Never begin with "In conclusion…" They represent your last chance to say something important



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  • The Concluding Paragraph
  • Contrary to popular belief, conclusions do not merely restate the thesis, and they should never begin with "In conclusion…"
  • They represent your last chance to say something important to your readers.
  • Exactly which tasks your conclusion fulfills will vary according to your subject, your audience, and your objectives for the essay.
  • Generally, conclusions fulfill a rhetorical purpose—they persuade your readers to do something.
  • 6 components in
  • Conclusion Paragraph:
    • Sentences explaining how paper has fit together and leads to a stronger, more emphatic and more detailed version of your thesis.
    • Discussion of implications for further research :
      • Other areas that can use the same method
      • How your finds change the readers’ understanding of the topic
      • Discussion of areas in need of more detailed investigation
    • Discussion of the Significance of your issue:
    • Why the essay was important or interesting
    • Any other areas in which your essay has significance: ethics, practical applications, politics
    • Discussion of how this issue will affect the future of our society
        • You may use imagery, anecdote, shocking statements to illustrate how you believe society will be if your issue is handled in the way that you express in your thesis.
        • What will happen if your issue is not handled in the way you express in your thesis?
    • Include a call to action:
  • DUE DATES:
  • Typed 3rd Argument, Conclusion Paragraph and Works Cited should be typed during library time on 5/9-5/11.
  • The complete draft will be due at the end of the class on 5/14.
  • On 5/15 we will peer critique the complete draft for 50 points.
  • On 5/18 your revised complete draft of 6-8 pages will be due by the end of the class. You must turn in all papers including all drafts, peer critiques, annotated bibliography, note cards, outlines, and final revised draft inside your manila envelope.
  • (Notice that your works cited should be in alphabetical order, with hanging indentation, double-spaced, and titled as Works Cited on its own page.)
  • Works Cited
  • "Blueprint Lays Out Clear Path for Climate Action." Environmental Defense Fund. Environmental Defense Fund, 8 May 2007. Web. 24 May 2009.
  • Clinton, Bill. Interview by Andrew C. Revkin. “Clinton on Climate Change.” New York Times. New York Times, May 2007. Web. 25 May 2009.
  • Dean, Cornelia. "Executive on a Mission: Saving the Planet." New York Times. New York Times, 22 May 2007. Web. 25 May 2009.
  • Ebert, Roger. "An Inconvenient Truth." Rev. of An Inconvenient Truth, dir. Davis Guggenheim. Rogerebert.com. Sun-Times News Group, 2 June 2006. Web. 24 May 2009.
  • GlobalWarming.org. Cooler Heads Coalition, 2007. Web. 24 May 2009.
  • Gowdy, John. "Avoiding Self-organized Extinction: Toward a Co-evolutionary Economics of Sustainability." International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology 14.1 (2007): 27-36. Print.
  • An Inconvenient Truth. Dir. Davis Guggenheim. Perf. Al Gore, Billy West. Paramount, 2006. DVD.
  • Leroux, Marcel. Global Warming: Myth Or Reality?: The Erring Ways of Climatology. New York: Springer, 2005. Print.
  • Milken, Michael, Gary Becker, Myron Scholes, and Daniel Kahneman. "On Global Warming and Financial Imbalances." New Perspectives Quarterly 23.4 (2006): 63. Print
  • Nordhaus, William D. "After Kyoto: Alternative Mechanisms to Control Global Warming." American Economic Review 96.2 (2006): 31-34. Print.
  • ---. "Global Warming Economics." Science 9 Nov. 2001: 1283-84. Science Online. Web. 24 May 2009.
  • Shulte, Bret. "Putting a Price on Pollution." Usnews.com. US News & World Rept., 6 May 2007. Web. 24 May 2009.
  • Uzawa, Hirofumi. Economic Theory and Global Warming. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2003. Print.


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