Occipital lobe



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Occipital lobe

Occipital lobe - Anatomy

  • Thus, the occipital lobe is defined as the part of the cerebral cortex that lies underneath the occipital bone

Occipital lobe - Anatomy

  • The lobes rest on the tentorium cerebelli, a process of dura mater that separates the cerebrum from the cerebellum. They are structurally isolated in their respective cerebral hemispheres by the separation of the cerebral fissure. At the front edge of the occipital are several lateral occipital gyri, which are separated by lateral occipital sulcus.

Occipital lobe - Anatomy

  • The occipital aspects along the inside face of each hemisphere are divided by the calcarine sulcus. Above the medial, Y-shaped sulcus lies the cuneus, and the area below the sulcus is the lingual gyrus.

Occipital lobe - Anatomy

  • Damage to the primary visual areas of the occipital lobe can leave a person with partial or complete blindness.Schacter, D. L., Gilbert, D. L. Wegner, D. M. (2009). Psychology. (2nd ed.). New Work (NY): Worth Publishers.

Occipital lobe - Function

  • A significant functional aspect of the occipital lobe is that it contains the primary visual cortex.

Occipital lobe - Function

  • Cells on the posterior aspect of the occipital lobes' gray matter are arranged as a spatial map of the retinal field

Occipital lobe - Function

  • Damage to the primary visual cortex, which is located on the surface of the posterior occipital lobe, can cause blindness due to the holes in the visual map on the surface of the visual cortex that resulted from the lesions.

Occipital lobe - Functional anatomy

  • The occipital lobe is divided into several functional visual areas. Each visual area contains a full map of the visual world. Although there are no anatomical markers distinguishing these areas (except for the prominent striations in the striate cortex), physiologists have used electrode recordings to divide the cortex into different functional regions.

Occipital lobe - Functional anatomy

  • The first functional area is the primary visual cortex. It contains a low-level description of the local orientation, spatial-frequency and color properties within small receptive fields. Primary visual cortex projects to the occipital areas of the ventral stream (visual area V2 and visual area V4), and the occipital areas of the dorsal stream—visual area V3, visual area MT (V5), and the dorsomedial area (DM).

Occipital lobe - Epilepsy and the occipital lobe

Ch (digraph) - Occitan

  • In Occitan language|Occitan, ch represents , but in some dialects it is .

Neuroanatomy of memory - Occipital lobe

  • This lobe is known as the centre of the visual perception system, the main function of the occipital lobe is that of vision

Neuroanatomy of memory - Occipital lobe

Neuroanatomy of memory - Occipital lobe

  • When damage occurs in the occipital lobe it is most common to see the effects on the opposite side of the brain

Visual memory - Occipital lobes

  • Located at the back of the brain, the occipital lobes receive and process visual information. The occipital lobes also process colors and shapes. Whereas the right occipital lobe interprets images from the left visual space, the left occipital lobe interprets images from the right visual space. Damage to the occipital lobes can permanently damage visual perception[The human brain. (2009, July). Retrieved from http://www.allabouttbi.com/partsofthebrain]

Visual memory - Occipital lobe injury complications

  • Damage to the occipital lobe is characterized by loss of visual capability and the inability to identify colors both important processes in visual memory.

Gentry - The historical background of social stratification in the Occident

  • The Proto-Indo-Europeans|Indo-Europeans who settled Europe, Western Asia and the Indian Subcontinent conceived their societies to be ordered (not divided) in a tripartite fashion, the three parts being castes.Mallory, J.P. In search of the Indo-Europeans Thames Hudson (1991) p131 Castes came to be further divided, perhaps as a result of greater specialisation.

Gentry - The historical background of social stratification in the Occident

  • The classic formulation of the caste system as largely described by Georges Dumézil was that of a priestly or religiously occupied caste, a warrior caste, and a worker caste.

Gentry - The historical background of social stratification in the Occident

  • Georges Dumézil|Dumézil divided the Proto-Indo-European society|Proto-Indo-Europeans into three categories: sovereignty, military, and productivity (see Trifunctional hypothesis)

Gentry - The historical background of social stratification in the Occident

  • This caste system can be seen to be that which flourished on the Indian Subcontinent and amongst the Italic peoples.

Gentry - The historical background of social stratification in the Occident

  • Examples of the Indo-European Castes:

Gentry - The historical background of social stratification in the Occident

  • *'Roman' - Flamen|Flamines, Milites, Quirites

Gentry - The historical background of social stratification in the Occident

  • *'Celtic' - Druids, Equites, Plebs|Plebes (according to Julius Caesar)

Gentry - The historical background of social stratification in the Occident

  • *'Nordic' - Earl, Churl, Thrall (according to the Poetic Edda|Lay of Rig)
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