do not produce a parallel, linear-like progress in output. As the wind blows faster the sky darkens and the possibility of rain increases. But these correlations do not always occur in the same manner and to the same extent. A greater wind speed could be seen to apparently clear the sky of cloud cover, or, the wind speed could drop with the rain following soon after (as the wind changes direction and a cold front moves over). The main point I would like to stress here is that processes of chaotic re-direction are more often than not overlooked given our mindset for a deterministic progression of the world and a predilection for absolutely believing that everything can be explained with a perfectly reasonable and simple interpretation. Let it be said that interpretations are simple in order to be conducted, but, that such representations portray a simplification of a degree of complexity that ultimately must forever escape such interpretative compression. However, an over-representation of complexity is often not called for given an adequate mapping of relevant genres. In our dealing with phenomena our interpretations are approached and realized through the application of just such devices. Let me now examine how some traditional genres dealing with chaotic processes of transformation might illume this aspect of our topic, namely, how have we traditionally dealt with chaotic processes of change in the past? (8)

4. Traditional genres for dealing with chaotic phenomena
Chaotic phenomena could basically be described as processes that cannot be definatively forecast. With respect to the same a number of hypothetical strategies could be adopted or ignored. In certain respects some chaotic inputs are not relevant to our current passage through the world. A small, short, feeble gust of wind would not make much difference to our driving a large car along a wide, well-built country road without traffic. On the other hand, when we find cattle have taken up residence on our roadway we drive more cautiously and attempt to circumnavigate the same. Our encountering relevant chaotic phenomena is usually prepared for by adopting and adapting the relevant genres of responses that appear to be call for in such circumstances. In this paper let us develop a feel for this traditional approach to relevant chaotic inputs. To this end let me briefly examine insurance, stock-market mechanisms for obviating risk, weather-forecasting, etc., and attempt to come to some general conclusions as to how we traditionally deal with relevant chaotic phenomena of a potentially adverse nature. (9)
The phenomenon of the recognition of risk along, with strategies for its obviation, is not something new, but, which in the last few centuries is an approach that has been taken up to a much greater degree. Indeed, we might say that the modern world could not function if this element were subtracted from its general repertoire of responses that ensure the effective functioning of civilization in the same manner as we currently expect to know it. In ancient times, the surpluses from good harvests, e.g., were stored in order to counteract those years when harvests were not so sufficient. Other resources might be treated in a similar fashion, e.g., water, metal ingots, weapons, etc. Today, the prospect of loss can often be insured against. What might we learn from an examination of this type of industry? (10)
With the acceptance of a fluctuation in desired levels of commodities or services that might be available, or non-available, a market is often formed that can insure against such adverse prospects.1 Considerations of locality and/or globality of these fluctuations need to be evaluated and in the context of such forecasts certain bets are taken as to the need for dealing with deficits in such desired expectations either directly and/or indirectly. Say, a farmer has a wheat crop that will be harvested in the coming summer but is not too sure as to what percentage of their crop will be available to be harvested and they have no idea at what price on the open market they would get for their harvest at that time. In a sense they can insure that crop against the advent of an inadequate