|1. “One man’s trash is another man’s treasure.”
Annihilation is the juncture of germination. Autumn sheds its leaves but summer spring comes with new leaves. Flood comes but leaves to be traced a long greenery in future with silted land.
Trash denotes scar or defeat of one. But connotatively it can be directed to the vices of one's personality. In positive sense; it can be said that where hopes end there hopes begin. In philosophical sense; it can be imperative that defeat transforms one's mind into a new entity unswayed by general virtues and vices being steadfast to a determined goal. So trash of one's is the treasure of another appears with different interpretations.
History shows that trash of French king with utmost privileges giving back to common people becomes treasure for another jacobian leader. The trash that US president once used to train muslim jihadist for her own sake now turns to terrorist leaders as treasure to initiate violence. Greediness; blind use of power; utter individualist thinking spurs the germination of vices in one's mind. It inspires them to do something vile. Thus they tarnish themselves and their trash in character thus proves treasure to another opportunist.
Mythological instances shows that trash of duryodhan or kaurav becomes treasure to pandav. Trash comes to one's character from haphazardness; indecisive action. Trash created by extreme emotion proved fatal to the magnificent city Troy. Trash comes from extreme desire that challemges law of nature. "Achilles heel " shows how mother of Achilles in an attempt to make him immortal makes his heel vulnerable while not touching his heel unconsciously in styx river with the help of whose vulnerability he was killed in Trojan war.
In indian freedom struggle; gandhi was utterly conscious about this. He never let come trash to anyone because he knew about its fundamental flaw. The flaw of trash gives red carpet to the enemy to be pattered. Whenever any violence occurred gandhi immediately criticised it. It is the reason why gandhi did not support extremist thinking because he was aware about the fatal blow of its trash .
In political career ; trash has very dangerous effects. A little bit trash in one's personality might lead to downfall in his whole political career. Corruption is the noted evidence of trash in many politicians at present time with the help of which they have invited their ending of career and this golden treasure is grabbed by another opposition candidate and thus terminates career of the former within one night.
Story of jataka says that when once buddha went out for alms he was retributed by an alms giver. Then buddha asked him if one does not accept gift given by another what will happen ; in reply the latter says that it will be left to the person who offered it. After that buddha told him that whatever he had given to buddha all were left to him. Thus connotatively trash turns into boon or treasure for another. To err is human mercy is divine. If one has the tolerance to accept err done by another and makes the latter understand about his fault it will transform both of them spiritually.
At the present world of competition; everybody should be cautious about his weakness. His weakness or little bit of trash might push him backward. In the era of globalization; the whole world becomes very competitive. Suffice it to say that here survival of the fittest is the best policy. So one should put his every step very carefully that no one find any crack in him to grab as treasure.
In this emerging 21st century a clean ; transport diplomacy is very necessary for a country . Respecting to international norms; human dignity; environmental law occupies utmost important for a country.
Violating international provision like human right ; nuclear norms by the head of a country might inspire the another head of the country who strategically wants to dominate the former. Any incongruity in ocean policy by the head of india might turn to treasure for another strategic head that is china.
Civil servants in government machinery should be very careful about transparancy in everyday life. One trash in their personality due to any hasty decision or other inherent human vices might poses threat to them whose opportunity will be grabbed by his rival civil servant.
In economy; one trash in transaction might lead to whole breakdown. One carelessness in policy direction and execution of company by the managing head will bring scar to its production and another rival company will grab it. In case of services related with public health a managing director of a company should be very careful. The same is applicable to the economic policy of a country also.
But trash given by someone intentionally is antisocial and gruesome . it might destry one's innocent life. The growing concerns like acid attack; rape; killing of girl foeticide ; child marrige ; communal disharmony harms the basic structure of society.
But if spirit and determination alives such trash cant harm. It was that gandhi who was thrown out of train due to his black colour. Many acid attack victims
In india defying the social stigma establishes themselves in society. Arunima sinha the amputee is planning to climb Everest. So; though trash created by one's own fault invites destruction to one's life; trash intentionally given to another with criminal mind can never defeat anyone.
