Chapter 6 PAKISTAN AND THE WORLD Before Pakistan came into being on August 14, 1947 the foreign relations of the Indo-Pak sub-continent were controlled by the British Government for its own advantages and interests. They were controlled from London. There were really no foreign policies, no diplomatic corps, and no foreign relations before Partition. When Pakistan came into being, the Government of Pakistan evolved a foreign policy. They established a wide network of foreign representation and diplomatic connections with almost all the States of world. Thus they adopted definite relations with other countries. We shall briefly survey these relations and policy. Section 1. FUNDAMENTALS OF PAKISTAN’S FOREIGN
POLICY Foreign relations of Pakistan are determined by a definite policy, (It is policy of honesty and fair play in national and international dealings) based on certain fundamental principles. Secondly, Pakistan’s foreign policy is shaped by its desire to exist amicably in the comity of nations and by her firm belief in the preservation of her freedom and cultural values through the principle of collective efforts and co-operative action as provided in the United Nations Charter. Thirdly, Pakistan strives for peace and believes in the principle of self-determination of peoples and respect for human rights of all without any distinction of race, colour, language or religion. Fourthly, Material and moral support to oppressed and suppressed peoples of the world. Pakistan disapproves of aggression and colonialism. It has always supported the cause of freedom and independence of all the subjects or colonial people of Asia and Africa both in the U.N.O. and outside it. It had always condemned, for instance, the denial of fundamental human rights and freedom to the black and coloured peoples under White rule in South Africa. It has actively supported the independence of the new States of Africa from Algeria in the north to Eritrea in the east and Zimbabwe and Namibia in the south and Ghana in the west. Fifthly, Pakistan seeks friendship and co-operation of the Muslim countries of the world. It has constantly endeavoured to promote good relations with these countries. Sixthly, Pakistan supports the cause of democracy and democratic ideals and freedom throughout the world. It supports the
130 CIVICS OF PAKISTAN Third World. Pakistan subscribes to the policy of non-alignment in international affairs. A basic determinant of Pakistan’s foreign policy is ’national security and survival vis-a-vis India’s non-reconciliation to the very existence of Pakistan, as indicated by India’s anti-Pakistan efforts in Kashmir and Bangladesh cases Changes in Pakistan’s policy and relation during
1947-1995: Foreign policy and relations of every country are determined by two main factors, conditions and changes in the world at large There have been changes within Pakistan and abroad during the last 56 years of its existence. Accordingly, its foreign policy and relations have, broadly, speaking, passed through three definite stages. From 1947, when, Pakistan came into being, to 1954, Pakistan followed a policy of non-alignment towards the then two Power Blocks, the Western and the Soviet Blocs, into which the world had come to be divided then. During this time, Bharat showed her implacable hostility towards Pakistan and launched undeclared aggressions on Junagarh and on Jammu and Kashmir, the two territories, which are adjacent to Pakistan and are inhabited by the Muslims who want to join Pakistan. The Kashmir dispute with India and her declared purpose of undermining the sovereignty and interests of Pakistan have compelled it to seek support abroad. During the next eleven years, from 1955 to 1965, Pakistan followed a policy of alliance with the Western Bloc, headed by the United States, in her expectation of receiving Western support in its disputes with India But the September war in 1965 showed that such a support would not’be forthcoming. In the meanwhile, the Soviet Bloc became increasingly friendly towards Bharat and hostile towards Pakistan. Then followed a time of troubles for Pakistan. In part, it was due to its internal conditions, in which Bengali opposition played an increasingly hostile role towards the unity and integrity of Pakistan, culminating in the six points or Demands of the Awami League of East Pakistan But India and other foreign enemies of Pakistan including the Soviet Union, Britain and others, instigated the Bengali opposition into a revolt for secession from Pakistan. India and Soviet Union entered into a treaty in 1971 for this purpose at the time when the Awami League had started a mass campaign for its Six Points programme in East Pakistan So within six months of this Treaty, India launched a war against Pakistan, which ended in its victory and the establishment of Bangladesh as an independent and sovereign State The tragic events of 1971 produced a new Pakistan, confined only to the ”western wing” of the former
Pakistan Thus began the third and the present stage in the foreign policy and relations of Pakistan PAKISTAN AND THE WORLD -|3 -\ Basic Principles of Pakistan’s foreign policy since
1971: After the Bangladesh debacle, Pakistan has adopted a new foreign policy, which is based on the following considerations and principles The geopolitical situation of Pakistan today: Pakistan now comprises a compact territory situated in the northwestern part of the South Asian sub-continent, now loosely organised into a grouping, called SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation). It has three powerful neighbours, namely India to its east, China to its north-east and Russia to its north-west Moreover, it is so situated that it has nearly the whole of the Muslim World on its western borders from Afghanistan to Algeria and Morocco in North Africa. It has also the rich oil-producing Muslim countries like Iran, Kuwait, the UAE and Saudi Arabia almost along its western borders As such Pakistan has both land, sea and air routes with all these lands and countries They are becoming increasingly important in this age of science and technology which are transforming the relations of trade and commerce, of friendship and hostility and of war and peace between all the countries of the world. Major objectives of foreign policy: In this geopolitical situation Pakistan’s foreign policy has the following major objectives (i) to foster good relations with now the sole suffer-power (ii) to settle the Kashmir dispute with India by peaceful means. (in) to establish relations of friendship and co-operation with the Muslim countries; (iv) to put an end to Civil War in Afghanistan by mutual agreement and participation by all the warring Afghan parties and group in that unfortunate country. (v) to seek security for itself; Pakistan is fighting against terrorism. (vi) to create friendship with all the enmity towards none, and (vii) to explore now markets for Pakistani goods and to secure aid and loans from other countries for development purposes. Pakistan’s foreign policy is now conducted on the basis of bilateral relations with other countries and seeks to avoid multilateral security pacts with Great Powers That is why Pakistan had withdrawn from the SEATO.