harvest. Furthermore, they can insure that same crop for a certain price when it is harvested and shipped to the intended markets. As long as the farmer is seen to manage their farm properly a statistical analysis of previous harvests should be able to establish a baseline as to what the insurer should expect in the way of yields and the quality of those yields, etc. Also, such information is usually expressed in terms of price achieved and total value realized, etc. Armed with such information both parties in a properly conducted insurance market can usually find a price and level of risk acceptable to both parties (or all the parties concerned given that insurance risks are often also bundled up and in turn insured, etc.). On balance all parties usually benefit. The farmer has some stability of income often a necessary pre-requisite for banking finance, future investments, etc. Insurers, generally, are expected to make a profit, can continue to write new policies, etc. However, global conditions also often need to be taken into account. Somewhere in the overall food-chain, a flourmill, e.g., is dependent upon getting grain for its operation and in a similar manner, in turn, bakers are dependent upon the processing of this same product, etc. Now, e.g., local deficits in grain can be made up by importing this product either milled and/or unmilled. However, if there is a global scarcity of a certain commodity then this would be reflected in price. But no price is going to retrieve what cannot be obtained. Indeed, an unintended consequence of elevated price mechanisms sometimes ensures increased utilization of limited resources in such a manner as to completely disrupt such industries in the near future, e.g., the over-fishing of cod and blue fin tuna, etc. So, we must conclude that in this industry of insurance, information is very important for the formation of informed decisions that reflect expected yields, local and global conditions of the relevant markets concerned, that adequate mechanisms are in play to ensure the ongoing viability of those markets overall, etc., etc. In effect, usually, a complex of interacting genres of activity are in play given the integrity of the insurance markets and the integrity of the markets that are being insured, and, the integrity of the interactions between the same, etc. (11)
Just like the careful country motorist who knows that sometimes stock can be found on country roads they will be alert for that possibility and already possess patterns of performance for the obviation of risks associated with the same. You do not drive into cattle expecting them to get out of the way. You slow down, stop if need be, and carefully drive around the same if that is possible. In our passage through this World-of-Life we have a complex repertoire of routines for dealing with the obviation and/or minimization of consequential risk. Furthermore, we also normally steel ourselves for the consequences of the advent of unintended consequences as well. Or, more correctly, society itself usually does this for us through the formation of various mechanisms for dealing with such risks. Hypothetically, those mechanisms would take the general form of risk obviation, minimization, neutralization, encapsulation, diversion, etc., etc. In effect, patterns of behaviour are already prepared for us should we need to avail ourselves of their co-option and adaptation. (12)
From an existential perspective, in a productive and facilitated orchestration and augmentation of our existence with-others, what can we surmise, hypothetically, that would promote this way of being-with-others? (13)
[An insurance assessor from a study of past accidents, etc., can formulate a reasonable assessment of to what degree and manner adversity can be expected to occur given a normal spectrum of events that might possibly occur. Then, pitching premiums in the light of such outcome possibilities, noting the cost of relevant forms of meta-insurance, along with the overall costs of running an insurance business, calculations on what is needed to maintain or expand market share, etc., the insurance agent can then proceed in such a manner so as to maintain a viable industry.2] (14)