2. India’s challenge is science, not pseudo-science
3.Importance of Preparedness in Disaster Risk Reduction and Management
79 AD, Italy. People of Pompai and Herculaneum were busy in their daily work ignoring
the potentially dangerous symptoms around them for weeks, thinking them as mere
adverse climate. But this was the prelude to one of the catastrophic volcanic
eruption in world history. Within few hours Mt Vesuvius erupted with all her
might and buried these two prosperous
cities alive sparing even a single soul.
Such could be the fury and destruction of a disaster. Even in twenty first century we are
not immune from it, rather more vulnerable to it. The 9 point earthquake that
stuck Japan with a deadly Tsunami, pushed the “advanced” nations to despair
with a huge loss of life and property. The damage to Fukusima nuclear plant and
its associated danger alarmed the world, forcing many nations to give up
nuclear energy all together. Clearly, disaster does not recognize the human
imposed political boundaries.
These disaster include both natural and man-made. The loss due to disaster is simply
immesurable. One disaster reverses decades of economic development. Huge loss
to infrastructure, raw material resources, man power etc brings the economy to
virtual stand-still or at least slows it down. A large chunk of GDP is lost in
one sudden event. It would be impossible to put a price tag in terms of GDP on
human lives. Economic well being of many families are crippled beyond repair.
Every year millions are pushed to poverty due to various disasters. Post
disaster, outbreak of diseases terrorizes people and sometimes claim more lives
than disaster itself. Emotional loss of the near and dear ones often go
unnoticed which leaves a permanent scar on their psyche. Loss to environment
and biodiversity is enormous. The consequences of Bhopal tragedy can still be
seen among newborns who are 2nd or 3rd generation after
that black day (3rd dec 1984).
In a century where global warming and climate change is a well-accepted phenomena. Many
natural disasters like flood, cyclone etc will be witnessed with increased
frequency and of very intense magnitude. Eastern coast of india has seen two
very severe cyclones in last two years. Rise in sea level will submerge coastal
low land and create problems of land shortage and water supply. What makes all
these more catastrophic is the increasing population of the world. A natural
calamity turns into a ‘disaster’ only when it involves significant loss of life
and wealth. So shortage of basic necessities like land, drinking water, food
will create conflict leading to significant loss of lives – which satisfies the
definition of disaster. Someone has playfully said that, the reason for third
world war would be water.
Coming of natural calamity can’t be stopped but we can ‘prevent’ turning it into a
disaster. Better preparedness limited the death toll during phailin to 25 where
as the same region saw corpes numbering to whooping 10000 during supercyclone
just 15 years back. The same thing could be seen in Philipaines which
drastically reduced human casualty during typhoon last year. All these point to
a single fact that, disasters can certainly be prevented or their risk on
precious human life can be minimized.
Let me not confine this only to natural disasters but to include man-made ones too. Incidents
like Bhopal, Chernobyl, three miles island etc could have been prevented had
they just followed the standard operating procedure. Thousands of road
accidents daily- which is no less than a disaster- can certainly be minimized to
a great extend with better safety standards. The Uttrakhand tragedy, which is
dubbed as a man-made one by environmentalists, could be minimized by better
planned, sustainable and eco-friendly development.
Due to its implication across international border, nations have come together to work
together in this direction. United Nations observed the closing decade of the twentieth
century as the international decade for natural disaster reduction. Even in
UNFCCC, the focus is shifting to mitigation and adaptation. Since world is
convinced that, even with best of our effort we won’t be able stop all disaster
but we prepare ourselves to reduce their impact.
The most important link to achieve this lauded objective is the people themselves. Although
nations, states, NGOs etc were playing their role, without people’s
participation, the goal will always delude us. Instead of silent onlookers,
proper training and supplying them with necessary tools and knowledge, helps
them act long before rescue force make their appearance. Many lives are saved
during those immideate aftermath of disaster. This thing can’t be done
overnight, it has to be inculcated in them over long time to develop a culture
among them. Better preparedness before disaster shows result after it.
