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JUDICIAL NOTICE

Demurrer and, 308—309.

Pleading, not necessary, 139—140.

Scope, 139—140.


JURISDICTION

See Actions; Courts; Dilatory ?leas; Process.



JURY TRIAL

At bar, 538-540.

Burden of proof,

In general, 542—544.

Prima faeie case, 542.

Bebuttal, 542—543.

Challenges,

In capita, 541.

Propter affectum, 541.

Propter defectum, 541.

Propter dellctum, 541.

Propter bonoris respectum, 541.

To the array, 540—541.

To the polls, 540—541.

Charge,

InstructIons, 540.



Bequest to, 550.

Restrictions, 540—550. Demurrer to evidence,

In genera], 543, 546—548.

In several states, 547—548.

Directed verdIct, 543, 548—549.

Equity, discretion of chancellor, 20.

J~yidence~ method of production, 545—546.

Evolution, 84—85.

Jurors,


Examination, 541—542.

Impanelling, 540.

Selection, 540—542.

Summonlng~ 540.

Nisi prius, 538—540.

Nonsuit, 548, MS.

Order of proof, 543—544.

Right to, at common law, 20.

JURY TRIAL—Cont’d Right to open and close,

Objective, 544—545.

Opening statement, 545.

Traverse and, 436.

Variance between charge and proof, 552.

Venlre facias, writ, 530—540.

Verdict,


General. 550—551.

Rule nlsl, 552.

Special, 551—552.

Special case, 552.

Voir dire, 541—542.

Westminster II (1285), Statute of, 538—540.

Withdrawing a case, methods, 546-549.

Witnesses,

Cross examInation, 546.
Direct examination, 545—546.

Leading questions, 545—546.

Oath, 545.
JUSTIFICATION

See Authority; Confession and Avoidance.


LEGAL EFFECT

Pleading according to, 120—128.

Specific words, libel and slander, 199.
LIBEL AND SLANDER

See Defamation; Trespass on the Case.


LIMITATIONS. STATUTE’OF

Amendments, 560—561, 563.

Confession and avoidance, 490-491.
LIVINGSTON, EDWARD

Code of Practice of LouIsiana (1805), a



Proposed Penal Code (1824) for Louisiana, a
MALICIOUS PROSECUTION

Allegations in action, 194—195.

Declaration (Form), 195.
MATERIALITY

Traverse denies material allegatIons, 430—446.


MESNE PROFITS

Ejectment In early form, 243.

Recovery under statutes, 243.

Trespass for, essential allegatIons, 239—241.


MISJOINDER

See Demurrer; Dilatory Pleas.


MIXED ACTIONS

ClassIfication, 46—48.

Decline In England, 28, 53.

Definition and scope, 46—47.

Recovery of,

Damages, 48, 129.

Land, 48.
MONEY HAD AND RECEIVED

See Indebitatus Assumpsit.


MONEY LENT

Sec Indebitatus Assumpalt.


MOTIONS

Arrest of judgment, 571—5tT.

Bill of particulars, 872—375.

656 INDEX

References are to Pages

INDEX

References are to Pages

657

MGI ION S-.-Cont’d

Directed verdict, 548—549.

Judgment non obstante veredieto, 573—574,

Judgment notwithstanding verdict, 573—574,



New trial, 568—570.

Nonsuit, 548.

Bepleader, 578—580.

Retrospective, 585—583.

Under modern codes, 580—583.
To strike out, 395—396.

Yertire facias de nova, 570-571.


NAMES

Description of,

Corporations, 1Th.
Parties, 114—115.
Partners, 115.
Persons other than parties, 113—114.
NEGATIVE PREGNANT
Nature and effect, 444—447.

NEW ASSIGNMENT

Application, 529—530.

Form, 530.

Modem codes, rules, etc., 531.

Nature, 520—531.

Purpose, 529.


NEW TRIAL, MOTION FOR

Grounds (or motion, 569—570.

Modern codes, rules, etc., 580-581.

Nature, 568—570.

Vcnire judas de novo, compared, 570—571.
NEW YORK CODE OF PROCEDURE (I64~

Field, David Dudley, and, 24.

Forms of action under, 24—25, 170—171.

Fusion of law and equity under, 28.

Influence in other states, 25, 28.

NIL DEBET

General issue,

Debt on a simple contract, 500—503. Debt on a statute, 500—503.

NIL DICIT

Judgment of, 472—473.



NISI FRILlS

Trials, 538—540.

Venire facias, writ, 539.

Westminster II (1285), Statute of, 538—540.