[With this rudimentary picture to hand what observations might we infer that would help us to understand how people deal with change through genres that operate in such a manner so as to appropriately interpret and respond to chaotic and chaotic-like variations in those areas of phenomenal focus?] (15)


[Let me explore, at some stage elsewhere, this type of relationship, a relationship between a relatively passive genre-aspect/s of expectation and interpretation and a relatively active genre-aspect/s of possible responses and their activation/de-activation along with genre-aspects of critical evaluation as to the cooperative-successfulness of these aspects of the mix of genres involved (both individually and collectively). How might we account for the multi-dimensional interaction of these aspects? E.g., we could propose dimensions of interpretation, expectation, confirmation of expectation, critical appreciation of this sub-section of interpretation, and, possible responses, actual responses and the apparent successfulness of responses activated/de-activated and/or non-activated, and, an overall appreciation of the relative success or failure of the application of that particular genre which, in turn, might well be one overall genre in a mix of other overall genres interacting/non-interacting in a complex pattern of proportionally distributed effectiveness/non-effectiveness.3 To some extent we could say that forms of intervention along with their appreciation may well fine-tune our interpretations and responses to that type of phenomenon/phenomena and its associated extent of variation.] (16)
We might say from a more general perspective given that the overall collectivity of a general deontological space can be found intersecting with a general pragmatical space (carved out from within the Life-World) as expressed through the uniqueness of a culturally distinctive world how should this existential element or dimension be fostered and better expressed, i.e., (non-chaotically) orchestrated and (chaotically) augmented? Through the promotion of those aspects that better facilitate our-being-with-others in conjunction with a demotion of those aspects that adversely impact upon such facilitation. To put this type of insight into more concrete terms of reference let me make some observations on the recent controversies over health legislation successfully arrived at by the current Democratic administration of the USA. (17)
In Australia, most people would be horrified by the fact that many millions of people in America are not adequately insured medically, have no real access to an acceptable levels of medical care that we would take for granted in this country! The fact that this wealthiest nation on planet Earth cannot look after its own, for us, is a shocking indictment on its political establishment. Why is this apparent ‘anomaly’ not recognized by Americans? Why has it taken such a fight, with such watered down proposals, to finally start to address this terrible fact of what it could mean for people ‘to live’ in America? Middle class people in America, as in Australia, cannot assume they have job security, often their health insurance is paid for by the company they work for. Poorly paid people often cannot afford a decent level of heath coverage, and, the dispossessed are that… and effectively forgotten about. The very best health care can be found in America… but only by those who can afford the same. But, health costs in the USA are continuing to escalate and could eventually put adequate coverage beyond even those otherwise well-paid and/or well-resourced. Reflecting upon this type of inadequate, dysfunctional market what can we say philosophically and hypothetically should we wish to see a market that is both properly constituted (deontologically) and appropriately constituted (pragmatically)? (18)
Take for instance, the fact that until recently insurers in America could refuse insurance to a person with a pre-existing condition. Usually, we are presented with a period of time those conditions are not directly covered. However, should a child have diabetes an insurer could, until recently in America, decide not to insure them. This over-selective practice in writing policies also extended to the dismissal of renewal when certain conditions could be refused a continuance or commencement of coverage.4 To us in Australia that seems to be deonlogically unacceptable. Insurance should cover as wide a range of persons as possible and collective cost of policies should recognize this near universality of coverage. To deny coverage seems to be as wrong as people that abuse insurance policies though fraudulent claims. Or, have insurance companies excessively profit from improper manipulations of price, cost, etc! In a possible court case, before a reasonable jury, in a reasonable legal climate, such extremes of denial of coverage, fraudulent claims, improperly constituted insurance markets, etc., would not be approved of by the same. In the court of common cultural awareness such anomalies would not be countenanced deontologically! Why then do vast swathes of (American) society sometimes appear to reject what more reasonable people would not give their consent to? I would have to answer that vested interests (in the health industry, e.g.), etc., certain political ideologies (against government involvement, e.g.), etc., may well be operating and fostered by media (beholden to such ideologies, etc.). In effect, a certain degree of existential distortion is realized given such relatively non-existential inputs. This is not to say that any one existentially oriented type of process should be given precedence over other perfectly acceptable methods to achieve a similar degree of existential acceptability of outcomes. Personally, I do not think a prioritization of insurance is a good primary model for the delivery of general health care. However, if that model were to be adopted it should be generally universal in its application and overseen to properly and appropriately operate in that marketplace. (19)
Such processes, as argued elsewhere, would be promoted and better facilitated through democratization (of those processes), transparency (of such interactions), (proper and appropriate) regulation (of that market place) along with adequate supervision of all of the above! But that is another story to be followed up…. (20)

Other mechanisms, industries, codes of practice, etc., exist to help us deal with change, changing situations that may or may not be adverse to our passage though this world-with-others. E.g., in the stock market we have options like stops and puts, etc., and, generally, such mechanisms can be fairly claimed to usually better regulate this type of market. Of course when local conditions are under focus this may well be the case. However, in a globalization of risk, inadequate gloabalization of those mechanisms to deal with risk adversity may well be a bigger problem that the individual situations dealt with by such mechanisms on an interaction by interaction basis as witnessed in the recent Global Financial Crisis (GFC). An insurer usually insures with another insurer whereby that insurance itself and the associated insurer is insured. However, there is never a last resort of insurance in this chain of meta-insurance. Responsibility needs to be exercised throughout its length if it is going to function effectively and continue to effectively function! These four principles of democratization, etc., should help us to put this existential framework upon firmer foundations (since to some degree all of the above must already be in place for those markets to function on a daily basis for a start). Why would people want to enter into a range of contracts if there were no measure of trust, e.g. (21)