Many special provisions have been made by international community to financially and
technologically assist underdeveloped, island and small nations. Separate
funding mechanism has been chalked out to help developing world deal with this.
Many countries have adopted national policy for disaster management and
institutionlised them through legal provisions.
India being not unfamiliar with disasters have taken many active steps in this direction
after the bitter experience of Bhuj earthquake and tsunami. Legislation has
been passed in this regard and national disaster management authority has been
set up. Their counterpart are also present at state and district level.
Separate funding arrangement has been made for their smooth functioning. Grey
areas such as inter-departmental coordination, centre-state coordination,
timely rescue and rehabilitation etc have been adequately taken care of. Now
disaster is not only limited to rescue-compensation but prevention-
preparedness- response- rescue- relief- rehabilitation. Efforts have been made
to generate awareness, use of technology, early warning and information
diesseminaiton mechanism etc.
In conclusion the words of UN security general in quite fitting that we need to develop
a culture of prevention. Prevention is not only much easier than cure, it is
also much cheaper. The loss during a disaster is no less than a war. When it’s
the moral imperative of the world to stop wars, then why not efforts should be
made to reduce the risk of disaster? We must always remember that either we all
will swim or we all will sink. Had the people of Pompai understood the early symptoms
of impending disaster, history would have remembered them differently. Now it’s
upto us how we listen to the symptoms and what we do about them.
4. ‘Education for All’ Policy in India – Challenges, Loopholes and Prospects
“Education for all” policy in India-Challenges, Loopholes and Prospects
The roadmap of India’s education policy theoretically represented egalitarian nature and universal access to all since Independence. The government policy widely concentrated on making availability of such education system which can reach to every individual and society. However, the constitutional arrangements made by its maker and later by its users gave utmost care to establish a mechanism to reach education for all. In this direction, the governments' move to recognize primary education as a fundamental right and Right to Education (RTE) brought progressive arrangements for making education for all. In addition, there were numbers of missions and programmes have been implemented by the government at central level and state level. In reality, such initiatives have influenced the customary rights of some sections and made education inclusive. For example, Srav Saksharat Abhiyan (SSA), Mid-day Meal Scheme, Kasturba Gandhi Schools by the central government and other schemes of various states have largely focused upon making education for all.
It is obviously true that the government as per own capability and resources has attempted to make education inclusive and accessible to all without any discrimination. But, the intent of the government didn't fully materialized due to certain challenges which were thoroughly responsible for inaccessible and exclusionary education system running on the land of Bharat.
The challenges of education system which are greatly remained obstacles to achieve objectives of education for all may be divided into:
A.. Infrastructural Challenges
B. Institutional Challenges
C. Challenges within society
D. Challenges from Society
A. The Infrastructural Challenges: such challenges are basically emanate from lack of funding, mismanagement of resources, inefficient resource mobilization and allocation, unaccountable bureaucracy etc.. Such challenges pose the following issues:
1. Lack of School Buildings: There are numbers of schools have been going without proper school building or debilitated school buildings. Such schools largely fail to attract attention of students itself and their parents. In addition, the concerned school staff also feel discouraged to teach there and on consequent it result in there large scale absenteeism .
2. Lack of Infrastructural facilities : In those school we have buildings but the major lacunas are absence of playground for students, single or no toilets, no laboratory for development of scientific tempers of students and et al. All these effect students psychologically as well as physically.
3. Connectivity issue: There are number of schools running in remote areas without having proper means of connectivity. Students have to walk on 2-3 miles for attending classes. However, many state government have launched many schemes for students to attend schools by providing them cycles. But in rainy seasons such students face greater difficulty.
