Ohio and It’s History of Flight Resource Unit ed 770 July 2002 Jane Wise Table of contents

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Ohio and It’s History of Flight

  • Resource Unit
  • ED 770
  • July 2002
  • Jane Wise

Table of contents

  • Introduction
  • Content
  • Objectives
  • Activities
  • Evaluation
  • Instructional Resources
  • *Teacher references
  • *Student references
  • * Media references


  • The state of Ohio is the primary focus for fourth grade social studies. Students in this grade are to learn about events and people in Ohio’s history that influence the development of the state. They should be learning, at this level, about transportation and the development of industries in the state.
  • This unit will be broken down into two weeks. The first week will focus on the Wright Brothers and their influence on the history of flight and the second week will focus on the Wright Brothers and the invention process.


  • The development of flight and it’s concepts began in the 5th century, B.C. Many of those concepts influenced the discovery of flight in the Miami Valley.
  • The Miami Valley has been at the center of the development of flight and aviation, including some local development in Troy.
  • The Wright Brothers, raised and schooled in Dayton, led the world in the development of flight.
  • Invention is the creation of new objects, ideas or processes.
  • Ohio has a long history of as a center for invention. Throughout history, Dayton has held more patents than any major city in the United States.

Concepts and Vocabulary

  • invention timelines
  • aviation flight
  • gliders kites
  • wind tunnel mapping
  • North Carolina Kitty Hawk
  • patent copyright
  • wind speed
  • thrust lift
  • airflow weight
  • drag ascend
  • descend experiment
  • simulation distance

Concepts and Vocabulary (continued)

  • Roger Bacon Leonardo DaVinci
  • Sir George Cayley Francis Herbert
  • John Stringfellow Alphonse Pernaud
  • Lawrence Hargrove Otto Lilienthal
  • Samuel Pierpont Langley Wilbur Wright
  • Orville Wright problem-solving
  • compare contrast


  • Use research techniques to find information on the history of flight.
  • Oral presentation of research.
  • Construct a timeline to show significant events in the history of the development of flight.
  • Examine the properties of flight.
  • Relate the lives and inventions of the Wright Brothers to the development of flight.
  • Examine the invention of flight and it’s influence on the development of flight in Ohio and in the world.
  • Examine local aviation development in Troy.
  • Examine the process of invention and significance of inventors Ohio.
  • Use the problem-solving techniques to discover need for an invention.
  • Students will invent something useful for students lifestyle.
  • Use mapping skills to examine geography of Ohio and North Carolina.
  • Using a Venn diagram, compare and contrast the geography of Ohio and North Carolina.
  • Activities

Week one Students will begin week one by decorating a folder in which they will house all materials and notes for this unit.

  • Lesson 1: Research the history of flight.
  • Students will be given names and dates of aviation inventors and will research any possible information they can find on the subject.
  • . Lesson 2: Create a Timeline.
  • Students will use researched information from lesson 1 to create a classroom timeline on the Invention of Flight. The names and dates of significant inventors will be on index cards and then placed on the large classroom timeline as they present their research to the class.
  • . Lesson 3: Examination of the concepts of flight.
  • After a teacher presentation of the concepts and properties of flight, students will design kites and gliders (paper airplanes) according to those concepts. They will group in pairs to develop their kite or glider using paper, string, plastic straws and other provided materials, including a chart of diagrams for building paper airplanes. Then class will test their aircrafts outside. Crafts will be evaluated for distance, speed, air height and time spent in the air.

Lessons 4: The Wright Brothers

  • Lessons 4: The Wright Brothers
  • The students will learn about the Wright Brothers and their experimentation with the concepts of flight. They will learn how the invention of flight impacted Ohio and world. They will read books about the Wright Brothers and the teacher will present material on the subject.
  • . Lesson 5: Ohio vs. North Carolina
  • The students will use a Venn Diagram to compare and contrast maps of Ohio and North Carolina. The outcome will lead to a discussion as to why the Wright brothers may have moved their aviation experiments to the coast of North Carolina.
  • . Lesson 6: Local Ties to Aviation
  • The students will discover local ties to the development of aviation through the presentation by guests, Jim Beisner and Tom Pinkerton, science teachers and pilots from The WACO Air Museum and Learning Center.

