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COVENANT

Certainty in pleading perforiaance, 133.

Concurrent, other actions, dIstinguished, 305—306.

Confession and avoidance, 507.

Contract and, 44.

Debt, distinguished, 279.

Declaration, essential allegations, In general, 306.

Breach, 307—308.

Damages, 308.

Execution of covenant, 306.

Performance, conditions precedent, 307.

Promise, 307.



COVENANT—Cont’d

Declaration (Form), 306.

Facts In knowledge of adversary, 136.

General issue, 505-507. Form, 505-500.

Hulary Rules, effect on defenses, 507.

Modern codes, rules, etc., 308—a®.

Scope and nature, 303—305.

Writ of, 36.


DAMAGES

Account, 310.

Covenant, 308.

Debt, 275, 278—279, 282—286,

Defamation, 198—199.

Detlnue, 244—247, 251.

Ejectment, 238—239.

General and special, 89, 128-129.

Gist of action, when, 80.

Indebitatus assumpslt, 365.

Mesne profits, 241, 243.

Mixed actions, 129.

Personal actions, 129.

Recoupment, cross-demand for, 515—516.

Reduction by recoupment, 515—516.

Replevin, 268—209.

Set-off, defeat of recovery, 516—517.

Special assumpsit, 333—334.

Trespass, 170.

Trespass for mesne profits, 241.

Trespass on the case, 186—187,

Trover, 206—207, 223.


DE BONIS ASPORTATIS

See Trespass.


DE INJURIA

See Replication.

650

INDEX

References are to Pages

289, 202—294, 296, 208.

Venue, 84—85,

DEBT

Breach, 284—285.

Causa DebendI, 275, 278, 286, 287, 294, 296.

Collateral promIse, 289—201.

Concurrent, other actions, distinguished, 278—279.

Cevenant, compared, 279.

Damages, 285, 286.

Declaration, essential allegations, In general, 282—285.

Detinet, chattels, 276—278.

Executory contracts, 288—289.

Indebitatus assumpsit, compared, 279,

Indebitatus count, 292, 359.

Modern codes, rules, etc., 290—302.

On a judgment,

Confession and avoidance, 505.

Declaration (Form), 281—282.

Essential allegations, 297—298.

General issue, 504—505. Form, 504.

Ililary Rules, no effect, 505.

Mode of declaring, 298—299.

On a simple contract,

Confession and avoidance, 502.

Declaration (Form), 279—280.

Essential allegations, 285—292.

General issue, 500—503. Form, 500—501.

Bhlary Rules (Form), 501.

Fiilary Rules, effect on defenses, 502403.
Mode of declaring, 291—292.

INDEX


651

References are to Pages

DEBT—Cont’d

On a specialty,

Confession and avoidance, 503—504.

Declaration (Form), 280.

Essential allegatIons, 292-295.

General issue, 503, 504. Form, 503.

Rilary Rules, effect on defenses, 504.

Mode of declaring, 294—295.

On a statute,

Confession and avoidance, 502.

Declaration (Form), 280—281.

Essential allegations, 295—297.

General issue, 500—503.

Hilary Rules, effect on defenses, 502—503.

Mode of declaring, 297.

Profert of bond, 126.

Promise, 278, 286.

Quantum merult count, 292, 859.

Quantum valebant count, 292, 359.

Quid pro quo, 11, 278, 279, 286, 287, 289, 291.

RecognIzance, 298.

Scope and nature, 274—278.

Sealed instrument,

Future obligation, 203—294.

Present obligation, 292—293.

Special assumpslt, compared, 278—279, 287—288.

Statute of frauds, 291.

Sum certain, 282—234, 239, 292, 295, 296, 299.

Title, as basis of action, 275—276.

Writ of, 36.


DECLARATION

See also for essential allegations in each action:

Aecouat; Covenant; Debt: Detinue; Eject­ment; Indebhtatus Assumpsit; Replevin;

cial Assumpsit; Trespass; Trespass for Mesne Prof its; Trespass on the Case; Trover. For other matters, see specific topics.