NON ASSUMPSIT

General Issue,

Indebitatus assumpsit, 511—512. Special assumpslt, 508—511.
NON CEPIT

General issue In replevin, 497—499, 500.


NON DETINET

General issue,

Detinue, 496—497.

Replevin, under statutory merger, 497—499.


NON tSr rACTUM

General Issue,

Covenant, 505-SOT.

Debt on a specialty, 503, 504.



NON OBSTANTE VEREDICTO, MOTION

JUDGMENT

Modern codes, rules, etc., 582—583.

Repleader motion, dIstinguished, 578, 579.

Scope, 577—578.



NONSUIT, MOTION FOR

Purpose and effect, 543, 548.



NOT GUILTY

General Issue,

Ejectment, 494-405.

Trespass, 485—486, 488.

Trespass on the case, 488—489, 492—403.

Trover, 493—404.



N OIl CE

Objective of pleading, 14—15, 17.



NOTWITHSTANDING VERDICT, MOTION FOR

JUDGMENT

See Non Obstante Veredieto, Motion for Judgment.


NUL TIEL RECDRD

General issue, debt on a judgment, 504—505.


NUNQUAM INDEBITATUS

General issue, debt on a simple contract, under Rhlary Rules, 501, 502—503.



OPENING RECORD

See Demurrer.


ORAL PLEADING

Development, 80—81.



ORIGINAL WRIT

See also Forms of Action.

Basis of jurisdiction, 71, 72. Charge and, 38—39.
I Conformance of declaration to, 100—101.

Debt (Form), 37.


Nature, 36—37.
Plea In abatement to, 417—418.

Praecipe in cnpitc, (Form), 37.


Purposes, 37—38.
Relation to,
Cause or action, 39.

Form of action, 30.

Beplevin, 258—259.
Form, 260.

Selecting correct form, 39.


Source of law, 40—41.
Writ of error, 590—601.

OVER

Deed, inspection, 126, 368—370.


Demand, 368—370.
Form, 370.
Modern codes, rules, etc., 375.
Nature, 368—370.
Profert, relation to, 125—126, 369.

PAROL DEMURRER

Form, 429-430.


Plea In suspension for nonage, 429.

PEREMPTORY PLEAS

Boo Confession and Avoidance; General Issue; Pleas; Picas in Bar; Traverse.

577—579,

577—579.


FOR

INDEX


are to Pages
PROCESS

Abuse and misuse, 169.

Arrest, 73.

Notice, 72.

Original wilt, 72.

Praeeipe, 72.

Service,

Constructive, 75—78. Personal, 75.

Summons,

Commencement of action, 72, 73, Conformity with complaint, 100—101.

Constructive service, 76—78.

Notice by publication, 76.

Notice to non.residenta, 70.

Personal service, 75.

Service by publication after Substituted servIce, 75—76.

I Writ of attachment, 73—74.


PRODUCTION OF ISSUES Sec Issues of Fact; Issues of Law.
PRDFERT

Nature of, 125-128,

Oyer, relation to, 120, 368—369.

Production of deed, 123—126, 368—309.


PROH IBITION

See Writ of Prohibition.


PROTESTATION

Duplicity, 484.

Nature and function, 466—467.
PROVISIONS OF OXFORD (1256)

Chancellor’s power effected, 43-44.

Writs of course under, 42, 43—44.
PUIS DARREIN CONTINUANCE See Pleas.
QUANTITY, QUALITY, VALUE

Necessity for alleging, 111—113.


QUANTUM MERUIT

See Debt; lndcbitatus Assumpslt.


QUANTUM VALEBANT

See Debt; Indebitatus Assumpsit.


QUARE CLAUSUM FREGIT
See Trespass.
QUASI CONTRACTS

See Debt; Indebitatus Assumpait


QUID PRO QUO See Debt.

REAL ACTIONS

Aid prayer by tenant 370,373.

ClassIfication, 46-48.

Damages need not be alleged, 128-flD.

Decline in England, 28, 53.

Definition and scope, 47.

Ejeetment, 53-54.

Pondal origin of, 417.

Forcible entry and detainer, 49-50, 52, 56.

Freehold, 47.

Ownership, 50-51.

Possession, 46-ill.

selaurc, 77—78.

658

References



PERSONAL ACTIONS

See also Account; Covenant; Debt; Detlnue;

I6jectment; lndebitatun Assunipsit; Replevin;

Special Assumpsit; Trespass; Trespass on the

Case; Prover. Breach of contract, 56, 57, ClassificatiOn, 46—47, 56—57. Damage to, Personal property, 56, 57.

Real property, 56, 57.