132 CIVICS OF PAKISTAN Section2. FOREIGN RELATIONS OF PAKISTAN We shall now discuss the foreign relations of Pakistan with various countries of the world Broadly speaking there are three concentric circles of these relations First come the Muslim countries of Asia and Africa With them Pakistan seeks to establish the closest friendly and brotherly relations, Next come the Third World countries with whom Pakistan also seeks to very close brotherly and relations, especially where there is a friendly and brotherly response Lastly there is the circle of the old Imperialisms of America Western Europe and Russia So far as Pakistan is concerned, the countries and states in each circle have their own peculiar images and ideas of Pakistan and have dealings and relations with it accordingly Pakistan’s neighbours India: India is our closest but most hostile neighbour This unfortunate relationship is only due to the hostility and antagonism which India has shown towards Pakistan from the very first day it came into being, or rather long before Pakistan came into being The Hindu majority community of this sub-continent and its militant parties and leaders always dreamed of establishing a Hindu State over the whole sub-continent called Akhand Bharat where the Hindu culture and Hindi language will dominate and the traces of Muslim culture, civilisation and language will be wiped out But these dreams and designs of the Hindu parties and leaders were to some extent checkmated and defeated by the establishment of a separate, sovereign State of Pakistan Hence they have conceived an unending hatred and hostility towards this young State They devised one plan after another to harm and destroy it in one way or the other This is the reason why the relations between India and Pakistan have always been hostile and unfriendly since 1947, when the two States came into being Many disputes existed and exist between them Kashmir Dispute: The oldest, the most serious and intractable dispute between Pakistan and India has been, over Jammu and Kashmir It began on 22nd October, 1947, when the Indian troops landed on Sinnagar airport to crush the popular revolt against the tyranny of the Dogra rulers of Kashmir It has since then continued down to the present day Jammu and Kashmir was a ’Princely State” It was situated in the north of the South Asian sub-continent and is contiguous with Pakistan’s north-eastern borders Geographically all the roads to Jammu and Kashmir lead from and all rivers there flow into Pakistan Jammu and Kashmir has a population of over one crore and half of whom 85% are Muslims The whole Kashmiri population, especially
the Muslims, have close social, cultural and religious relations and affinities with the neighbouring people of Pakistan PAKISTAN AND THE WORLD -\ 33 After the landing of Indian troops in October, 1947 fighting broke out between the Indian troops and Kashmiri patriots, who were supported by Pakistani tribesmen It was brought to an end by the cease-fire agreement between India and Pakistan Both the countries accepted the Security Council Resolutions of 13th August,
1948 and 5th January, 1949, by which they agreed to decide the question of Kashmir’s accession to Pakistan or India on the basis of free and fair plebiscite in Jammu and Kashmir Though India is internationally committed to hold free and fair plebiscite in Kashmir, yet it has, on one pretext or another, avoided fulfilling its pledges to the Kashmiri people and to the international world-organisation, the U N O Instead of resolving the Kashmir dispute deliberately complicating the issue by means of extraneous and irrelevant explanations and questions Moreover, it has always threatened to use military force against Pakistan In Kashmir itself, India has always resorted to a policy of repression and tyranny against the people It has frequently arrested and imprisoned many patriots and leaders of the Kashmiri people India’s attitude towards the issue of the right of selfdetermination of the people of Jammu and Kashmir stiffened more and more This led to a war which India launched against Pakistan on September 