Let me recount an interesting anecdote, paraphrased by myself in more general terms of reference, to expose some of the philosophical problems that can confront practitioners of these processes for dealing with a minimization, etc., of risk adversity. (22)
In the midst of the GFC before an American congressional or senate investigation, certain elected members of the American government expressed great surprise and moral indignation that a certain investment bank could bet both for and against certain investments undertaken by that same investment bank. Given adequate firewalls separate sections of a large investment back often take different positions vis-à-vis the market place. Moreover, as noted elsewhere, such institutions often have an insiders understanding of what level and manner of transactions are taking place and can level such bets in a more informed manner despite the marketplace being assumed to be a level-playing field in this regard. It would appear that such deontological indignation expressed by these members of government would appear to place a priority against a more pragmatic approach that also utilizes such betting to self-regulate such markets. Such indignation is understandable, if these members of government were not suitably informed as to the role of such ‘betting’ and one can only assume on face value that such indignation was more faked or, perhaps, rather ignorantly expressed? Ideological positions are good to assume but never absolutely! We live in a dialectical, chaotical world and the ‘quantum-like’ nature of existence, and human existence too (in a metaphorical sense), sometimes necessitates that we do not adopt a too doctrinaire sense of positioning since our representation of reality is realized through re-presentation and can to some sense only misrepresent it (until such a time we understand in what manner such misrepresentation has misrepresented that to hand under examination, etc.). We have no absolute appropriation of reality and likewise should not act as if we did. On the other hand, a dismissal of absolute ethics and morality should not dispose us to assume there can only be a mere relativity of ethical and moral positioning! The flux of reality is patterned and through an appreciation of its phenomenology we should be able to ascertain a course of action or inaction that better facilitates the existential nature of our being in the world-with-others! We are directly immersed in a sea of interactions and in this sea that which promotes an overall facilitation of those interactions promotes this experiential sense of the existential! Such facilitation is imprinted in our repertoire of meta-textual mechanisms, genres of experience, that help us to deal others and with processes of change (be they non-chaotically orchestrated/de-orchestrated or chaotically augmented/de-augmented, etc.). However, in the light of recent charges levelled against Goldman Sach ‘de-ontological outrage’ appears to be called for if such accusations are upheld in court. To paraphrase the apparent offence it would seem that one staff member at least that put together an offering of CDO’s (collateralized debt obligations) at the top of the housing boom in the USA also massively constructed a bet against the success of the same, an element of relevance that should have been reported to the market. As it transpired the US housing market went south, this instrument with a ‘AAA rating’ quickly failed, lost a lot of money for its investors but made a large sum of money for this company. As a consequence the reputation of this investment bank, and investment banking in general has further suffered at an opportune time for the re-introduction of market regulation in the US. Various legal actions will most likely be entered into with a number of government and non-government parties in all likelihood merely postponing the arrival of an even more expensive day of reckoning in that regard? (23)
Civilization ensures its survival through the pre-preparation of such mechanisms for dealing with risk adversity. Just touched on are mechanisms in the stock markets, and allied markets, for dealing with risk through stops and puts, etc. Another general genre of activity dealing with a minimization of risk is realized through weather forecasting. When the weather forecast forecasts a week of rain we do not usually do our washing and put it out on the washing line to dry. If a storm is coming our way we do not usually organize a picnic in the countryside. However, it is true that an appreciation of weather phenomena is a perfect example of our representing a complex chaotic system. Not that weather is absolutely chaotic. But, then, again, it should not be taken for granted. Weather forecasts are notoriously unreliable, still, to some extent they can and should be relied upon. How is this achieved? Through an accumulation of data, theoretical modes of interpretation, the ability to chaotically model through enormous powers of computation, etc., the ongoing refinement of all of the above. Success often being measured to the degree such forecasts, e.g., can be accurately evaluated in their degree of reliability, i.e., to what extent they would be differentially influenced by these naturally occurring chaotic inputs/outputs, etc., with a possible range of differences in outcome(s). (24)
What might we infer from this general discussion as to how we should philosophically confront these mechanisms for dealing with risk adversity? To what extent should an existential element or dimension be adduced, promoted, acted upon, etc? (25)