Damages, allegation, 123-129.

Decline in England, 57—58.

Ex contractu, 56, 57.

Es dellcto, 56, 57.

Injury to, Person, 56, 57.

Relative rights, 56, 57.

Recovery of,

Damages, 50~ 57.

Debt, 56, 57.

Personal property, 56, 57.

Real property, 56, 57. Scire facias, 588.
PLEADINGS

Declaration, 82.

Demurrers, 384—386, 389—395.

Dilatory pleas, 410—411.

Fuactiol]s and objects of 13—17.

Names, manner and order of, 80.

Pleas in bar, 434—433.

Replication and subsequent pleadIngs, 380—381.


PLEAS

Sec also Confession arid Avoidance; Dilatory Pleas; General Issue; Picas in Bar; Traverse.

Admission by failure to deny, 465—466,

Amounting to general issue, 469—472.

Argumentative, 467—469.

Confession and avoidance, 460—465.



Dilatory,

Abatement, 410—429.

Jurisdiction and venue, 412—415.

Suspension of action, 429—430.

In bar, 434—436.

In estoppel, 465.

Issues of fact, raised by, 378,

Partial defenses, 472—473.

Fuis darrein continuance, Nature, 513—515.

Waiver of former pleas, 513—515.

Several defenses, 475—480.
PLEAS IN BAR

See also Confepslon and Avoidance; General issue; Pleas; Traverse.

Classification, 434—436.

Method of pleading, 434—435.

Nature, 434—435.

Several defendants, separate pleadIng, 480.

Several defenses, 475—480.

Treated as a unit, 473-474,


POSSESSORV ASSIZES

Sec Real Actions.


PRAECIPE

See Actions; Process.

INDEX

References are to Pages



659

REAL ACTI ONS—Cont’d

Possessors actions, 47—51.

Proprietary actions, 47—51.

Proprietary and possessory, compared, 48-~.

Right of entry, 40—59.

Seite facias, 587—588.

Seisin, 46, 47, 51.

Self-help, 49—50.

Trespass to try title, Nature, 54—55.

States adopting~ 54, 55.

View of land, 370, 375.

Voucher t0 warranty, 371, 375.

Writ of disseisin, 55.

Writ of partition, 50.

Writs of assize, Classified, 48.

Novel disseisin (Form), 52.

Writs of entry,

Classified, 48, 50.

Modified form, 55.

States adopting, 55. Writs of right,

Classified, 48.

Form, 51—52.
REAL PROPERTY LIMITATIONS ACT (1833)

Misod actions, effect upon, 28, 53.

Real actions, effect upon, 28, 53.
REBUTTER

DefinItion, 381.


RECITAL

Objection by special demurrer, 180—131.

Positive pleading requirement, 130—131.

RECOGN IZANCE

Action of debt on, 298.



RECORDS

Action of debt on, 297—298.



RECOUPMENT

Nature, 513—516.

Origin, 513—516.
REJOINDER

Definition, 380.

Departure, 527—528.

RELEASE

Conveyance, 127.

Pleading, 127, 462—403.

REPLEADER, MOTION FOR

Cireuinstnnces for awarding, 578—580.

Modern codes, rules, etc., 583.

Non obstante vcredicto, compared, 578, 579.


REPLEVIN

A v owry,

Pleading, 117, XIS, 500.

Special traverse, relation to, 409.

Cognizance,

Pleading, 125, 500.

Special traverse, relation to, 409.

Concurrent, other actions, distinguished, 251—258. Confession and avoIdance, 500.



REPLEVIN—Cont’d

Declaration, essent in) allegations, In general, 262.

Damages, 268—269.

Plaintiff’s right, title, eta, 262—263.

Wrengful act, taking and detention, 266—268.

Declaration (Form), 201—262.

Demand and refusal, 268.

Detinet and detinuit, 239—260.

Dctinue and, 254, 257—268.

General issue, 497—499, 500. Form, 497—498.

Sudgment, 269.

Modern codes, rules, etc., 270—272.

Original writ, 258—259. Form, 260.

Plaint (Form), 261.

Property, descriptIon, 262.

Property recoverable by, 256—257.

Provisional remedy, 254.

Scope and nature, 233—257.

Special traverse, 490.

Statutory merger, dei-inuc. general

Unlawful taking, distress, 254—255.
REPL JCATJ ON

Classification, 518—519. Do injuria,

Confession nail avoidance, relation, 521—522.

Effect, 520—521.

Form, 521-522.

Modern codes, rules. etc., 322—525.

Nature and SCOOP. Si 0—521.

When used, 510—520.