Conformance to process, 100—101. Form, 83.

Formal parts of,

Body, 82—83, 85.

Commencement, 82—83, 85.

Conclusion, 52—83, 85—86.

Production of suit, 86.

Title of court and term, 82—84.

Venue, 82—83, 84-85.

General form of, 82—88,

Joinder of counts,

Different causes of action, 96—98.

Different versions of same action, 98—100.

Several, 94—06.

Statement of cause of action,

Consequent damages, 89.

Facts only alleged, 90—94.

Exceptions, 93—94.

Prima fade case, 152, 274.

Contract, 274.

Tort, 152.

Bight of plaintiff, 88—89.

Wrongful act of defendant, 89.


DECREE

Contempt for failure to obey, 585—586.

Included in judgment, by modern codes, 588.

Judgment at law compared, 585-586.

Nature, 585—586.

DEEDS


Oyer, 126.

Profert, 125—126.


DEFAMATION

See also Trespass on the Case.

Colloquium, 107—195.

Damages, 198—199.

Essential allegations, 197—199.

Gravamen, 107.

Inducement, 197.

Innuendo, 198.

Libel and slander, modern practice, 200.

Publication, 198.

Slander, declaration (Form), 196—107.

Strictness of pleading, 195—196.

Truth as defense, 491—492.

Words, verbatim statement, 199.


DEFENSE

See also Confession and Avoidance; Demurrer; Dilatory Pleas; General Issue; Pleas; Pleas In Bar; Traverse.

Anticipated matter, not requIred, 140—141.

Confession and avoidance, 379—350.

Demurrer, 384—409.

Denial by traverse, 379.

Election to demur or plead, 378, 381—382.

Forced Issues under code, 382—383.

General issue, notice, 513.

General issue and specially pleaded, 434-435. 484—513.

Partial, 472—473.

Several, pleas in bar, 475—480.



DEMAND

Allegation in declaration In,

Detinue, 250—251.

Replevin, 268.

Trover, 221—222.

DEMAND OF OVER

See Oyer.



DEMURRER

Admission, -

In general, 396—399.

Ill-pleaded facts, 397—398.

Well pleaded facts, 307—305.

I Defects available,

General, 389—305.

Special, 389—395.

Election to demur or plead, 378, 381—382. Expediency of, 381—382.

For,


Alternative pleading, 147.

Departure, 528—529.

DuplicIty, 148, 149, 394—395.

MIsjoinder, 140.

General (Form), 380.

General and special, hIstory, 301—395.

Issues of law, raised by, 378.

Jeinder in, 390, 53~ Form, 300—391.

Judgment on,

In general, 405—406.

Demurrer to plea in abatement, 405.

Demurrer to pleading in bar, 405.

Election to stand on, 405.

Res judicata, 400.

DEMURRER—Cont’d

Judicial notice and, 308—309.

Modern codes, rules, etc., 406—409.

Motions to strike out and, 305—396.

Nature and function, 384—387.

Opening record,

DIscontinuance, 400, 402—403.

Effect, 400—40Z.

Exceptions, 400, 402—404.

General issue, 400, 403—404.

Plaintiff’s demurrer, later stage, 400, 404.

Plea in abatement, 400, 402.

Proper ground for action, 404—405.

Other pleadings, distinguished, 388.

Plea treated as a unit, 473—474,

Pleading over wIthout, 553—554.

Scope, 388—389.

Speaking demurrer, 387.

Special (Form), 380—390.

Tendered issue accepted, 390, 535.

Statute of Anne (1705), 392—303.

Statute of Elizabeth (1585), 391—392.

Violation of rule of pleading, 305.


DEMURRER TO EVIDENCF

In general, 543, 546—548.

In several states, 547—548.
DENIAL

See General Issue; Pleas; Pleas in Ear; Traverse.


DEPARTURE

Classification,

In point of fact, 526—528.

In point of law, 520-525,

In rejoinder, 527—528.

In replication, 526—527.

Mode of objection, demurrer, 528—529.