5. Formulation of existential principles for augmented risk defense
What is meant by the expression ‘existential’? That aspect of interaction that promotes such interaction along with the quality of that interaction in its interaction with the world-at-large. ‘Murder’ is generally not acceptable as it ‘kills’ our interactions. If we had, e.g., two really, good intense, beneficial interactions in our interactions with others and we were to murder one of those parties we would be left with only one intense meaningful relationship. Similarly, if one those parties was murdered by some other party the net result would be more or less the same, namely, a reduction in the quality of our interactive existence. Disease and eventual death of an interacting party in a similar fashion leaves us with a relative deficit in the net quality of those overall interactions considered collectively. Now, let me propose that what promotes a relationship, qualitatively and/or quantitatively, normally promotes the existential richness of that overall set of interactions (from the overall perspective of all the parties concerned). Philosophically, through a recognition of emergence, we might say that the dimension of the existential is an experiential recognition of a surplus of value above and beyond mere inputs and/or mere outputs that cannot be reductively reduced to those mere inputs/ouputs. That, experientially, the sense of the existential is realized and recognized as an experience of value (which in turns recognizes the deep interconnected transcendental basis of pre-essential values, essential-aesthetical values, deontological values, pragmatical values, hermeneutical values and factual values as examined elsewhere in an ordered philosophy). Principles are those observations that appear to generally promote this experiential sense of the existential and its determination of value (through transcendental acts of judgment as engineered through overall transcendental suspensions as situated in the simulation, simulated midst, of overall circles of hermeneutic comprehension). Let me non-comprehensively approach this task in the light of this essay to date. (26)
Essentially, the existential is realized in an economy of value. As noted elsewhere, value is spontaneously realized through the pre-conditional necessity of an associated economy (and v.v.).5 The experience of such a non-reductive surplus of value is characterized as existential; being the quality and quantity of that interactively realized surplus in value-formation. (27)

Let me note first, that we fall back on positions of behaviour already prepared for us as genres of engagement (dealing with the minimizations, etc., of risk adversity). (28)


Second, such genres are re-adopted and re-adapted in accordance with the (existential) nature of the situation to-hand. (29)
Third, philosophically, our facilitation of this process necessitates a re-articulation of those genres of engagement. (30)
Fourth, then, philosophically, the existential effectiveness of their facilitation needs to be evaluated. (31)
And, fifth, such practices can then be re-written in the light of such insights, and, subjected in turn to a similar process of re-evaluation, etc. (32)
Last, all relevant avenues that orchestrate and augment such facilitation need to be noted and subsequently enacted. (33)

6. Conclusions?
Suffice to say, processes for the orchestration and, more importantly, for the augmentation of existential facilitation deserve to be investigated in depth. Hopefully, this aspect of our general topic of transformation will be approached in a future paper. Let it be noted that the inauguration of an intended process of augmentation that is productive of value should normally facilitate the relationship in question (both with respect to its own sense of self and within its own distinctive sense of a relationship to all other relationships [that in their transcendental entirety constitute the Life-World]) and that the production of such forms of positive augmentation helps to constitute a path that potentially proffers an exponentially greater surplus of value (than mere orchestration where linear operations are co-opted to induce a more linear-like delivery of value). Needless to say, however, we should be aware that the novel augmentation of value does come with its own universe of risk (a subject too that needs to be readdressed in a later paper)! (34)
In effect… continual processes of an existentially oriented re-negotiation of previous re-negotiations in genres of activity normally help to ensure a more effective and relevant existential surplus of value. That the same is indicative of an existential dimension in value-formation which, through careful self-reflection, through adequate forms of re-simulation, can be made to adequately self-deliver within the apparent sphere of that relationship a more proper, appropriate and valid degree and manner of value both in a traditional social setting or in the further re-development of a more contemporarily oriented social setting (a subject to be examined in my next essay). (35)

Noël Tointon, Sydney, 10.4.10.



1 Under-supply and/or over-supply of products and/or services. Price, in the light of relevant pricing mechanisms, can also assist over time, hopefully, in the realization of a fit between supply and demand.

2 Unlike the largest insurer in the USA, AIG, that effectively operated as gambling casino to the extent it put its own funds at risk.

3 Much of this modelling here could be applied to the art and craft of medical intervention. Evidence based medical practice has often indicated that certain forms of traditional medical intervention (be that in orthodox or in unorthodox forms of practice) actually contribute nothing to medical recovery and sometimes can actually be detrimental to those medical objectives. I am arguing here that genres of activity also need to be properly evaluated in terms of the effectiveness of their desired interventions.

4 In this light genetic sequencing, and testing for genetic defects, is a two-edged sword.

5 The overall conclusion of my last book dealing with the paradoxical nature between an economy of value and the realization of its value. Refer to the set of essays entitled Circulation which can be found on my homepage: www.homestead.com/noelshomepage/noelshomepage3.html


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