Defieition, 350.
Departure, 526—527.

Formal pans, 522.



New assignment (Form), ~30.
REPLICATION DE INJURIA

See fleplication.
REPUGNANCY

Sec lnconsirtency,


RES JUDICATA

Judgment on demurrer, effect, 406.

Pleadings as foundation for, 16-IT.
RULE NISl

Order to show cause, 552.


RULES OF COURT PROCEDURE

Advantages of, 26.

Code pleading, distinguished, 25—26.
RULES OF PLEADING

See also specific topics.

Bad in part, bad altogether, 473—474, Certainty it, pleading,

Certainty of place, 107.

Certainty of time, 108-111.

General requirement, 131—133.

Show authority, 124—225.

Show tItle, 115—116.

Specify names of persons, 112—114.

Specify quantity, quality, value, Ili—Irn Conform to precedent, 150.

Demurrer Or plead, 318.

Issue, 497 .190.



RULES OF PLEADING—Cont’d

Departure objeetio~mb)e, 525-526.

Dilatory pleas, when pleaded, 411—412.

Evidence and ultimate facts, 90—02.

Facts only alleged, 90—92.

General mode, when proper, 134.135.

Issue accepted, 389, 535.

Legal conclusions, 92—94.

Legal effect, pleading by, 92—94.

Materiality in pleading, Denial of esaentia]s, 441—446,

Traverse, 439—440.

Not to be,

Alternative, 146—147.

Ambiguous or doubtful, 146.

Argumentative, 407—409.

Double, 147—149.

Inconsistent or repugnant, 145—146. Omitted may be matters,

ImplIed, 141—142.

In anticipation, 140—141.

Judicially noticed, 139—140.

Presumed, 142. Operative or ultimate facts, 91—92. Particularity, extent required,

Generally, 135-436.

Acts regulated by statute, 138-130.

Facts known to adversary, 136.

Inducement or aggravation, 136-438.

Positive, not recital, 130—131.

Production of issue, 378—383.

Singlenuss or unity, 147—149.

Surplusage to be avoided, 142—144.

Traverae tenders issue, 532—533.


SCIRE FACIAS

Allegation of damages unnecessary, 128—129. Revival of Judgments,

Personal actions, 588.

Real actions, 587—588.



SEALED INSTRUMENT

See Covenant; Debt.


SEISIN

See Real Actions.


SET-OFF

Nature, 516—517.

Statutory origin, 516—517.

SIMILITER

See Issues of Fact.



SINGLENESS OF ISSUE

See also Duplicity.

Pleadings not to be double, 147—148, 475—ISO.

Qualifications of requirement, 148, 476—478, 480—481.

Requirement of, 475—480.
SPECIAL ASSUMPSIT

Concurrent, case for tortious conduct, 321.



Concurrent, other actions, distinguished, 321—322.

Condition subsequent, 331—332.

Confession and avoidance, 510.

Debt~ compared, 278—279, 288—288.

Declaration, essential allegations, In general, 323.

Breach, 332—333.

SPECIAL ASSUMPSIT—Cont’d

Consideration, 325—328.

Contract and promise, 323—325.

Damages, 383-’334.

Performance, conditions precedent, 328—33Z

Declaration (Form), 322—323.

Er delicto, and, 319.

Executed consideration, 327.

Executed contracts, 286—287.

Executory coasideratlon, 327-323.

Executory contracts, 288—289.

Explanatory inducement, 323—324.

General Issue, 508—511. Form, 508.

Hilary Rules, effect on defenses, 510—51L

Modern codes, rules, etc., 334—336.

Promise, 288—289.

Scope anti nature, 318-321.

SPECIAL TRAVERSE

See Traverse.


SPECIALTY

See Covenant; Debt.


SPECIFIC TRAVERSE

See Traverse.



SUMMONS

See Process.



SUPREME COURT OF JUDICATURE ACT (1873)

Forms of action, effect, 29.

Law and equity, effect, 58.

SURRERIJTTER

DefInition, 381.


SURREJOINDER

Definition, 380—381.

SUSPENSION, PLEAS IN

See Dilatory Pleas.



TENDER OF ISSUE

See also Issues of Fact; Issues of Law. Form of tender, 533.

Nature and purpose, 532—534.
TIME

Continuing acts, 110—111.

Not truly stated, 109—110.

Plea follows declaration, 110.

Traversable facts, 108.

Truly stated, 108—109.


TITLE

Adversary’s title alleged, 122, 123.

Allegation of general freehold title, lit

Allegation of title of possession, Not fully stated, 116—118.