Week Two

  • Week Two
  • .Lesson 7: The Invention Process
  • The teacher will present many historic inventions and their significance. The class will discuss the need for invention and the impact it has on their lives. The students will learn about patents and copyrights and why these laws are important to protect inventors and inventions.
  • .Lesson 8: The Invention Process Applied Using Problem-Solving Techniques
  • Students group in four, and use the 6 step problem-solving technique to identify a problem they encounter in their life or lifestyle that they believe could be assisted by inventing a simple device or process. Students will be given three days to develop this simple device or process and then will present it to the class.
  • .Lesson 9: The Wright Stuff and Invention Dimensions
  • The class will travel to Carillon Historical Park for a field trip. They will participate in two workshops. The first, The Wright Stuff, will demonstrate the principles that the Wright Brothers used while working on their early concepts of flight. The second workshop will examine the invention process and creative thinking.

Lesson 10: Invention Process

  • Lesson 10: Invention Process
  • Students will use techniques learned at Carillon Historical park regarding invention to work in groups on inventions from lesson 7. They will then present their inventions the following day to the class. The students will then develop presentation techniques using feedback from class and teacher and be prepared to share their inventions to parents during class open house night.


  • Unit test-Ohio and it’s History of Flight
  • Part 1 Multiple Choice
  • A legal document granted by the government giving an inventor the exclusive right to make, use and sell an invention is called a __________.
  • a. blueprint b. copyright
  • c. document d. patent
  • 2. ___________ is the creation of new devices, objects, ideas or procedures.
  • a. patent b. copyright
  • c. invention d. blueprint
  • 3. The science and practice of flight in heavier-than-air crafts is called __________________.
  • a. aviation b. flying
  • c. flight d. gliding
  • 4. Wilbur and Orville Wright made the first successful, sustained flight of a heavier-than air craft on December 17,1903. The first flight lasted__________________________.
  • a. thirty minutes b. two minutes
  • c. twelve minutes c. twelve seconds

Evaluation continued

  • 5. Which of the following are steps in the six step problem-solving method used in this unit?
  • a. gather information b. choose and implement a solution
  • c. identify a problem d. all of the above
  • Part 2 Objective
  • 6. Match at least 5 of the following scientists/inventors with their contribution to aviation history.
  • 1. 13th Century- Roger Bacon a. developed the wind tunnel
  • 2. 16th Century-Leonardo DaVinci b. 1st aircraft powered by a gasoline
  • fed engine.
  • 3. 19th Century-Sir George Cayley c. world’s first successful sustained flight
  • of heavier-than-air craft.
  • 4. 19th Century- Francis Herbert d. hand launched glider powered by
  • rubberbands.
  • 5. 1848- John Stringfellow e. developed flapping winged model
  • with a compressed air motor.
  • 6. 1871- Alphonse Penaud f. gathered information about the flight of
  • birds and applied them to flight.
  • 7. 1891-Lawrence Hargrove g. theory of air supported crafts.
  • 8. 1894-96- Otto Lilienthal h. further developed glider crafts.
  • 9. 1901-1903- Samuel Pierpont Langley i. Proved theories about human carrying gliders.
  • 10. 1903- The Wright Brothers j. developed early model of airliner

Evaluation continued

  • 7. Fill in the blank in the following statement:
  • On December 17, 1903 _____________________ Wright manned the first ever successful sustained flight of a heavier–than-air craft.
  • Part 3 Short Essay
  • 8. Why do you think North Carolina was geographically more attractive to the Wright brothers for their experiments in aviation than was Ohio?
  • 9. How has the invention of flight affected life in the 20th and 21st centuries?

Teacher Resources

  • Dayton Aviation Heritage National Historical Park, Dayton Daily News. From Wheel
  • To Wing: A guide to teaching the invention of flight. Dayton Daily News, 1996.
  • A guide for teachers published by the Dayton Daily News.
  • Flatow, Ira. They All Laughed…From Light Bulbs to Lasers: The Fascinating Stories
  • Behind Great Inventions That Have Changed Our Lives. Harper Collins. 1993.
  • Inventions relevant to modern living.
  • Longyard, J. Who’s Who in Aviation History. Presidio, 1995.
  • Biographies of 500 important figures in aviation history.
  • Lopez, Don S. Aviation. Macmillan,1995.
  • History of aviation with illustrations and photos.
  • Pressman, David. Patent it Yourself. 7th ed. Nolo, 1999.
  • Covers the entire process of patenting.

