Old Testament Backgrounds



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Torah = none

Prophet= one (6:8)

Prophetess = one (4:4)

Priest = chapters 17-18

Tabernacle = none

Feast/holy day = none

The Ark = none

Hesed & Hen = only chapter 1 & 8:35
2c. The formation of the monarchy (1 Sam 8). Pertinent reading may be done in T.N.D. Mettinger, Solomonic State Officials; I. Mendelsohn, “Samuel’s Denunciation of Kingship in Light of the Akkadian Documents of Ugarit,” BASOR 143:1 (Oct., 1956), 17-22 (this is a classic work); C. U. Wolf, “Traces of Primitive Democracy in Ancient Israel,” JNES 6 (April, 1947), 98-108; S. Smith, “The Practice of Kingship in Early Semitic Kingdoms,” in Myth, Ritual and Kingship, ed. by S. H. Hooke, 22-73; E. Neufeld, “The Emergence of a Royal-Urban Society in Ancient Israel,” HUCA 31 (1960), 31-54. See the very important article by Israel Finkelstein. “The Emergence of the Monarchy in Israel: the Environmental and Socio-Economic Aspects,” JSOT 44 (1989):43-74. William E. Evans, “An Historical Reconstruction of the Emergence of Israelite Kingship and the Reign of Saul,” Scripture in Context II, ed. William W. Hallo, et al. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 1983:61-77.
What was the force of God’s statement to Samuel that they had in essence rejected God rather than Samuel?

1 Sam 8 in light of Samuel’s warnings.


1. There would be a standing army consisting of draftees (commoners) and professional warriors (aristocrats, i.e. maryannu) 11-12
2. He would confiscate the people’s land and give it to the king’s servants 14. See 1 Kings 21 for Ahab and Naboth
3. Impose heavy taxes. 15, 17a
4. Force them to perform corvee labor. 1 Kings 5:13-18.

While all of these warnings eventually came true, it should be noted that, in effect, by refusing to cooperate in God’s work, they were already suffering most of these abuses. For a good overview of the functioning of the monarchy see A. Malamat, “Organs of Statecraft in the Israelite Monarchy,” BA 28:2 (May, 1965), 34-65. The literature published on this subject is voluminous. J.J.M. Roberts, “In Defense of the Monarchy: The Contribution of Israelite Kingship to Biblical Theology,” Ancient Israelite Religion, ed. Patrick Miller





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