Sufficient to show liability, 122—123. Alleging derivation of title,

By conveyance or alienation, 120.



By Inheritance, 120.

Fee simple, 118—110.

PartIcular estates, 119—120.

Estoppel of adverse party, 124.

Pieading conveyance, manner of, 120-.:122.

Proof, 123-124.

When fully stated, 117—118,

660


INDEX

References are to Pages

Specific,

Argumentative denIal, 447.

Classification, 435.

Express denIal, 446-447.

Function, 446—447.

General Issue, distinguIshed, 457.

Negative pregnant, 447.

Special, dIstinguished, 448—450.

Too large, allegatIons, 441-443.

Too narrow, allegations, 443—444.

Variance and, 436—437.

Various forms of, 435—436.



INDEX

References are to Pages TRAVERSE—Cont’d

661

TORTS

See also Detinuc; Ejectment; Iteplevin; Trespass; Trespass on the Case; Trover.

Classification of actions, 56-57.

Plea In abatement, parties,

MIsjoinder, 426—428.

Nonjolnder, 426—428.

Trespass and case as source, 174—175, Westminster II (1285), Statute,

Consimill casu, 44—45, 175.

Effect, 44—45, 175.
TRANSITORY ACTIONS

See also Actions; Venue.

Contrasted with local, 103—105.
TRAVERSE

See also General Issue; Picas; Pleas in Bar.

Aggravation, matter of, 439—440.

Common, see Specific Traverse.

Defense of denIal, 379.

Denial of essentials only, 441—444.

Estoppel and, 439.

Form of denial, 436—437.

General, classification, 435.

General issue,

Classification, 435.

Compendious negation, 457.

Essential facts, denial, 457.

Liability, denial, 457—458.

Nature and usc, 457—459.

Specific traverse, distInguished, 457.

General requisites, 436—439.

Immaterial allegations, 439—440.

Inducement, matter of, 439—440.

Insufficient In law matter, 439—440.

Irrelevant allegations, 439-440.

Issuable proposition, selection, 441.

Issues of fact, 436.

Law, matter of, 437.

Law and fact, matter of, 437—438.

Materiality, 439—440.

Matter not alleged, 438—439.

Modo et forma, 437, 439.

Necessarily implied matter, 439.

Negative and affirmative pregnants, 444 418.

Prematurely alleged matter, 439—440,

Replication de injuria,

Ciassificatlon, 485, 457.

Modo et forma, 437.

Nature and scope, 519—521. Several allegations, election, 441.

Special,


Abnormal form, 450.

Absque hoc clause, 447—457.

Classification, 435.

Conclusion with verIfication, 448-449, 453—454.

Form, 452.

FunctIon, 452-453.

In replevin, 499.

Inducement, 447—449, 455—457,

Modern use, 456—457.

Normal form, 449—450.

RequisItes, 447—448.

Specific, distinguished, 448-450.

Sufficiency rules, 454—456.

TRESPASS

Ab-initlo, 269—170.

Assault and battery (Form), 154—155.

Ballee, 158, 161—182.

Confession and avoIdance, 486—488.

Do bonis asportatis, 36. Form, 155.

Declaration, essential allegations,

In general. 156,

Damages, 170.

Defendant’s wrongful act, 164—170.

Plaintiff’s rIght, title, etc., 156—164.

Direct iniury, 152, 154. 165—168.

E.iectment and, 226—230.

Election, remedy, trespass on the case, 181—182.

Force, 164—165, 178—177.

Force Implied, 164—16,5, 177.

General issue, 435—486, 488. Form, 485.

flilary Rules, effect on defenses, 488.

History, 36, 44, 153.

Immediate iniury, 152, 154, 165—168.

Landlord. 159—162.

Liberum tenempntum plea, 487. Form, 487—488.

Modern codes, rules, etc., 170—172,
NeglIgence, 181—182.

Nonfeasance, 165, 177.

Personal injury, 156—157, 165—187.

Personal property, 157—158, 162—163.

Possession, 157—163,

Process, abusc, 169.

Property, descriptIon, 156, 163, 531.

Quare clausum fregit, 36, 157—164. Form, 155.

Quarc ejectione flrmae, 227—230.

Real property, 36, 157—164.

Scope and nature, 152—154.

Servant, 158.

Tenant, 159—162.

Tenant at will, 159—162.

Tort remedy, 44, 56—57, 152—1,53, 174.

Trespass on the case dIstinguished, 152—154, 165—168,

176-181.

Trover compared, 209—210.

VI et armis, 154.

Violence as element, 153, 154.

Writ of, 36, 153.

Wrongful prosecution, 168.

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