Modern codes, rules, etc., 520.

Nature, 525—526.

Rule against, reason, 526.


DESCRIPTION

Chattels described by,

Quality, 111—113.

Quantity, 111—113.

Value, 111—113.

Premises described. ejectinent, 237. Proof, as alleged, 14-4—145.

Property described, declaration in,

Detlauc, 249.

llcplevin, 262.

Trespass, 156, 163, 531.

Trover, 216—217.

Variance for non-proof, 144—145.


DETINUE

Chattel recovery, 244—247.

Concurrent, other actions, distInguished, 247—248.

Confession and avoidance, 497.



- - - Declaration, essential allegations,

In general, 249.

Damages, 251.

Plaintiff’s right, title, etc., 240—250.

Wrongful detention of chattel, 250—251.

Declaration (Form), 248.

Demand and refusal, 250—251.

General Issue, 496—497. Form, 496.

On statutory merger, 499.

DETI NUE—Cont’d

Iiilary Rules, effect on defenses, 497.

Judgment (Form), 248—249.

Modern codes, rules, etc., 251—252.

Property, description, 240.

Scope and nature, 244—247.


DILATORY PLEAS

Classification, 411.

Commencement and conclusion, 430—432.

Judgment on, 430.

Jurisdiction and venue, 411.

Modern codes, rules, etc., 432.

Nature, 410—411.

Order of pleadiag, 411—412.

Plea in abatement,

Another action pending, 416—417.

Letter writ for plaintiff, 428.

Certainty, 428—429.

Classification, 416—420.

Contract,

Defendant nonjoinder, misjoinder, 424—120. Plaintiff aoajoinder, misjoinder, 423—424.

Corporate existence, 422.

Count or declaration, 418.

Defendant nonjoinder (Form), 426.

Definition, 416.

Demurrer to, 400, 402.

Disability of defendant, 419.

]Jisability of plaintiff, 418—410.

Effect, 416.

Form, 410—420.

Function, 416.

Misnomer, 416, 421.

Modern law, 420—423.

Order of pleading, 411-412.

Original writ, 417—418.

Requisites, 428—429.

Tort,

Defendant nonjoinder, misjoInder, 427. Plaintiff nonjoinder, misjoinder, 426—427.



Wrong venue, 416, 419.

Plea in suspension, -Form, 429—430. Nature and scope, 420—430. l’arol demurrer, 420—430.

Plea to jurisdiction,

Abatement, distinguished, 415.

Classes, 413.

Courts of general jurisdiction, 414—415.

Courts of limited jurisdiction, 414—415.

Defined, 412—413.

Form, 415.

Locality, 413.

Person, 413.

Requisites, 413—414.

Subject matter, 413.
DIRECTED VERDICT, MOTION FOR

Jury trial, 548—549.


DISCONTINUANCE

Neglect to enter judgment, 403.

Replying to partial pleas, 472—473.
DOWER

Classification, 48.

Development, 53, 55.

Writ, unde nihil habet, 53,

652 INDEX

References are to Pages



DUPLICITY

Defect in form, special demurrer, 14E—140, 304495. Duplicity in,

Declaration, 04—100.

General issue, 483—484,

Inducement. 148.

Pleas, 476—484,

Replication, 482—483.

Several counts, 96, 05, 100.

Several grounds of action, 96~ 147—148.

Ill-pleaded matter, 481—482.

Immaterial matter, 480—481.

Matters forming connected proposition, 482—484.

Protestation, 484.

Several pleas allowed, 476—480.

Singleness of issue, 475—470, 480—481.
EJgCTMENT

Common consent (Form), 237.

Common Consent Rule, 220—280.

Concurrent, other actions, distinguished, 236.

Confession and avoidance, 495-496.

Declaration, essential allegations, In general, 237.

Damages, 238—239.

Plaintiff’s right, title, etc., 238.

Wrongful ouster, 238,

Declaration (Form), 236—237.

Description of premises, 237.

Extension to freeholders, 227—230.