4. Isolationist approach: Those schools are running deep into tribal areas are remained isolated due to approach of bureaucracy having fear of red insurgents. Due to this, large number of tribal people are away from streamlined education system despite making favourable constitutional arrangements. Such geological issues not be taken seriously instead the funds made for these schools were looted by elite or power grabber.
B. Institutional Challenges: Such challenges results from policy issues which can be substantiated as:
1. Accountability Issue: The most of the government teachers are interested in evading own accountability by raising number of complaints against state apparatus and its functions. This erosion in accountability comes largely due to teacher-politic-bureaucracy nexus. This nexus underlined own accountability only to earn high money to fulfil own needs rather to fulfil social demands. We urgently require, an index determining accountability of the teachers to stop growing gulf between preferences to private schools and negligent attitude to the public schools.
2. Recruitment process and calibre of Teachers: Due to financial causes, the most of the states are forced to depend on Para-teachers as they are contractual teachers and ready to serve schools at low pay. Such teachers immensely lack in teaching methodology, unknown pedagogy, inefficient class room management, attention on weak learners etc. However, if the Para teachers are being viable alternatives, it must be needed to make a proper arrangements for their comprehensive teachers training, appraisal of their performances at various levels and making their recruitment process more transparent.
3. Mentality of Low salaried and high salaried teacher: The Para-teachers are recent innovation in teaching but those who are regular teachers working in the same schools creates a sense of derogation. As the regular teachers getting higher amount of the salary from the government with adequate security while the Para teachers are given meagre salary for the same work in the same schools. In this direction, we must feel to promote these Para teachers on regular basis for their performance and we must not forget that teachers are also human beings and they also require money. If not same salary pattern, respected salary must be given to teachers.
4. Teacher Absenteeism or Monitoring Issues: It is one of the realities that is often found in every schools irrespective of geological status. However, the teachers appointed in hilly terrain or remote areas frequently absent but they get regular salary. Here, we need to use technological tools to escape from large scale absenteeism of teachers. Though we have some manual and cooperative channel to look into the issue, we didn't achieve effective control over it.
5. Drop-out Students: Indian public schools have greatly witnessed high rate of drop-out children basically due to socio-economic condition. The government has made initiatives to arrest it but the lacuna is such schemes are not targeted and benefit was taken by someone else.
C. Challenges Within Society: India is historically divided in caste hierarchy which is responsible factor for underdevelopment of SCs, STs, Women and other weak social class. It is often seen that huge discrimination attempted to make by the dominant groups in relation to such marginalized class. The Dalit students often are segregated in schools and even their food is separately given under MDM Yojna in many schools. In addition, the conservative mindset of society regarding girl education discouraged them to join schools under pressure of patriarchal social norms. The same condition applies with the students of minority and tribal and subjected to social discrimination. At the time of communal or inter-caste domination issues in any region, the students belonging to lower stratum of society feel absolute deception form the value of education.
D. Challenges before Society: The education in India has remained subject to few classes rather to all and this was result of social inaction. The society or particularly social elite silently witnessed the exploitation of education system in own villages or locality. Because of this social inaction we remained fail to achieve education for all. In this direction we need to sensitize society for attaining purpose of education for all.
Loopholes: After looking the above discussed challenges, we might be able to find out the loopholes within the present education system. Such loopholes are:
1. Quality Education: The recent survey done by the ASER found that students of higher class are unable to read and understand the text of lower class. This has seriously brought a to seek answer where improvements needs to placed whether in assessing curriculum or assessment of performance of teachers.
2. Low Share of Girl in Education: The education of girls is not taken seriously by the society. Their birth is still considered a burden and in such scenario we need to bring positive discrimination enabling girl education accessible to all rather to few families in society.
3. No Skill development: Our education system is highly traditional which blunt creativity of the children. More importantly, the higher drop-out belongs to socially marginalized class as they were forced to secure own and family life with adequate availability of food. Such scenarios compelled them to compromise with education and to search job. If we are able to provide those skills which further helps in finding out job we can definitely arrest such dropout.