6, 1965 It was brought to an end on September 22, as a result of the UN Security Council’s resolution, requiring the two countries to resolve the Kashmir dispute peacefully The Tashkent Declaration (1966) also called upon the two countries to meet ”at the highest and other levels on matters of direct concern to both countries” and thus recognised the Jammu and Kashmir Dispute between the two But afterwards the Indian Government leaders started proclaiming that the ”Kashmir State” had acceded to India and that the Kashmir issue had become old and that whatever had happened there could not be now undone, that the UN Resolutions on plebiscite in Jammu and Kashmir were now dead letters A new factor then came into play in the Kashmir Dispute It was the Soviet support to Indian annexation of Kashmir, which the Soviet leaders expressed in many ways, such as the use of veto in the Security Council whenever Pakistan raised the issue of implementing its Resolutions on the question of plebiscite of the people of Kashmir This encouraged, the Indian Government leaders who began to assert that (i) ”Kashmir State” Assembly had accepted the accession of its ”State” to India, and therefore,
Kashmir had become an (”integral part”) of India (n) that the UN Resolutions of
1948 and 1949 have become now too old, out-dated and obsolete, and (in) that what had happened in the Indian-Occupied Kashmir could not now be undone, etc So they claim that the right of self-
134 CIVICS OF PAKISTAN determination of the Kashmiri people has become obsolete and the Kashmir issue closed for ever. These claims of the Indian leaders are as baseless as they false. The right of self-determination of the people of Jammu and Kashmir, enshrined in the UN Resolutions, is not only an inalienable right of the Kashmiri people, but is also an international right which never lapses with time. Furthermore, the pronouncements by the Assembly of India-held Jammu and Kashmir have no affect whatever on the UN Resolutions which remain binding on India and Pakistan till they are implemented. Furthermore, in spite of all the pleas and postures of Indian leaders and of Indian diplomacy, Kashmir issue is a very much alive. Even the Indian victory in East Pakistan in 1971 could not make Pakistan to accept Indian stand on it. According to the Simla Agreement of 1972, both India and Pakistan declared that ”the representatives of the two sides will meet to discuss further the modalities and arrangements for the establishment of durable peace and normalisation of relations including-a final settlement of Jammu and Kashmir”. So the Kashmir dispute is still an issue to be settled by peaceful means. The Kashmir’s led freedom fighting is morally and diplomatically supported by Pakistan. Siachen Dispute: India has opened a new front against Pakistan It is its occupation of the Siachen Glacier. Siachen is a huge glacier, lying to the west of the Korakorums, the land of the glaciers. It was a part of the disputed territories or Kashmir which had always been within Pakistan’s side of the line of control. In 1962 the Indian Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, had acknowledged that it was in Pakistan’s control and this remained the case throughout the 1965 and 1971 Indo-Pak wars. The Simla Accord of 1972 had also declared that the two sides, Pakistan and India, would not disturb the actual line of control of the two parties till the Kashmir Dispute is settled. Nevertheless India will leave no stone unturned to harm Pakistani interests. As Siachen is a bitterly cold and barren area, covered with perpetual ice and swept by strong cold winds, Pakistan did not occupy it militarily. However, in 1984, the Indian forces stealthly moved into it and occupied the cold and windy heights of Siachen. India thus took up a new position hostile to Pakistan. It is a dear indication of Indian expansionist designs. It led to troop clashes. Pakistan proposed in 1985 that the two forces should be withdrawn from the area and the old line of control should be restored. India has, however, rejected Pakistani suggestion of demilitarising Siachen.