Fiction In, three stages, 227—230.

Fictitious proceeding, chart, 230.

General issue, 494—405. Form, 404—405.

History, 226—230, 241—243.

Judgment, 239.

Modern codes, rules, etc., 241—248.

Origin in trespass, 226—227.

Parties in, 235—236.

PremIses, descrIption, 237.

Quare ejectione flrmae, 227—230.

Real property, recovery of, 231-232.

Scope and nature, 225—236.

Status In England, 241—242.

Statutory substItutes, 54—55, 242—243.

Title to support, 232—223.

Trespass for mesne profits, 239—241, 243.

Trespass to try tItle, 54—55.
ELECTION

To demur or plead, 378, 381—382.


EQUITY PLEADING

Affirmative pleadings, 21.

Answer, 21.

Bill, 21.

Charge, 21.

Common1aw pleading, compared, 19-21.

Decree,

Contempt, 585—586.



Specific relief, 585—586.

Influence of civil law, 20.

Interrogative, 21.

NarratIve, 21.

Nature of, 19—21.

Power of Chancellor, 19—21.

Replication, 21.

ESTOPPEL

Nature, 46~.

Precluding party’s action or defense, 465.

Previous Inconsistent acts, 465.

Special traverse, avoidance by, 452—453.

Title, cstoppel of adverse party, 124, 439.

Traverse and, 439.

EVIDENCE

See also Jury Trial,

Demurrer to, 543, 546-548.

Not pleaded, 90—92.

Order of proof, 543—544.

Scope,


Common law, 21. Equity pleading, 21.

EX DELICTO

See also Detinue; Ejectment; Replevln; Trespass; Trespass on the Case; Torts; Trover.

Classification of actions, 56—57.

EXCEPTIONS

See Appellate Review.



EXCUSE

See Confession and Avoidance.



EXECUTION

Capias ad satisfaciendum, writ, 592—Søt

Debtors and creditors, 594.

Definition and nature, 589—593.

Elegit, writ, 592.

Extendi faclas, writ, 592.

Fieri faeias, writ, 501.

Goods, 591.

Imprisonment for debt, 592—593.

Levari faeias, writ, 591.

Lien, 594.

Modern codes, rules, etc., 594—595.

Profits of land, 591.

Restitution of possession, 591.

Sclre fades, 587—588.

EXHIBITS -

Pleading not done by, 128.


EXTRAORDINARY WRITS

Certiorari, 597—598.

ProhibItion, 596—597.

FACTS

Aggravation, manner of pleading, 136—137.

Allegation in declaration, 90—91.

Capable of proof, 149—150.

Certainty in pleading, 131—133,

Defined, 89.

Evidentiary, 90.

In knowledge of adversary, 136.

Inducement, 136—137.

Judicially noticed, 139.

OperatIve, 90—94.

Statements,

Affirmative pregnant, 444—446.

Negative pregnant, 444—446.

Ultimate, 89—94.
FEOERAL RULES OF CIVIL PROCEDURE

FlexIbility, 24.

FormulatIon, 28—24.

INDEX

References are to Pages

653

654


INDEX

References are to Pages

FORMAL DEFECTS

Cured by statute, 558.



GENERAL ISSUE—Cont’d

In debt on a simple contract—Corit’d

Hilary Rules, effect, 502—503.

Scope, 500—502, 502—503.

Under I-Jilary Rules (Form), 501. In debt on a specialty,

Form, 503. -

1-lilary Rules, effect, 504.

Scope, 503, 504. In debt on a statute,

Hilary Rules, effect, 502—503. Scope, 500—503.

In detinue,

Form, 496.

Hulary Rules, effect, 497.

Scope, 496—497.

In ejeetment,

Form, 494—495.

Hhlary Rules, not applicable, 496.

Scope, 494—495. In Indebitatus assumpsit,

Form, 511.

1-lulary Rules, effect, 512.

Scope, 511—512. In replevin,

Form, 497—498.

lPIilary Rules, not applicable, 500.

Scope, 497-499, 500.