Student References

  • Battersby, Gregory, and Charles W. Grimes. Toys and Game Inventors Guide. Kent
  • Kent Communications, 1996.
  • Offers advice on patenting toys and games.
  • Freedman, Russell. The Wright Brothers: How They Invented The Airplane. Holiday
  • House, 1991.
  • This is a photo essay on the Wright brothers and their invention and contributions to aviation.
  • Holland, Gini. Airplanes. Benchmark, 1996.
  • Depicts different types of airplanes and a brief history. For readers in grades 3-5.
  • Joseph, Paul. The Wright Brothers. Checkerboard Library, 1996.
  • Gives a brief history of the Wright Brothers and their aviation inventions.
  • Longyard, J. Who’s Who in Aviation History. Presidio, 1995.
  • This book has biographies of 500 important figures in aviation history. Students can use this book to research aviators for timeline lesson.
  • Lopez, Don S. Aviation. Macmillan, 1995.
  • In this book, the history of aviation is shown with photos and illustrations. Again, good for research for timeline lesson.

Student References continued

  • Maden, Mary. Flying High With The Wright Brothers: The Story of Their First Flight: A Dog’s Tale.
    • Dog and Pony Enterprise.
    • Tells the story from a dogs perspective, but still historically somewhat accurate.
  • Miller, Mike. Mr. McMutry’s Bubble Hat- and Other Great Moments in American Ingenuity. Dell, 1996.
  • This book depicts some unusual inventions that are registered with the United
  • States Patent and Trademark Office.
  • Parker, Steve. What’s Inside Airplanes. Bedrick, 1995.
  • Describes an airplane and it’s parts, for readers in grades 4-8.
  • Shea, George. First Flight: The Story of Tom Tate. Scott Foresman, 1997.
  • Fictionalized story about a boy from Kitty Hawk who befriends the Wright brothers. Based
  • on facts of their experiments in flight from Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.
  • Woods, Andrew. Young Orville and Wilbur Wright: First to Fly. Troll Associates,1992.
  • A book written for young readers, depicting the Wright brothers in their younger days.

Media References and Resources

  • Music
  • 1.“Aviation Rag” Mark Janza, 1909.
  • Ragtime music depicting the spirit of the era.
  • Video
  • 2.“Inventing Flight”. Think T.V., 2002
  • Six 10 minute videos depicting the history and science of flight and
  • how the Wright brothers laid the foundation of aviation.
  • Charts
  • 3. Timeline- created by teacher showing 5th century B.C. through the discovery
  • of flight in 1903.
  • 4. Chart on folding paper airplanes made with printed materials found at:
  • www.zurqui.com/crinfocas/paper/airplane.html


  • Websites
  • 5. www.libraries.wright.edu/special/wright_brothers
  • This website connects to the Wright Brothers archives at Wright State University library.
  • 6. www.first-to-fly.com
  • This is the Wright Brothers Centennial Museum Online directory. It lists up-to-date information about events going on in Ohio.
  • 7. www.wacoairmuseum.org/
  • This is the site for the WACO Museum and Aviation Learning Center in Troy, Ohio.
  • 8. www.carillonpark.org
  • This site lists all the information and background one would need before visiting Carillon
  • Historical Park. There is information regarding workshops and field trips, as well as rate
  • schedules
  • 9. www.wright-b-flyer.org/
  • This website id dedicated to the preservation of historical events in Ohio.
  • 10. www.nps.gov/daav
  • National Park Service’s official site, highlights parks in and around the Miami Valley
  • 11. www.hfmgv.org
  • This is the official site if the Henry Ford Museum and Greenfield Village where much information and artifacts about the Wright Brothers are housed.


    • 12.Map of the United States. Encarta World Atlas, 2001.
  • A map of the U.S. showing the geography and typography of state used to compare and
  • contrast Ohio and North Carolina.
  • Chalkboard
  • 13. Used to demonstrate the use of Venn diagram handout.
  • Reproducibles
    • 14. Handout of blank Venn diagram.
  • Pamphlet
    • 15. Dayton Aviation Heritage. National Park Service.
    • This is a pamphlet that gives background about the Wright Brothers and Paul Lawrence Dunbar. It compares these three men and point out how their lives impacted each other
    • and their work in the Miami Valley.
  • Guest Speakers
    • 16. Jim Beisner
    • 17. Tom Pinkerton
      • Both active members of the WACO Historical Club, they are science teachers and pilots
      • Who will share their knowledge of aviation in Troy history.


  • Photos
  • 18. December 17, 1903. The first flight of the Wright Flyer.
  • 19. Orville Wright, manning the first successful flight.
  • Photos courtesy of special collections and archives at Wright State University.
  • Poster
      • 20.. Historic Airplanes. Einstein’s Emporium, 2002
      • 21x33 Full color poster. Depicts the history of aircrafts from the Wright Flyer all the way to the latest stealth.

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