Instead, it now claims that Siachen is an integral part of India. The Indian Prime Minister, Rajeev Gandtii, on February 15,
1988, said that India would not vacate an inch of land in Siachen Glacier. The Indian Minister of State for Foreign Affairs said that PAKISTAN AND THE WORLD -\ 35 India viewed the Siachen issue in the light of the American pledge to continue arms assistance to Pakistan even after the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan. Naturally, with Indian postures, no headway could be made in subsequent talks over Siachen between India and Pakistan Mr. Rajeev Gandhi, on 23 April 1988, again said that three conditions had to be met before relations with Pakistan could be normalised: Pakistan had to abandon its ”nuclear pretensions”, had to ”s.top meddling in India’s internal matters” and give up its ”hostile postures in Siachen. This has remained Indian position even after the Musharrafs Government which is trying to establish peaceful and friendly relations between the two countries. In the joint press conference of both the Indian and Pakistani Prime Ministers at Islamabad in July, 1989, Mr. Rajeev Gandhi declared that ”Siachen is a complicated affair which cannot be easily resolved.” Thus India remains in occupation of Siachen. The Dams: In 1960, Pakistan and India signed the Indus Water Treaty, under which the two rivers, Sutlej and Ravi, were to be under the sole control of India, while the water of the two rivers, Chenab and Jehlum, were for the sole benefit of Pakistan, although they first flow through the territories of Indian occupied Jammu and Kashmir. But, treaty or no treat, after nearly fifteen years, India started tightening the noose around these two rivers also by building dams oh them in Occupied Jammu and Kashmir. First, it built the Salal Dam near Jammu on the river Chenab. When Pakistan protested, India asserted that it was not a violation of the Indus Water Treaty, for it was only a hydel project to supply electricity to Occupied Kashmir and neighbouring Indian territories. In 1978, India built another dam. This time it built a barrage on the river Jehlum near Wullar Lake near Sirinagar. When Pakistan protested, India again declared that it was only an irrigation project and not a violation of the Indus Treaty. Several meetings were held on the issue of these dams, but India did not budge an inch from its stand. However, Pakistani authorities reiterated their known stand in these talks that the arbitrary construction of dams on the rivers which flow into Pakistan from Occupied Kashmir was contrary to the Indus Treaty. Indo-Pak relations between 1971-2003: In 1971, India signed the Indo-Soviet Friendship
Treaty. In May, 1980, after the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. India signed an arms deals under which the Soviet Union was providing India arms and sophisticated weapons of about 9 billion dollars worth, including latest MIGS, tanks, missiles, submarines, warships and other weapons with offensive capabilities for only 2.5% interest and repayable in about
20 years in the form of exports. On the other hand, Pakistan has not received any advanced weapons since 1965 when the Western
136 CIVICS OF PAKISTAN Powers, especially the U.S.A. had stopped all military aid or assistance to Pakistan Hence Pakistan’s war equipment became out-moded and its defence capabilities weakened. With dual peril confronting Pakistan from the Soviet Union in Afghanistan on its north-western borders and the heavily armed India to its east. Pakistan was in dire need of more advanced weapons. In view of Soviet advance into Afghanistan, the United States was favourably inclined to assist Pakistan, which proposed for the purchase of American military equipment on the terms similar to those extended to India by the Soviet. Pakistan did not intend to sign any military pact with the U.S.A., because among other reasons, it is now a member of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM). Pakistani efforts to prepare for its defence against the Soviets were declared by India as a threat to it Since 1980, India launched a world-wide propaganda campaign against alleged Pakistani threat. It was, however, inconceivable because India has all advantages over Pakistan in size, population, natural resources, industrial strength and military power. Its naval power is 11 times that of Pakistan, its air force five times and its land forces three times bigger. It is simply ridiculous that a nation of 1000 million should feel threatened by a country of
140 million populations. Nevertheless the Indian Government raised a great hullabaloo about Pakistan’s threat to India both at home and all over the world, including United States, when the Indian Government leaders go there, as did Mrs. Gandhi in 1982 and Rajeev Gandhi in 1988 Pakistan’s offer of No War Pact: The late President Zia-ul-Haq offered to conclude a No-War Pact with India, in order to allay the apprehensions of India about Pakistan’s alleged threat. Pakistan declared that it was firmly committed to the normalisation of its relations with India as envisaged in 1972 Simla Agreement, on the basis of the principle of sovereign equality, non-interference in each other’s affairs and mutual benefit. But Indian leaders rejected Pakistani offer. Nuclear issue: India exploded a nuclear device in 1974. It is said that then it has manufactured many nuclear bombs, and is now actively engaged in further increasing its nuclear capabilities. India has now several nuclear reactors. They use heavy water without being under international safeguards and supervision. Although it produced its own heavy water, yet is has purchased heavy water secretly from Norway, Society Union, West Germany and other countries. Not only India buys enriched uranium from abroad, but it has now developed the technology of manufacturing it
also. Although India always accuses Pakistan of making nuclear bomb, which it has dubbed as ”Islamic Bomb” to arouse fears and apprehensions of the Western World, yet it is itself feverishly busy PAKISTAN AND THE WORLD -|37 making nuclear bombs. An American authority has estimated that India makes about 20 nuclear bombs every year. Missile Programme: Nuclear borobs are useless things unless until a country has also long-range missiles to hurl them on an enemy target. These alone can become deadly weapons of war. As usual, India is at present actively engaged in making missiles of ever-increasing ranges, which are usually named after some Hindu mythological goods. At first, it made missiles of short ranges of about
250 kilometres by its own indigenous sources. In April, 1989, it has tested a more powerful missile, christened ”Agni” (the Hindu god of fire), with a range of 2500 kilometres, which Indians claim can inflict ”heavy damage on enemy targets”. It has thus entered the exclusive club of nuclear powers. It’s nuclear and missile capabilities have, however, sent a wave of fear and apprehension in all peace-loving countries around India. Pakistan has also developed missiles but of much shorter ranges. It tested a missile of 250 kilometres range and an air-to-air missile of ten kilometres in 1989. India has also launched a new surface-to-air missile, called Akash.