4. Loss of inquisitiveness and inability to develop scientific temper in absence of technological support.
5. Issues with present system of Evaluation, assessment and performance of students which are faulty and requires to be improved.
The policy for education to all might be achievable but not in nearly ten years terms unless the institutional and infrastructural challenges are corrected. However, the step by step the government is heading to this direction. Under SSA, the enrolment of students has surprisingly increased and it must be seen as first phase. In the second phase, we might be able to focus on quality education accompanying technological inputs from teaching to institutional management. In addition, the growing role of civil society and NGOs would be helpful to achieve rationale of such policy. Along with this, judicial activism may support educational system to grow up.
On conclusion, the present system of education is merely to literate the person as despite having institutional and infrastructural challenges the government is running schools to achieve purposes of education. In reality, they are not being educated.
But, with the growing support of civil society and government initiatives we may be able to render education to all.
5.Inclusive Growth vs Redistribution – Which is Better for India and Why?
12th Five year plan of India has provided for the theme of Inclusive growth. Inclusive growth in simple terms is inclusion of all sections of society along the path to development. It is by encompassing all sections of society that the vision of our constitution makers with Equality, Fraternity and Justice to all can be achieved . Redistribution is a phenomenon where the resources are distributed by taxing rich class and providing the benefits to the poor class.
The post Independent India has tried both ways and socialism as the base tried to provide the starved section of people with land, food, shelter etc. Nationalization of estates, big farmlands, subsidies through PDS, various schemes like JRY, IAY etc have worked towards building homes to many. These provisions are achieved by Redistribution of wealth from rich to poor Whereas in areas of providing voting rights, availability of fundamental rights, democratic institutions creation has worked towards inclusion of marginal sections.
The Emergency period during 1975 has created furore as it is lower strata who suffered most due to the rigid laws and made them suffocated. The impact is felt by the nation as the country will be at peace only if all sections are given opportunities, provided with proper share in country's developmental benefits. Further the rise of Left extremism along the 'Red Corridor' is a bitter evidence of lack of equitable distribution of resources and opportunities and exclusion of many along the country's growth.
Post economic reforms, strengthening of panchayats through constitutional laws provided much needed respite to the rural sections and in particular marginal sections like SCs, STs due to reservation. At the same time due to globalization, liberalisation on the other end, no strict enforcement of forest laws, easy environment clearances, land acquisitions there was displacement of many people across the country.
Whatever the reasons are it is the poor and marginalised who are suffering with the consequences and the onus is on democratic government which has to take care of them. From independence till today there was a transition of India's stance from more socialistic and less capitalistic attitude to less socialistic and more capitalistic tendencies. This also changed the concept of more Redistribution in the beginning towards more Inclusive growth emphasis at the later period.
Today India is persuing path of Inclusive growth vigorously and including it in 12th plan is a welcome step because it is not just Redistribution of wealth that can achieve the purpose of equitable development, but dependency and integration of all sections in a society that is to be established and that creates a sense of belonging, pride, enthusiasm to work ensuring equity.
Further Redistribution is just in monetary terms, but there are other aspects like public spaces, forests, fossils etc belong to every person and all has a share in it. One cannot be deprived of remaining in the name of Redistribution of wealth. The case of Niyamgiri hills of Odisha where a private company tried to access natural resources and in exchange of monetary benefits to the tribals of the place. It is not money, but the culture, beliefs, history, livelihood that is at stake and the supreme court ruling by reminding the PESA act to the villagers is an excellent way of judging the situation emphasizing the inclusive growth and equal rights. In this case Inclusive growth won over Redistribution(which comes after the society is benefited by extracting natural resources of the Hills).
Taking people along and marching forward is the sure shot of success in any democracy. Leaving few people behind will create imbalance in society that cannot be compensated through Redistribution of resources at a later point of time. Inclusive growth of tribals, minorities, deprived etc must be the keyword for India after 65 years of being a Republic.