Under statutory merger, 497—499. In special assunlpslt,

Form, 508.

J-IIlary Rules, effect, 510—511. Scope, 508—510, 510—511, In trespass,

Form, 485. -

Hulary Rules, effect, 488.

Scope, 485—486, 488. In trespass on the case,

Form, 488.

HIlary Rules, effect, 492—493.

Scope, 488—489, 492—493. In trover,

Form, 493.

ililary Rules, effect, 493—494.

Scope, 493-.494.

Irregularity of, 459.

Legal conclusions, denIal, 457—458.

Nature and use, 457—459.

Notice of defenses, 513,

Pleas amounting to,

Effect upon specific traverse, 459,

Exception where color given, 471,

General rule, 469—472. Specific traverse, distinguIshed, 457—459,
GENERAL PLEADING

Inducement, 136—138.

Title in adversary, 136.

When allowed, 93—94, 234-238.


C RA VA ME N

Nature, 137.



FEDERAL RULES OF CIVIL PROCEDURE—Cont’d

Fusion of common law and equity, 23.

Power of United States Supreme Court, 23.

Relation to other systems, 23—24.


FIELD, DAVID DUDLEY

New York Code of Procedure (1848), 24,


FORCIBLE ENTRY AND DETAINER

See Real Actions.


FOREIGN JUDGMENTS

See also Debt; Indehitatus Assumpsit. Debt on, alleging jurisdiction, 299.




FORMS

See specifIc topics for forms.


FORMS OF ACTION

See also Original Writ Cause of action distInguished, 66. Change by amendment, 559—560. Common law,

Classification, 46—47.

Development, 31—67.

Defined, 65—CC.

DIstinctions between, 60—62.

Effect on liability, 60—CC.

History of, 63—65.

Law and equity, distinction abolished, 57, 67.

Mixed actions, 46—48, 53.

One form, under code, 06—67,

Original writ, 33—43. -Historical background, 33—34.

Personal actions, 46, 47, 56—58.

Pleading and, 63, 66.

Procedure and, 65, 66.

Real actions, 46—56.

Register of writs, 35, 59.

Substantive law, relation to, It.


FRAUDS, STATUTE OF

Necessity to allege writing, 121—122, 138—139.


FUNCTIONS OF PLEADING

Functions enumerated, 13—17.

Issue raising, 13—14, 17. -

Notice to adversary, 13—15, 17,


GENERAL ASSUMPSIT

See Indebltatus Assumpslt.


GENERAL ISSUE

ComparIson of general Issues, 512—513.

Defects of, 459.

DuplIcity, 483—484.

Essential facts, denIal, 457.

In covenant,

Form, 505—SOC.

Rilary Rules, effect, 507.

Scope, 505—SO?. In debt on a judgment,

Form, 504.

Hhlary Rules, not applicable, 505-. Scope, 504—505,

In debt on a simple contract,

Form, 500-501.

- HILARY RULES

AffIrmative defenses, effect upon, 57—58, 484, 488, 4$Z— 494, 490, 497, 500, 502—505, 507, 510—511, 512.

Failure to appear, under, 78—79.

H1LARY RULES—Cont’d

General issues, effect upon, 3. 57—38, 484, 488, 492—494, 498, 497, 500, 502—505, 507, 510—511, 512.

Negative defenses, effect upon, 3, 57—58, 484, 488, 492— 494, 496, 497, 500, 502—505, 507, 510-511. 512.

Venue, under, 103.

HYPOTHETICAL PLEADING

Defect in form, 140—147.


IMPARLANGE

Nature, 371—372.



IMPRISONMENT FOR DEBT

History, 593.


INCONSISTENCY

Allegations, same pleading~ 145—148.

Between defenses, 475—480.

INDEBITATUS ASSUMPSIT

Common breach (Form), 347. Common counts,

Account stated. 360, 304.

Form, 346—347.

Board and lodging, 357.

Classification, 349.

Declaration (Forms), 344—347.

Goods bargained and sold, 358—350.

