Old Testament Backgrounds



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THE PROBLEM OF VERTICAL TRANSFERENCE


THE INSPIRITIVE WORK OF GOD


OLD TESTAMENT BACKGROUNDS

1a. Introduction

1b. The title-what is it meant to indicate?


2b. The Content.

1c. This is primarily a history course but:

“History - and that is the second error in such dictatorical statements - does not consist solely of fighting. Both nations and classes have lived over much longer periods in peace with one another than at war, and the means by which they achieve this peace are at least as interesting and worthy of historical research as are the factors which from time to time, lead them into warlike clashes.”

Sebastian Haffner, The Meaning of Hitler.


In an anti-historical climate (both in and out of Christian circles), what value is the study of history?

2c. Other important features include geography, cultural, religious, and economic discussions. Perhaps the most important volume in print today covering the gamut of OTB is by Jack Sasson, ed. et al. Civilizations of the Ancient Near East, 4 volumes. Peabody: Hendrickson (1995), 2000. Hereafter it will be referred to as CANE


3b. Some introductory qualifications.
1c. The problem of vertical transference.

2c. The problem of understanding the nature of God’s inspiritive work. What is unique about the Bible and God’s people?


4b. Determining where to start.


1c. Why not the pre-flood world?

2c. What about the immediate post-flood world? While the dates are unacceptable, there is much valuable information in the work of Charles L. Redman, The Rise of Civilization.


3c. Is the biblical flood the same as that of Wooley’s flood found at Ur? He found alluvial deposits 3 meters deep at Ur which he dated as occurring ca 3500 and, consequently, identified this with the Genesis flood account. See his Excavations at Ur. London: Ernest Benn, 1955. For a rebuttal, see C. J. Gadd, “Ur,” AOTS, ed. By D. Winton Thomas. Oxford: Clarendon, 1969, 89-101. Basically there are good reasons for rejecting this fluvial site as being the source or remains of the Genesis flood.
1d.


Major

Cultural Innovations



Mesopotamia

Zagros and Taurus Mtns

Levant

Nile Valley

Dating (historic or 14C)




EARLY NATION STATES AND EMPIRES




Alphabet

Iron Metallurgy

Chariots

Written legal codes



State bureaucracy





































2,000 B.C.




Class Society

Full-time armies

Mass production

Cities


EARLY URBANISM







EARLY URBANISM


































Writing

Bronze metallurgy

Wheel (pots and carts)

Plow and draft animals

Full-time specialists








TEMPLE TOWNS

AND ESTABLISHED VILLAGES

























4,000 B.C.






















Ranked (chiefdom) society

Standardized art
















































Irrigation




EARLY AGRICULTURAL VILLAGES




























6,000 B.C.













Pottery








































Long-distance trade














































Agriculture



















Permanent Communities




SPARCELY OCCUPIED













8,000 B.C.













Herding Animals




OR UNIN-

HABITED










Plant processing and storage equipment







ADVANCED HUNTERS

AND GATHERERS













Stone-founded architecture













10,000 B.C.







Microlithic composite tools

Tigris-Euphrates alluvial plain

Hilly flanks of the Fertile Crescent

Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Coastal Syria

Egypt



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