Goods sold and delivered, 857—358. Form, 344—345.

Indebitatos counts, 350-360.

Land sold and conveyed, 357.

Money counts, 350—354.

Money had and received (Form), 346.

Money lent (Form), 345.

Money paid (Form), 345—346.

Nature, 347—348. -

Quantum xneruit, 359—360, 363—364. Form, 346.

Quantum valebant, 359—360, 863—364. Form, 346.

Use and occupation of land, 854—357.

Value counts, 359—360.

Varieties, 348—360.

Work, labor and services, 350.

Work and labor (Form), 845,

Concurrent, other actions, distinguished, 348—344.

Confession and avoidance, 512.

Contracts of record, relation, 360—362.

Debt distinguished, 279.

Declaration, essential allegatIons, In general, 862.

Breach, 364—385.

Damages, 365.

Executed consideration, 302—884.

Promise, 364.

Express contracts,

Additional work done on request, 343.

Applicability, 338—M3,

Benefit received by defendant, 341.

Facts equivalent to contract duty, 339—340.

Fully executed or performed, 340.

Performance prevented by defendant, 341-342.

Wbcre contract is void, 342. General Issue, 511—512.

Form, 5i1.

Hilary Rules, effect on defenses, 512.

Implied contracts, 338.

Modern codes, rules, etc., 365—367.

INDEBITATUS ASSUMPSIT—Cont’d

On a judgment, 360—361.

Quasi contracts, 279.

Scope and nature, 337—338.

Statutory liabilities, relation, 360—362.
INDUCEMENT

Definition and function, 137.

Duplicity, 148,

In declaration (Form), 83.

Manner of allegation, 136—137.

Nature of, 137.


INSTRUCT IONS

Sec Jury Trial.


INTANGIBLE PROPERTY

Trespass on the case, 163, 180—181.


ISSUES

See also Issues of Fact; Issues of Law.

Equity, extracted from pleadings, 21.

Framed by parties, 21.

Functions of pleading to produce, 12, 13—17.
ISSUES OF FACT

Action on a record, judge’s role, 538. Conclusion,

By verification, 533—534.

To the country, 532—534. Decided by jury, 19—21. Equity, 19—21. Joinder,

Nature, 436, 535.

Similiter, 436, 533.

Form, 585.

Production of, 12, 13—17, 378. 532—535.

Tender, traverse, 436, 532—534.

Trial by jury, waiver, 536—538.


ISSUES OF LAW

Production of, 12, 13—17, 378, 532. Tender,

Demurrer, 378, 385—396, 436, 535.

Joinder in demurrer (Form), 390—391. Triable by court, 10—21, 536—53&



JEOFAILS, STATUTES OF

See Amendment.



JOINDER

Causes of action, 06—98. Issues of,

Fact, 436, 535.

Law, 390—391, 585 Parties, 423—428.



JUDGMENT

Action of debt on, 297—290.

Classification and scope, 586—587.

Decree, modern codes, rules, etc., 585.

Decree in equity,

Compared, 585—586.

Contempt, 585—586.

Specific relief, 585—556. Definition, 584, 585.

Demurrer,

Basis of, 405—406.

In abatement, 406.

lIes judieata, 406.

To plea In abatement, 405.

To pleading in chief, 405.

INDEX 655

References are to Pages



JUDOfttENT—Cont’~

Dilatory pleas as bosis of, 430.

Ejectment, 230.

Execution,

Common law, 20, 585—586, 580—503. Equity, 20, 535-586.

Final, 1387.

Indebltatus assumpsit on, 360—361.

Interlocutory, 586—587.

Modern codes, rules, etc., 588.

Money damages, 585.

Motion for,

Non obstante voredicto, 57T—578.

Notwithstanding verdict, 577—578. Modern codes, 582—533,

Nature, 584, 585.

Nil thclt, 472-473.

Nonsuit, 548.

Object of action, 584—585.

Pleadiag as basis, 16, 17.

Pleading judgments, 125.

Replevin, 269.

Revival, scirc facias, 587—588.

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